FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Sarissa" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sarissa

For the Bronze Age Hittite city, go to Kusakli. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Kuşaklı is an archaeological site in Turkey. ...



The sarissa (or sarisa) was a 3 to 7 meter (13-21 feet) long pike used in the Macedonian phalanx. It was very heavy for a spear, weighing over 5 kg (12 pounds). It had a short iron head shaped like a leaf and a bronze shoe that would allow it to be anchored to the ground to stop charges by enemy soldiers. The bronze shoe also served to balance out the spear, making it easier for soldiers to wield. Its great length was an asset against hoplites and other soldiers bearing smaller weapons, because they had to get past the sarissa to engage the phalangites. However outside the tight formation of the Phalanx the Sarissa would have been almost useless as weapon and a hindrance on the march. To this end the Sarissa was constructed of two halves and joined by the means of a metal collar before battle. This allowed the Sarissa to be broken down into much more manageable sections to increase its mobility and that of the army. A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ... The Macedonian phalanx is an infantry formation developed by Philip II and used by his son Alexander the Great to conquer the Persian Empire and other armies. ... The hoplite was a heavy infantryman that was the central focus of warfare in Ancient Greece. ...


The tight formation of the phalanx created a "wall of pikes", and the pike was sufficiently long that there were fully five rows of pikes in front of the front rank of men—even if an enemy got past the first row, there were still four more to stop him. The back rows bore their pikes angled upwards in readiness, which served the additional purpose to deflect incoming arrows. The Macedonian phalanx was considered all but invulnerable from the front, except against another such phalanx; the only way it was ever generally defeated was by breaking its formation or outflanking it.


The invention of the sarissa is credited to Philip II, father of the celebrated Macedonian king, Alexander the Great. Philip drilled his hitherto demoralized men to use these formidable pikes with two hands. The new tactic was unstoppable, and by the end of Philip's reign the previously fragile Macedonian kingdom controlled the whole of Greece, Epirus and Thrace. Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...


His son Alexander used the new tactic across Asia, conquering Egypt, Persia and the Pauravas (northwest India), victorious all the way. The sarissa-wielding phalanxes were vital in every early battle, including the pivotal battle of Gaugamela where the Persian king's scythe chariots were utterly destroyed by the phalanx, supported by the combined use of companion cavalry and peltasts (javelineers). Alexander gradually reduced the importance of the Phalanx, and the sarissa, as he modified his combined use of arms, and incorporated 'Asian' weapons and troops. The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The pauravas was the name given to the many petty kingdoms and tribes of ancient NW India in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. The Pauravas were all situated on or near the Indus river where their monarchs grew rich and prosperous through trade. ... Combatants Macedon Achaemenid Persia Commanders Alexander the Great Darius III Strength 47,000 (among 7,000 cavalry) 52,000-1,000,000 (among 45,000 cavalry) Casualties 4,000 40,000[3] In the Battle of Gaugamela (IPA: ) in 331 BC Alexander the Great of Macedonia defeated Darius III of... The charge of the Persian scythed chariots at the battle of Gaugamela, by Andre Castaigne (1898-1899). ... A peltast was a type of light infantry in Ancient Greece who often served as skirmishers. ...


The sarissa however, remained the backbone for every subsequent Hellenistic, and especially Diadochi army. The Battle of Raphia between the Seleucids and Ptolemy IV may represent the pinnacle of sarissa tactics, when only an elephant charge seemed able to disrupt the opposing phalanx. The Successor Kingdoms of Macedon's empire tried expanding upon Alexander's design, creating pikes as long as 22 feet, but all of these ideas were eventually abandoned in favor of the battle tried Alexandrian sarissa. Battles often ended up stalemated in what Oliver Cromwell later described as "the terrible business of push of pike". The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ... The Battle of Raphia, also known as the Battle of Gaza, was a battle of the Syrian Wars between Ptolemy IV of Egypt and Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom. ... Seleucus I Nicator (Nicator, the Victor) (around 358–281 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals who, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, founded the Seleucid Empire. ... Under the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator (reigned 221-204 BC), son of Ptolemy III, the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began. ...


Subsequently a lack of training and too great a reliance on the Phalanx instead of the combined use of arms (Alexander's and Philip's great contributions) led to the final defeat of Macedon by the Romans at the Battle of Pydna. Part of the reason for the rapid deterioration of the sarissa's ability was that after Alexander, generals ceased to protect phalanxes with cavalry and light armed troops, and phalanxes were destroyed too easily by flank attacks due to the sarissa's tactical unwieldliness. The sarissa was gradually replaced by variations of the gladius as the weapon of choice. Combatants Macedon Roman Republic Commanders Perseus of Macedon # Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus Strength 44,000 38,000 Casualties 25,000 killed and wounded 1000+ dead, numerous wounded. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... This article is about the sword. ...


External links

  • A small Macedonian army equipped with sarissas
  • A picture of a modern replica of a Sarissa

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sarissa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (436 words)
The sarissa (or sarisa) was a 3 to 7 meter (13-21 feet) long double pointed pike used in the Macedonian phalanx.
The sarissa however, remained the backbone for every subsequent Hellenistic army, but lack of training and too great a reliance on the Phalanx instead of the combined use of arms (Alexander's and Philip's great contributions) led to the final defeat of Macedon by the Romans.
Sarissa is also the name of a Greek heavy metal band from Thessaloniki, established in 1985 and still active as of 2004.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m