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Encyclopedia > Sarmatians
Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD
Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD
"Sarmatia Europæa" separated from "Sarmatia Asiatica" by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770
Great steppe in early spring.
Sarmatia and Scythia in 100 BC, also shown is the extent of the Parthian Empire.
Sarmatia and Scythia in 100 BC, also shown is the extent of the Parthian Empire.

The Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae were a people originally of Iranian stock.[1] Mentioned by classical authors, they migrated from Central Asia to the Ural Mountains around 5th century B.C. and eventually settled in most of southern European Russia and the eastern Balkans. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 647 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 3707 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 647 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 3707 pixel, file size: 3. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1254x760, 218 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1254x760, 218 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sarmatian cataphract from Tanais. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1278 KB)I took this picture in March in western Kazakhstan File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1278 KB)I took this picture in March in western Kazakhstan File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The steppe extends roughly from the Dniepr to the Ural or 30 to 55 degrees eastern longitude, and from the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south to the temperate forest and taiga in the north, or 45 to 55 degrees northern latitude. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Sarmatia can refer to: the land of Sarmatians, western Scythia as described by many classical authors, such as Herodotus in the 5th century BC semi-legendary and unofficial name of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, popularised in the 17th century as a part of its Sarmatism lifestyle in geology the Sarmatian...


Pliny the Elder (N.H. book iv) wrote that the Latin Sarmatae is identical to the Greek Sauromatae. At their greatest reported extent these tribes ranged from the Vistula river to the mouth of the Danube and eastward to the Volga, and from the mysterious domain of the Hyperboreans in the north, southward to the shores of the Black and Caspian seas, including the region between them as far as the Caucasus mountains. The richest tombs and the most significant finds of Sarmatian artifacts have been recorded in the Krasnodar Krai of Russia. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Danube River. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... In Greek mythology, according to tradition, the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived to the far north of Greece. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... Krasnodar Krai (Russian: , Krasnodarsky kray) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District. ...


It is perhaps no coincidence that the boundary between the so-called Centum-Satem isogloss in the Indo-European languages apparently split at the European border of the Sarmatians. Diachronic map showing the Centum (blue) and Satem (red) areals. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ...


Around the year 100 BC, Sarmatian land ranged from Barents Sea or Baltic Sea ("Oceanus Sarmaticus") to tributary of Vistula River, to the Carpathian Mountains, to the mouth of the Danube, then eastward along the northern coast of the Black Sea, across the Caucasus to the Caspian Sea and north along the Volga up to the polar circle. Location of the Barents Sea. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Vistula river basin Vistula (Polish Wisła), is the longest river in Poland. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... The polar circle in Finland, 1975. ...


The Sarmatians flourished from the time of Herodotus and allied partly with the Huns when they arrived in the 4th century AD. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ...


The Sarmatians were closely related to the Scythians. The Scythians (also Scyths, from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[1], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ...


There used to be a popular belief (Sarmatism) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth between 16-th and 19-th century, that nobility is a direct descendant of Sarmatians. Insufficient scientific evidence exists to back up such claim. Sarmatism was the dominant lifestyle, culture and ideology of szlachta (nobility social class) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 16th century to 19th century. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents

Archaeology and ethnology

A Sarmatian diadem, found at the Khokhlach kurgan near Novocherkassk (1st century AD, Hermitage Museum).
A Sarmatian diadem, found at the Khokhlach kurgan near Novocherkassk (1st century AD, Hermitage Museum).

In 1947, the leading Soviet historian Boris Grakov defined a culture apparent in late Kurgan graves, sometimes reusing part of much older Kurgans. It is a nomadic steppe culture ranging from the Black Sea to beyond the Volga, and is especially evident at two of the major sites at Kardaielova and Chernaya in the trans-Uralic steppe. Image File history File links Sarmatian_crown. ... Image File history File links Sarmatian_crown. ... Look up Diadem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... Roads leading to Novocherkassk are graced by triumphal arches, erected to commemorate the Cossack victory over Napoleon. ... (Redirected from 1st century AD) (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... The State Hermitage Museum (Russian: ) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of the largest museums in the world, with 3 million works of art (not all on display at once), [1] and one of the oldest art galleries and museums of human history and culture in the world. ... Boris Nikolaevich Grakov (Russian: ) (December 13 [O.S. December 1] 1899 in Onega — September 14, 1970 in Moscow) was a Soviet Russian archaeologist, who specialized in Scythian and Sarmatian archeology, classical philology and ancient epigraphy. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Chernaya River, literally Black River, is a common name for many rivers in Russia and Ukraine. ...


The date of the culture (from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD) and the location are in sync with the written information we have about the Sarmatians. Accordingly Grekov defined four phases:

  1. Sauromatian, 6th-5th centuries BC
  2. Early Sarmatian, 4th-2nd centuries BC
  3. Middle Sarmatian, late 2nd century BC to late 2nd century AD
  4. Late Sarmatian: late 2nd century AD to 4th century AD

The Sarmatians of Ptolemy fall into the Middle Sarmatian period. However, Grekov’s Sarmatia does not extend at all into the Balto-Slavic range, where the two elements have their own archeologies descending to the Balts and the Slavs. A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Balto-Slavic languages are an Indo-European language family, consisting of the (possibly genetically related) Baltic languages and Slavic languages. ... http://www. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


Already anchored in the west in east Europe, the Huns were located to the north of the Alans and extended east to the borders of the Han Dynasty. These Huns were quite peaceful trading partners of the Alans. Their archeology and mode of life is nearly indistinguishable from that of the Alans. The various peoples of the extensive eastern plains did own distinctive bronze kettles. Also, the graves of the people of central Asia, including those of the Huns, include remains that many believe are of mixed features, just as are the peoples of central Asia today. The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... A kettle is a kitchenware piece. ...


Whatever happened in the east to bring warriors from there upon the Alans did not introduce a new people to the steppes or to Europe. As far as the Sarmatians are concerned, the Hunnic augment from the east only worked an ethnic reversal of dominance. Some Alans chose to flee to the Romans and others to fight for the Huns. The former disappeared into Europe long ago, while the latter remain in the Caucasus region[citation needed]


History

Herodotus

Herodotus (Histories 4.21) in the 5th century BC placed the land of the Sarmatians east of the Tanais, beginning at the corner of the Maeotian Lake, stretching northwards for fifteen days' journey, adjacent to the forested land of the Budinoi. Herodotus describes the Sarmatians' physical appearance as blond, stout and tanned; in short, pretty much as the Scythians and Thracians were seen by the other classical authors. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Sarmatian cataphract from Tanais. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Budini Budini was an ancient nation in the Scythia. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ...


Herodotus (4.110-117) reports a tale of the origin of the Sauromatae (sg. Σαυρομάτης), as the descendants of a band of young Scythian men and a group of Amazons. In the story, some Amazons were captured in battle by Greeks in Pontus (northern Turkey) near the river Thermodon, and the captives were loaded into 3 boats. They overcame their captors while at sea, but were not able sailors. Their ships were blown north to the Maeotian Lake (the Sea of Azov) onto the shore of Scythia near the cliff region (today's southeastern Crimea). After encountering the Scythians and learning the Scythian language, they agreed to marry Scythian men, but only on the condition that they move away and not be required to follow the customs of Scythian women. According to Herodotus the descendants of this band settled toward the northeast beyond the Tanais (Don) river and became the Sauromatians. Herodotus' account, in a way, explains the origins of the Sarmatians' language (as an impure form of Scythian). Moreover, it explains the unusual freedoms of Sauromatae women, including participation in warfare, which is deemed as an inheritance from their Amazon ancestors. Later writers call some of them the "woman-ruled Sarmatae" (γυναικοκρατούμενοι). The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... The Thermodon river is currently named Terme or Therme-Tchai, and it is located in northern Turkey between the cities Ordu and Fatsa. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ...


Hippocrates

Hippocrates (De Aere, etc., 24) explicitly classes them as Scythian. Hippocrates of Cos II or Hippokrates of Kos (ca. ...


Strabo

Strabo mentions the Sarmatians in a number of places, never saying very much about them. He uses both Sarmatai and Sauromatai, but never together, and never suggesting that they are different peoples. He often pairs Sarmatians and Scythians in reference to a series of ethnic names, never stating which is which, as though Sarmatian or Scythian could apply equally to them all. The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ...


In Strabo the Sarmatians extend from above the Danube eastward to the Volga, and from north of the Dnepr into the Caucasus, where, he says, they are called Caucasii like everyone else there. This statement indicates that the Alans already had a home in the Caucasus, without waiting for the Huns to push them there. The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ...


Even more significantly he points to a Celtic admixture in the region of the Basternae, who, he says, are of Germanic origin. The Celtic Boii, Scordisci and Taurisci are there. A fourth ethnic element being melted in are the Thracians (7.3.2). Moreover, the peoples toward the north are Keltoskythai, "Celtic Scythians" (11.6.2). Basternae was both the name of an east germanic people and the east germanic language they spoke. ... This article is about the European people. ... Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Greek Βοιοι) is the Roman name of an ancient Celtic tribe, attested at various times in Transalpine Gaul (modern France) and Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), as well as most anciently found in Pannonia (today Western Hungary), Bohemia, Moravia and western Slovakia. ... Scordisci were, in ancient geography, a war-like tribe inhabiting the southern part of lower Pannonia, comprising parts of the present-day countries Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Serbia, Slovenia, Slovakia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, between the Savus (Sava), Dravus (Drava) and Danube rivers. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ...


Strabo also portrays the peoples of the region as being nomadic, or Hamaksoikoi, "wagon-dwellers" and Galaktophagoi, "milk-eaters" referring, no doubt, to the universal koumiss eaten in historical times. The wagons were used for porting tents made of felt, which must have been the yurts used universally by Asian nomads before pick-up trucks and mobile homes, and are still used in some locations. Kumis (called airag by the Mongolians), is a traditional drink of the people of Central Asia. ... A selection of 4 different felt cloths. ... A Yurt is a portable felt dwelling structure used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. ...


Pliny the elder

Tacitus is not the only Roman military man to have been interested in the Sarmatians; the admiral, Pliny the Elder, relying on intelligence from Roman military stations in the north (by that time amber from the Baltic was being purchased by Roman agents on location), provides the most defining statement regarding the Sarmatians (4.12.79-81): Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...

From this point (the mouth of the Danube) all the races in general are Scythian, though various sections have occupied the lands adjacent to the coast, in one place the Getae ... at another the Sarmatae ... Agrippa describes the whole of this area from the Danube to the sea ... as far as the river Vistula in the direction of the Sarmatian desert ... The name of the Scythians has spread in every direction, as far as the Sarmatae and the Germans, but this old designation has not continued for any except the most outlying sections ....

What this passage seems to tell us is that the Scythians or Scythian rule once extended even to the Germans, but now remained only in the far districts. Jordanes supports this hypothesis by telling us on the one hand that he was familiar with the Geography of Ptolemy, which includes the entire Balto-Slavic territory in Sarmatia[citation needed], and on the other that this same region was Scythia. By "Sarmatia", Jordanes means only the Aryan territory. The Sarmatians therefore did come from the Scythians. This article is about the Danube River. ... The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube, in what is today northern Bulgaria, and north of the Lower Danube, in the Muntenian plain (todays southern Romania), and especially near modern Dobruja. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ...


Tacitus

Sarmatian clothes.
Sarmatian clothes.

In Tacitus' book (De Origine et situ Germanorum) we read of “mutual fear” between the Dacian 'Dacisque' and the Sarmatians 'Sarmatis' Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ... Alternate meanings: see Dacia (disambiguation) Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci or Getae, was a large district of Central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa (Tisza river, in Hungary), on the east by...

Germania omnis a Gallis Raetisque et Pannoniis Rheno et Danuvio fluminibus, a Sarmatis Dacisque mutuo metu aut montibus separatur: cetera Oceanus ambit, latos sinus et insularum inmensa spatia complectens, nuper cognitis quibusdam gentibus ac regibus, quos bellum aperuit. It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...

We also read that, like the Persians, the Sarmatians wore long, flowing robes (ch 17). Moreover, the Sarmatians exacted tribute from the Cotini and Osi, and iron from the Cotini (ch. 43), “to their shame” (presumably because they could have used the iron to arm themselves and resist). The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Cotini was a Celtic tribe most probably living in todays Slovakia, or (according to occasional opinions) in Moravia and southern Poland. ...


Ptolemy

By the 3rd century BC, the Sarmatian name appears to have supplanted the Scythian in the plains of what is now south Ukraine. The geographer, Ptolemy, reports them at what must be their maximum extent, divided into adjoining European and central Asian sections. Considering the overlap of tribal names between the Scythians and the Sarmatians, no new displacements probably took place. The people were the same Indo-Europeans they used to be, but now under yet another name. The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ...


Pausanias

Later, Pausanias, viewing votive offerings near the Athenian Acropolis in the 2nd century AD. (Description of Greece 1.21.5-6), found among them a Sauromic breastplate. Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... A votive deposit or votive offering is an object left in a sacred place for ritual purposes. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...

On seeing this a man will say that no less than Greeks are foreigners skilled in the arts: for the Sauromatae have no iron, neither mined by themselves nor yet imported. They have, in fact, no dealings at all with the foreigners around them. To meet this deficiency they have contrived inventions. In place of iron they use bone for their spear-blades, and corneal-wood for their bows and arrows, with bone points for the arrows. They throw a lasso round any enemy they meet, and then turning round their horses upset the enemy caught in the lasso.

Their breastplates they make in the following fashion. Each man keeps many mares, since the land is not divided into private allotments, nor does it bear any thing except wild trees, as the people are nomads. These mares they not only use for war, but also sacrifice them to the local gods and eat them for food. Their hoofs they collect, clean, split, and make from them as it were python scales. Whoever has never seen a python must at least have seen a pine-cone still green. He will not be mistaken if he liken the product from the hoof to the segments that are seen on the pine-cone. These pieces they bore and stitch together with the sinews of horses and oxen, and then use them as breastplates that are as handsome and strong as those of the Greeks. For they can withstand blows of missiles and those struck in close combat. Subgenera Cornus Benthamidia Swida The Dogwoods comprise a group of 30-50 species of deciduous woody plants (shrubs and trees) in the family Cornaceae, divided into one to nine genera or subgenera (depending on botanical interpretation). ...

Pausanias' description is well borne out in a relief from Tanais. These facts are not necessarily incompatible with Tacitus, as the Sarmatians on the west might have kept their iron to themselves, it having been a scarce commodity on the plains. If true, this circumstance argues for a lack of central government or even for bad communication (as opposed to the Persians).


Pontic inscriptions

The greater part of the barbarian names occurring in the inscriptions of Olbia, Tanais and Panticapaeum are supposed to be Sarmatian, and as they have been well[citation needed] explained from the Iranian language now spoken by the Ossetians of the Caucasus (the Ossetic language), these are supposed to be the modern representatives of the Sarmatians and can be shown to have a direct connection with the Alans, one of their tribes. redirect Olbia,_Ukraine ... Sarmatian cataphract from Tanais. ... Panticapaeum and other ancient Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... The Ossetians (oss. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ...


Ammianus Marcellinus

Sarmatians were still a force the Romans had to reckon with in the late 4th century A.D. Ammianus Marcellinus (29.6.13-14) describes a severe defeat, which Sarmatian raiders inflicted upon Roman forces in the province of Valeria in Pannonia in late 374 A.D. The Sarmatians almost annihilated both a legion recruited from Moesia and one from Pannonia, which had been sent to intercept a party of Sarmatians who had been pursuing a senior Roman officer named Aequitius deep into Roman territory. The two legions failed to coordinate and their quarreling allowed the Sarmatians to catch them unprepared and deal a stunning blow. Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a Roman historian who wrote during Late Antiquity. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ...


At the end of antiquity

The Sarmatians remained dominant until the Gothic ascendancy[citation needed] in the Black Sea area and then disappeared[citation needed] at the Hunnish destruction of the Gothic empire and subsequent invasion of central Europe. From bases in Hungary the Huns ruled the entire former Sarmatian territory. Their various constituents enjoyed a floruit under Hunnish rule, fought for the Huns against a combination of Roman and Germanic troops, and went their own ways after the Battle of Chalons (a stand-off), the death of Attila and the disappearance of the Chuvash ruling elements west of the Volga. Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Floruit (or fl. ... Combatants Western Roman Empire, Visigoths, Alani Hunnic Empire, Ostrogoths, Burgundians Commanders Flavius Aëtius, Theodoric†, Sangiban Attila the Hun Strength 30,000–50,000 30,000–50,000 At the Battle of Chalons (also called the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields or the Battle of Campus Mauriacus) in 451, a... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ...


This contradict Priscus who see a lot 'happy' Scythian around Attila. They played a significant part in the rise of early Russia.[citation needed] Priscus (left) with the Roman embassy at the court of Attila, holding his ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ (History, which the painter has incorrectly spelled ΙΣΤΩΡΙΑ). (Detail from Mór Thans Feast of Attila. ...


Recent research

Üllő5 Sarmatian pottery
Üllő5 Sarmatian pottery

In a recent excavation of Sarmatian sites by Dr. Jeannine Davis-Kimball, a tomb was found wherein female warriors were buried, thus lending some credence to the myths about the Amazons. Amazons are reported as Sauromatae wives. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 3841 KB) Üllő5 Late Sarmatian pottery I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 3841 KB) Üllő5 Late Sarmatian pottery I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ...


In Hungary a great Late Sarmatian pottery center was reportedly unearthed between 2001-2006 near Budapest, in Üllő5 archaeological site. Typical gray, granular Üllő5 ceramics forms a distinct group of Sarmatian pottery found everywhere in the north-central part of the Great Hungarian Plain region, indicating a lively trading activity. A recent paper on the study of glass beads found in Sarmatian graves suggests wide cultural and trade links [1]. For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... ÃœllÅ‘5 Sarmatian pottery ÃœllÅ‘5 is an archeological site in Hungary, near the village of ÃœllÅ‘, next to Budapest. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ...


Those Sarmatians, being in the early Iranian range of south Russia, were probably Iranian people akin to the Scythians/Saka. The numerous Iranian personal names in the Greek inscriptions from the Black Sea Coast indicate that the Sarmatians there spoke a north-eastern Iranian dialect related to Sogdian and Ossetic. Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ...


Sarmatian tribes

Below is a list of tribes considered by some [citation needed] to be among the people called Sarmatian, or to be in territory considered Sarmatian.


On the whole however the ancients recognized a separate unity, whether of political affiliations, language, or both, called the Sarmatian. We do not know its languages for certain.

The Achaei were an ancient people of Scythia, mentioned by Strabo (11. ... Agathyrsi were a people of Scythian[citation needed], Thracian, or mixed Thraco-Scythic origin, who in the time of Herodotus occupied the plain of the Maris (Mures), in the region now known as Transylvania. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The Hamaxobians, also or Amaxobii or Amaxobians, in ancient geography, were a kind of people who had no houses or tents, but lived together in chariots. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of mixed backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and shared, in a broad sense, a common culture. ... The Aspurgiani (Greek: or ) were an ancient people, a tribe of the Maeotae dwelling along east side of the Cimmerian Bosporus along the Palus Maeotis in antiquity. ... Basternae was both the name of an east germanic people and the east germanic language they spoke. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Budini Budini, an ancient nation in the NE of the Scythia of Herodotus (iv. ... The Prussians kill Adalbert The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, inhabited the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons, (in what is now northern Poland), in the region roughly occupied by the Mazurian Lakes. ... The Carpi or Carpians were a Dacian tribe that were originally located on the Eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, in what is now Bacău county, Romania. ... The Cercetae are an ancient people of Scythia mentioned by Strabo (Geographia 11. ... It has been suggested that Kidarite Kingdom be merged into this article or section. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... The Costoboci were a Dacian tribe, which lived in the areas known today as Maramures and southern Ukraine. ... Fenni was the name of an Iron Age tribe somewhere in Northern Europe. ... Galindae, Galindai, or Galindians is an extinct Western Baltic tribe which formerly lived in Galindia (today Masuria, Poland (so-called Western Galindae) and in the basin of the Protva River, near the modern Russian towns of Mozhaysk, Vereya, and Borovsk (so-called Eastern Galindae). ... In Greek mythology, according to tradition, the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived to the far north of Greece. ... White Croats migrated to modern Dalmatia (coastal part of Croatia) as part of the migration of the Croats in 610-641 A.D.[1] ... The Iazyges (Jazyges is an orthographic variant) were a nomadic tribe. ... The Melanchlaeni (meaning black-cloaks), one of two ancient tribes. ... The Mysi (Mysians) were the eponymous inhabitants of Mysia, a region in northwest Asia Minor. ... The Ossetians (oss. ... Rhoxolani were Sarmatian tribes that migrated in the 3rd and 4th century BC from the territories north of Azov Sea toward the Danube, in what is now the Baragan steppes in Romania. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Serbi (Serboi) located near the mouth of the Volga, based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Serboi is the name of the ancient Sarmatian tribe that could be the possible predecessors of the present-day Slavic Serbs and Sorbs. ... Sudovia (Lithuanian: SÅ«duva / Suvalkija, Polish: Suwalszczyzna), or Suvalkija (pronouncing soo-vul-kee-uh), is the name of one of ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Tigri is a census town in South district in the Indian state of Delhi. ... The Torekkadae or Toreccadae (Greek: ) are an ancient tribe mentioned by Ptolemy (iii. ... The Baltic Veneti (alternatively also called the Vistula Veneti) were an ancient Indo-European people living in contemporary Poland, along the rivers of Oder and the Vistula. ...

Name

Sarmatian language is unknown and all information on the language is hypothethical, based on a few names recorded in other languages by non-Sarmatian-native speakers. The high correlation between linguistics and parental genetic markers was unknown to majority of linguistic scholars looking for traces of presumably disappeared Samarian and their language.


Not many serious linguists are willing to tackle the etymology of the Sarmatians professionally, the main problem being the difference between Greek Sauro- and Latin Sar-. One can always find proponents of the hypothesis that two distinct peoples existed, the Sauromatae and the Sarmatae. This is not a popular hypothesis, as both peoples would have to be using many of the same tribal names. Moreover, Jordanes, a churchman of mixed Gothic and Sarmatian background, states that they were the same and that the Goths changed their name in some places to Sarmatians before conquering. Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ...


There is a suggestion in Lubotsky's Indo-Aryan Inherited Lexicon (on the Leiden University IED site) that the name is related to the Avestan zarema-, "old", where the e is the indefinite sound (like the a in sofa). This is the same zar- that appears in Zarathustra. The exact sense is not clear, but words with that root can mean "senior" and "undying" (through being very old) or kos'tur of sun or fire. This word has the advantage of being in the most appropriate language and of being able to be the source of both Sar- and Sauro-. See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Zarathustra can refer to one of two people: Zarathustra, also spelled Zarathushtra or Zoroaster, was an ancient Iranian prophet, founder of the Zoroastrian religion. ...


Since there is the theory that the linguistic descendants of the Sarmatians are the Ossetians
(contrary to, at that time completely unknown genetic data), one may include the three following theories for the origin of the name: 1) Dumezil: oss. saw (black) scr. róman- (fur), oss tae (plural marker) 2) Abaev: oss. saw (black) oss arm (arm), oss tae (plural marker) 3) Christol: *sarumant (archer) from scr. saru (arrow) The Ossetians (oss. ... Georges Dumézil (March 4, 1898 - October 11, 1986) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Indo-European religion and society. ... Vasilij Ivanovich Abaev (Ossetian: Васо Абайты, Russian: Василий Иванович Абаев, also transilterated as Abaity and Abayev; 15 December 1900 in Kobi, Georgia — 18 March 2001 in Saint Petersburg) was an Ossetian linguist specializing in Ossetian and Iranian linguistics. ...


The Indo-European root, which is the *gerh- of Julius Pokorny, "old", where the g is palatal and the h is laryngeal number 2, open out exciting speculations. The word Greek, Latin Graeci, is from the same root, originating from an obscure Balkan tribe, the Graioi, which the ancients took to be "the old ones." In the area of Sauro-matae lived Ma-zurian. If zur(zar -sun) is similar to saur (sol -sun) then is also related to water founded 'zur niesiemy zur', vedi vodi or (sola sla). Graroi, given ż<>g<>h may be related to Żaroi Graroi Haroy Harian Hurian or even Hunga till today sing as Ha'Hary, Compare the war cray Hurra of people from this area. Sarmatian is the satem equivalent of centum Greek. A genetic commonality would require an original satem word in Proto-Indo-European. Such a connection is speculative at this point. Julius Pokorny (1887&#8211;1970) was born in Prague and studied at Vienna university. ... The Satem division of the Indo-European family includes the following branches: Indo-Iranian, Baltic and Slavic, Armenian, Albanian, perhaps also a number of barely documented extinct languages, such as Phrygian, Thracian, and Dacian (see: Indo-European languages). ... Centum is the collective name for the branches of Indo-European in which the so-called Satem shift, the change of palato-velar *k^, *g^, *g^h into fricatives or affricates, did not take place, and the palato-velar consonants merged with plain velars (*k, *g, *gh). ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ...


The Iranians, however, were the last Indo-Europeans on what is thought by many to have been the original range in Kazakhstan. The region now is occupied mainly by Turkic speakers. The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ...


There are suggestions that Sarmatian came from the Turkic or Finno-Ugrian groups, such as some early form of Hungarian. These suggestions have not so far been generally accepted, as they do not account for the large number of Indo-European tribes once under the name before the dominance of the Huns. This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ...


The numerous Iranian personal names in the Greek inscriptions from the Black Sea Coast indicate that the Sarmatians spoke a North-Eastern Iranian dialect ancestral to Ossetic (see Scytho-Sarmatian). [2] One of the inscription reads "Clnyslovenepomnotceleshka".[citation needed] For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Scythian and Sarmatian are the names of the East Iranian dialects spoken by the Scythian/Sarmatian tribes of the nomadic cattlebreeders in Southern Russia between 8th century BC and 5th century AD. Sometimes, the Scythian and Sarmatian languages are combined into one name: Scytho-Sarmatian languages. ...


Popular culture

  • "Sarmatian Knights" were prominently featured in the 2004 film King Arthur. The film also posited that Arthur was a Roman officer of half Roman (father) and half native Briton (mother) origin. This was based on the Sarmatian connection hypothesis of Littleton and Thomas, who pointed out in 1978 that many Arthurian legends have surviving parallels among the Ossetians, and that Marcus Aurelius planted a Sarmatian colony of cataphracts (i.e., heavily armoured cavalry) in Britain.

A movie poster for King Arthur. ... The historical basis of King Arthur is a source of considerable debate among historians. ... The Ossetians (oss. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ... The cataphract was a type of heavy cavalryman used primarily in eastern and southeastern Europe, in Anatolia and Iran from late antiquity up through the High Middle Ages. ...

See also

Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Ancient terracotta vessels unearthed at the Sindian necropolis near Phanagoria. ...

References

  1. ^ Sarmatian. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 20, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9065786
  2. ^ Handbuch der Orientalistik, Iranistik. By I. Gershevitch, O. Hansen, B. Spuler, M.J. Dresden, Prof M Boyce, M. Boyce Summary. E.J. Brill. 1968.
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Bibliography

  • Brzezinski, R., et al, The Sarmatians 600 BC-AD 450 (in series Men-At-Arms 373) ISBN 1-84176-485-X
  • Almsaodi, Aymn. The historic atlas of Iberia
  • Davis-Kimball, Jeannine. 2002. Warrior Women: An Archaeologist's Search for History's Hidden Heroines. Warner Books, New York. 1st Trade printing, 2003. ISBN 0-446-67983-6 (pbk).
  • Tadeusz Sulimirski, The Sarmatians (vol. 73 in series "Ancient People and Places") London: Thames & Hudson, 1970. (Also published in the USA by Praeger, and translated into Polish in 1979.)
  • Alexander Guagnini (1538-1614), Sarmatiae Europeae descriptio, Spira 1581.

Tadeusz Sulimirski (1898–1983) was a Polish-born historian and archaeologist, who emigrated to the United Kingdom in 1939. ... Portrait of Gediminas. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sarmatians - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3131 words)
Herodotus (4.21) in the 5th century BC placed the Sarmatians of which he knew on the eastern boundary of Scythia beyond the Tanais (Don) on a treeless steppe.
Moreover, the Sarmatians exacted tribute from the Cotini and Osi, and iron from the Cotini (ch.
The Sarmatians remained dominant until the Gothic ascendance in the Black Sea area and then disappeared at the Hunnish destruction of the Gothic empire and subsequent invasion of central Europe.
Sarmatians - definition of Sarmatians in Encyclopedia (734 words)
Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4.21-117) in the 5th century BC put on the eastern boundary of Scythia beyond the Tanais (Don).
Sarmatians were still a force the Romans had to reckon with in the late 4th century AD.
In the 16th century Polish gentry were wearing long coats trimmed with fur, sables if they could get them, and thigh-high boots, the "Sarmatian" costume they liked to be painted in, proclaiming their connections with a nobility on horseback, equals among themselves and invincible to foreigners.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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