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Encyclopedia > Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway
Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway
Location Tokyo, Japan
Target(s) Tokyo Metro
Date March 20, 1995
7:00-8:10 (UTC+ 9)
Attack type Chemical
Deaths 12
Injured 50 severe, 984 temporary vision problems
Perpetrator(s) Aum Shinrikyo
A wanted poster in Japan. As of January, 2007, three people are still wanted in connection with the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway: (left to right) Shin Hirata, Katsuya Takahashi, and Naoko Kikuchi.
A wanted poster in Japan. As of January, 2007, three people are still wanted in connection with the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway: (left to right) Shin Hirata, Katsuya Takahashi, and Naoko Kikuchi.

The Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway, usually referred to in the Japanese media as the Subway Sarin Incident (地下鉄サリン事件 Chikatetsu Sarin Jiken?), was an act of domestic terrorism perpetrated by members of Aum Shinrikyo on March 20, 1995.   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... new Tokyo Metro sign and logo This office tower, above Tokyo Metro Ueno Station, houses the headquarters of the Tokyo Metro. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... ... Time Magazine cover after the Sarin gas attack in Tokyo Aum Shinrikyo, now known as Aleph, is a Japanese religious group founded by Shoko Asahara. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2043x1728, 2773 KB) Summary Photograph of a wanted poster in Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2043x1728, 2773 KB) Summary Photograph of a wanted poster in Japan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Time Magazine cover after the Sarin gas attack in Tokyo Aum Shinrikyo, now known as Aleph, is a Japanese religious group founded by Shoko Asahara. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


In five coordinated attacks, the conspirators released sarin gas on several lines of the Tokyo Metro, killing twelve people, severely injuring fifty and causing temporary vision problems for nearly a thousand others. The attack was directed against trains passing through Kasumigaseki and Nagatachō, home to the Japanese government. This was (and remains, as of 2007) the most serious attack to occur in Japan since the end of the Second World War. Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ... new Tokyo Metro sign and logo This office tower, above Tokyo Metro Ueno Station, houses the headquarters of the Tokyo Metro. ... Kasumigaseki (霞が関, 霞ヶ関)is a district of Tokyo, Japan, located in Chiyoda Ward. ... National Diet Building Nagatachō ) is a district of Tokyo, Japan, located in Chiyoda Ward. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Contents

Background

Aum Shinrikyo (オウム真理教, literally, "Aum the True Teaching") is the former name of a controversial group now known as Aleph. Time Magazine cover after the Sarin gas attack in Tokyo Aum Shinrikyo, now known as Aleph, is a Japanese religious group founded by Shoko Asahara. ... Aum Shinrikyo (also spelled Om Shin Rikyo) was a Buddhist religious group based in Japan. ...


The name Aum Shinrikyo derives from the Hindu syllable "aum" (pronounced "omu") meaning "universe" and the Japanese words "shinri" ("truth") and "kyō" ("teaching," "doctrine"). A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Om redirects here. ...


In 2000, after the attack, the organization changed its name to Aleph (א), which is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Their logo has also changed. Despite this, the group is still commonly referred to as Aum. is the reconstructed name of the first letter of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, continued in descended Semitic alphabets as Phoenician , Syriac , Hebrew Aleph , and Arabic . Aleph originally represented the glottal stop (IPA ), usually transliterated as , a symbol based on the Greek spiritus lenis , for example in the transliteration of the... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


The Japanese police initially reported that the attack was the cult's way of hastening an apocalypse. The prosecution said that it was an attempt to bring down the government and install Shoko Asahara, the group's founder, as the "emperor" of Japan. The most recent theory proposes that the attack was an attempt to divert attention from Aum when the group obtained some information indicating that police searches were planned (though contrary to this plan, it ended up leading to mass searches and arrests). Asahara's defence team claimed that certain senior members of the group independently planned the attack, but their motives for this are left unexplained. Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Shoko Asahara (麻原 彰晃 Asahara Shōkō) (born Chizuo Matsumoto (松本智津夫 Matsumoto Chizuo) on March 2, 1955) is the founder of Japans controversial Buddhist religious group Aum Shinrikyo (now known as Aleph). ...


Main perpetrators

Ten men were responsible for carrying out the attacks; five released the sarin, while the other five served as get-away drivers.


The teams were:

  • Ikuo Hayashi (林 郁夫 Hayashi Ikuo) and Tomomitsu Niimi (新見 智光 Niimi Tomomitsu)
  • Kenichi Hirose (広瀬 健一 Hirose Ken'ichi) and Koichi Kitamura (北村 浩一 Kitamura Kōichi)
  • Toru Toyoda (豊田 亨 Toyoda Tōru) and Katsuya Takahashi (高橋 克也 Takahashi Katsuya )
  • Masato Yokoyama (横山 真人 Yokoyama Masato) and Kiyotaka Tonozaki (外崎 清隆 Tonozaki Kiyotaka)
  • Yasuo Hayashi (林 泰男 Hayashi Yasuo, no relation to Ikuo Hayashi) and Shigeo Sumimoto (杉本 繁郎 Sugimoto Shigeo)

Ikuo Hayashi (林 郁夫 Hayashi Ikuo, born January 23, 1947) is a former AUM Shinrikyo member indicted for participation in the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Ikuo Hayashi

Prior to joining Aum, Hayashi was a senior medical doctor with "an active 'front-line' track record" at the Japanese Ministry of Science and Technology. Himself the son of a doctor, Hayashi graduated from Keio University, one of Tokyo's top schools. He was a heart and artery specialist at Keio Hospital, which he left to become head of Circulatory Medicine at the National Sanatorium Hospital in Tokai, Ibaraki (north of Tokyo). In 1990, he resigned his job and left his family to join Aum in the monastic order Sangha, where he became one of Asahara's favourites and was appointed the group's Minister of Healing, as which he was responsible for administering a variety of "treatments" to AUM members, including sodium pentothal and electric shocks to those whose loyalty was suspect. These treatments resulted in several deaths. Hayashi was later sentenced to life imprisonment. Keio University ) is the top private university in Japan, which has a history as Japans very first private institution of higher learning, which dates back to the formation of a school for Dutch studies in 1858 in Edo (now Tokyo) by founder Yukichi Fukuzawa. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ... Tōkai (東海村; -mura) is a village located in Naka District, Ibaraki, Japan. ... Sodium thiopental (also called sodium pentothal (™ of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental (or thiopentone) sodium) is a rapid-onset, short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic. ... Electroconvulsive therapy, also known as electroshock or ECT, is a controversial type of psychiatric shock therapy involving the induction of an artificial seizure in a patient by passing electricity through the brain. ... Life imprisonment is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, nominally for the entire remaining life of the prisoner, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually seven years) a prisoner may be incarcerated, or require the...


Tomomitsu Niimi, who was his get-away driver, received the death sentence.


Kenichi Hirose

Hirose was thirty years old at the time of the attacks. Holder of a postgraduate degree in Physics from prestigious Waseda University, Hirose became an important member of the group's Chemical Brigade in their Ministry of Science and Technology. Hirose was also involved in the group's Automatic Light Weapon Development scheme. Waseda University ), often abbreviated to Sodai ) is a co-educational, private university in Japan. ...


After releasing the sarin, Hirose himself showed symptoms of sarin poisoning. He was able to inject himself with the antidote (atropine sulphate) and was rushed to the Aum-affiliated Shinrikyo Hospital in Nakano for treatment. However, medical personnel at the given hospital had not been given prior notice of the attack and were consequently clueless regarding what treatment Hirose needed. When Kitamura faced the fact that he had driven Hirose to the hospital in vain, he instead drove to Aum's headquarter in Shibuya where Ikuo Hayashi gave Hirose first aid. Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Categories: Wards of Tokyo | Japan geography stubs ... Ikuo Hayashi (林 郁夫 Hayashi Ikuo, born January 23, 1947) is a former AUM Shinrikyo member indicted for participation in the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway. ...


Hirose's appeal of his death sentence was rejected by the Tokyo High Court on Wednesday, July 28, 2003. In the Judicial System of Japan, the postwar constitution guarantees that all judges shall be independent in the exercise of their conscience and shall be bound only by this constitution and the Laws (Article 76). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Koichi Kitamura was his get-away driver.


Toru Toyoda

Toyoda was twenty-seven at the time of the attack. He studied applied physics at Tokyo University's Science Department and graduated with honours. He also holds a master's degree, and was about to begin doctoral studies when he joined Aum, where he belonged to the Chemical Brigade in their Ministry of Science and Technology. The Yasuda Auditorium on the University of Tokyos Hongo Campus. ... “M.S.” redirects here. ... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...


Toyoda was sentenced to death. The appeal of his death sentence was rejected by the Tokyo High Court on Wednesday, July 28, 2003, and he remains on death row. is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For information about the Record company see Death Row Records For information about the computer game see Deathrow (game) Death Row is a term which refers to the section of a prison that houses individuals awaiting execution. ...


Katsuya Takahashi was his get-away driver.


Masato Yokoyama

Yokoyama was thirty-one at the time of the attack. He was a graduate in applied physics from Tokai University's Engineering Department. He worked for an electronics firm for three years after graduation before leaving to join Aum, where he became Undersecretary at the group's Ministry of Science and Technology. He was also involved in their Automatic Light Weapons Manufacturing scheme. Yokoyama was sentenced to death in 1999. Tokai University(Tokai Daigaku, 東海大学) is one of the Japanese private university at Tokyo. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ...


Kiyotaka Tonozaki, a high school graduate who joined the group in 1987, was a member of the group's Ministry of Construction, and served as Yokoyama's getaway driver. Tonozaki was sentenced to life in prison.


Yasuo Hayashi

Yasuo Hayashi was thirty-seven years old at the time of the attacks, and was the oldest person at the group's Ministry of Science and Technology. He studied artificial intelligence at Kogakuin University; after graduation he travelled to India where he studied yoga. He then became an Aum member, taking vows in 1988 and rising to the number three position in the group's Ministry of Science and Technology. Garry Kasparov playing against Deep Blue, the first machine to win a chess game against a reigning world champion. ... Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ...


Asahara had at one time suspected Hayashi of being a spy. The extra packet of sarin he carried was part of "ritual character test" set up by Asahara to prove his allegiance, according to the prosecution.


Hayashi went on the run after the attacks; he was arrested twenty-one months later, one thousand miles from Tokyo on Ishigaki Island. He was later sentenced to death and has appealed. Ishigaki, Okinawa ...


Shigeo Sugimoto was his get-away driver. His lawyers argued that he played only a minor role in the attack, but the argument was rejected, and he has been sentenced to death.


The attack

Monday, 20 March 1995 was for most a normal workday, though the following day was a national holiday. The attack came at the peak of the Monday morning rush hour on one of the world's busiest commuter transport systems. The Tokyo subway system transports millions of passengers daily; during rush hour, trains are frequently so crowded that it is nearly impossible to move. is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...

The liquid sarin was contained in plastic bags which each team then wrapped in newspapers. Each perpetrator carried two packets of sarin totalling approximately one litre of sarin, except Yasuo Hayashi, who carried three bags. A single drop of sarin the size of the head of a pin can kill an adult. Sarin structural diagram. ... Sarin structural diagram. ... Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ... Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ...


Carrying their packets of sarin and umbrellas with sharpened tips, the perpetrators boarded their appointed trains; at prearranged stations, each perpetrator dropped his package and punctured it several times with the sharpened tip of his umbrella before escaping to his accomplice's waiting get-away car.


Chiyoda line

Map of the Chiyoda line (click to enlarge)
Map of the Chiyoda line (click to enlarge)

The Chiyoda line runs from Kita-Senju in northeast Tokyo to Yoyogi-uehara in the west. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (712x638, 53 KB)Tokyo Metro Chiyoda Line Map I drew this map and contribute my rights in it to the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (712x638, 53 KB)Tokyo Metro Chiyoda Line Map I drew this map and contribute my rights in it to the public domain. ... Click on map to enlarge The Tokyo Metro Chiyoda Line (東京地下鉄千代田線) is a metro line in Tokyo, Japan, administered by the Tokyo Metro. ...


The team of Ikuo Hayashi and Tomomitsu Niimi were assigned to drop sarin packets on the Chiyoda Line. Niimi was the get-away driver.


Hayashi, wearing a surgical mask of the type commonly worn by Japanese people during cold and flu season, boarded the southwest bound 07:48 Chiyoda line train number A725K on the first car, and punctured his bag of sarin at Shin-Ochanomizu Station in the central business district before making his escape.


Two people were killed in this attack.


Marunouchi line

Ogikubo-bound

Two men, Kenichi Hirose and Koichi Kitamura, were assigned to release sarin on the westbound Marunouchi line destined for Ogikubo. Marunouchi Line train crossing the Kanda River near Ochanomizu Station Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line (東京地下鉄丸ノ内線) is a subway line, part of the Tokyo Metro system in Tokyo, Japan. ... Ogikubo (荻窪) is a suburb of Tokyo in Suginami ward, approximately 8 km west of Shinjuku. ...


Hirose boarded the third car of Train A777, and released his sarin at Ochanomizu Station.

Stations on Marunouchi Line (Click on image to enlarge)

Despite two passengers being removed from the train at Nakano-sakaue Station, the train continued on to its destination, car three still soaked with liquid sarin. At Ogikubo, new passengers boarded the now eastbound train, and they too were affected by sarin, until the train was finally taken out of service at Shin-Kōenji Station. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (971x479, 61 KB)Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line I drew this map and contribute my rights in it to the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (971x479, 61 KB)Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line I drew this map and contribute my rights in it to the public domain. ...


This attack resulted in one death.


Ikebukuro-bound

Two members were assigned to release sarin on the Ikebukuro-bound Marunouchi line, Masato Yokoyama and Kiyotaka Tonozaki. Tonozaki was the get-away driver.


Yokoyama boarded the 07:39 B801 train at Shinjuku on the fifth car. He released his sarin at Yotsuya. Categories: Wards of Tokyo | Japan geography stubs ...


Yokoyama only succeeded in puncturing one of his packets, and only made one hole, resulting in the sarin being released relatively slowly. The train reached its destination at 08:30, and returned to Ikebukuro as the B901. At Ikebukuro the train was evacuated and searched, but the searchers failed to discover the sarin packets, and the train departed Ikebukuro at 08:32 as the Shinjuku-bound A801. As the train was returning to the city center passengers asked staff to remove the foul smelling objects from the train. At Hongō-sanchōme, staff removed the sarin packets and mopped the floor, but the train continued to Shinjuku, and then returned again to Ikebukuro as the B901. The train was finally put out of service at Kokkai-gijidōmae Station at 09:27, one hour and forty minutes after the sarin was released. Ikebukuro Ikebukuro at night Ikebukuro at night Ikebukuro (池袋), a part of Toshima ward, is a large commercial and entertainment district of Tokyo, Japan. ...


This attack resulted in no fatalities.


Hibiya line

Departing Naka-Meguro

The team of Toru Toyoda and Katsuya Takahashi were assigned to release sarin on the northeast bound Hibiya line. Takahashi was the get-away driver. Hibiya Line (Click on image to enlarge. ...

Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line subway train
Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line subway train

Toyoda boarded the first car of the 07:59 B711T train bound for Tōbu Dōbutsu Kōen and punctured his sarin packet at Ebisu. Three stops later passengers had begun to panic, and several were removed from the train at Kamiyacho and taken to hospital. Still, the train continued to Kasumigaseki, though the first car was empty. The train was evacuated and taken out of service at Kasumigaseki. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x616, 190 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x616, 190 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line ... Ebisu Station Ebisu Station (恵比寿駅; -eki) is a railway station located in Tokyos Shibuya ward. ...


One person died in this attack.


Naka-Meguro-bound

Yasuo Hayashi and Shigeo Sugimoto were assigned to the southwestbound Hibiya line departing Kita-Senju for Naka-Meguro.


Hayashi received, at his own insistence on in an apparent bid to allay suspicions and prove his loyalty to the group, three packets of sarin while everyone else was given two. He boarded the third car of the 07:43 A720S train from Kita-Senju at Ueno Station. He released his sarin two stops later, at Akihabara, making the most punctures of any of the perpetrators. Ueno Station was the destination of thousands of laborers from the Tohoku region who came to Tokyo seeking employment. ... Akihabara in 2007 Akihabara ), also known as Akihabara Electric Town ), is a neighborhood in Tokyo, Japan. ...


Passengers began to be affected immediately. At the next station, Kodenmachō, a passenger kicked the packet onto the platform; four people waiting at that station died as a result. A puddle of sarin, however, remained on the train floor as the train continued its route. At 08:10, a passenger pressed the emergency stop button, but as the train was in a tunnel at the time, it proceeded to Tsukiji Station. When the doors opened at Tsukiji, several passengers collapsed onto the platform, and the train was immediately taken out of service.


This train made five stops after the gas was released; along the way, eight people died.


Aftermath

On the day of the attack ambulances transported 688 patients, and nearly five thousand people reached hospitals by other means. Hospitals saw 5,510 patients, seventeen of whom were deemed critical, thirty-seven severe, and 984 moderately ill with vision problems. Most of those reporting to hospitals were the "worried well," who had to be distinguished from those that were ill. [1]


By mid-afternoon, the mildly affected victims had recovered from vision problems and were released from hospital. Most of the remaining patients were well enough to go home the following day, and within a week only a few critical patients remained in hospital. The death toll on the day of the attack was eight, and it eventually rose to twelve. [2]


The injured

Witnesses have said that subway entrances resembled battlefields. In many cases, the injured simply lay on the ground, many unable to breathe. Several of those affected by sarin went to work in spite of their symptoms, most of them not realizing that they had been exposed to sarin gas. Most of the victims sought medical treatment as the symptoms worsened and as they learned of the actual circumstances of the attacks via news broadcasts.


Several of those affected were exposed to sarin only by helping those who had been directly exposed. Among these were passengers on other trains, subway workers and health care workers.


Recent surveys of the victims (in 1998 and 2001) show that many are still suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. In one survey, twenty percent of 837 respondents complained that they feel insecure whenever riding a train, while ten percent answered that they try to avoid any gas-attack related news. Over sixty percent reported chronic eyestrain and said their vision has worsened.1 Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is a term for the psychological consequences of exposure to or confrontation with stressful experiences, which involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury or a threat to physical integrity and which the person found highly traumatic. ...


Emergency services

Emergency services including police, fire and ambulance services were criticised for their handling of the attack and the injured, as were the media (some of whom, though present at subway entrances and filming the injured, hesitated when asked to transport victims to the hospital) and the Subway Authority, which failed to halt several of the trains despite reports of passenger injury. Health services including hospitals and health staff were also criticised: one hospital refused to admit a victim for almost an hour, and many hospitals turned victims away. Emergency services are services that deal with emergencies and other aspects of Public Safety. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ...


Sarin poisoning was not well-known at the time, and many hospitals only received information on diagnosis and treatment because a professor at Shinshu University's school of medicine happened to see reports on television. Dr. Nobuo Yanagisawa had had experience with treating sarin poisoning after the Matsumoto incident; he recognized the symptoms, had information on diagnosis and treatment collected, and led a team who sent the information to hospitals throughout Tokyo via fax. Shinshu University (信州大学; Shinshu Daigaku, abbreviated as 信大 Shindai) is a national university in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. ... The Matsumoto incident was an outbreak of sarin poisoning that occurred in Matsumoto, Japan, in the Nagano prefecture, on the evening of June 27 and the morning of June 28, 1994. ...


Defended by new religions scholars

In May 1995, after the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway, American scholars James R. Lewis and J. Gordon Melton flew to Japan to hold a pair of press conferences in which they announced that the chief suspect in the murders, religious group Aum Shinrikyo, couldn't have produced the sarin that the attacks had been committed with. They had determined this, Lewis said, from photos and documents provided by the group.[1] Dr. John Gordon Melton is the founding director of the Institute for the Study of American Religion and is a research specialist with the Department of Religious Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. ... Time Magazine cover after the Sarin gas attack in Tokyo Aum Shinrikyo, now known as Aleph, is a Japanese religious group founded by Shoko Asahara. ... Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ...


However, the Japanese police had already discovered at Aum's main compound back in March a sophisticated chemical weapons laboratory that was capable of producing thousands of kilograms a year of the poison.[2] Later investigation showed that Aum not only created the sarin used in the subway attacks, but had committed previous chemical and biological weapons attacks, including a previous attack with sarin that had killed seven and injured 144.[3] The Matsumoto incident was an outbreak of sarin poisoning that occurred in Matsumoto, Japan, in the Nagano prefecture, on the evening of June 27 and the morning of June 28, 1994. ...


During the Aum Shinrikyo incident Lewis and Gordon's bills for travel, lodging and accommodations were paid for by Aum, according to The Washington Post. [4] Lewis openly disclosed that "Aum [...] arranged to provide all expenses [for the trip] ahead of time", but claimed that this was "so that financial considerations would not be attached to our final report".[5]. Time Magazine cover after the Sarin gas attack in Tokyo Aum Shinrikyo, now known as Aleph, is a Japanese religious group founded by Shoko Asahara. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ...


Aum/Aleph today

The sarin gas attack was the most serious terrorist attack in Japan's modern history. It caused massive disruption and widespread fear in a society that had previously been perceived as virtually free of crime.


Shortly after the attack, Aum lost its status as a religious organization, and many of its assets were seized. However, the Diet (Japanese parliament) rejected a request from government officials to outlaw the group. The Public Security Committee, an organization similar to America's CIA, received increased funding to monitor the group. In 1999, the Diet gave the Committee broad powers to monitor and curtail the activities of groups that have been involved in "indiscriminate mass murder" and whose leaders are "holding strong sway over their members", a bill custom-tailored to Aum Shinrikyo. The National Diet of Japan ) is Japans legislature. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


About twenty of Aum's members, including its founder Asahara, are either standing trial or have already been convicted for crimes related to the attack. As of July 2004, eight Aum members have received death sentences for their roles in the attack.


Asahara was sentenced to death by hanging on February 27, 2004, but lawyers immediately appealed the ruling. The Tokyo High Court postponed their decision on the appeal until results were obtained from a court-ordered psychiatric evaluation, which was issued to determine whether or not Asahara was fit to stand trial. In February of 2006, the court ruled that Asahara was indeed fit to stand trial, and on March 27, rejected the appeal against his death sentence. Japan's Supreme Court upheld this decision on September 15, 2006. (Japan does not announce dates of executions, which are by hanging, in advance of them being carried out.) Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


The group reportedly still has about 2,100 members, and continues to recruit new members under the new name "Aleph". Though the group has renounced its violent past, it still continues to follow Asahara's spiritual teachings. Members operate several businesses, though boycotts of known Aleph-related businesses, in addition to searches, confiscations of possible evidence and picketing by protest groups, have resulted in closures.


Aum/Aleph remains on the US State Department's list of terrorist groups, but has not been linked to any further terrorist acts, or any terrorist acts in the US. Aleph has announced a change of its policies, apologized to victims of the subway attack, and established a special compensation fund. Aum members convicted in relation to the attack or other crimes are not permitted to join the new organization, and are referred to as "ex-members" by the group. The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Foreign Terrorist Organizations are foreign organizations that are designated as terrorist by the United States Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), as amended. ...


Many Japanese municipal governments have refused to allow known members to register as city residents; Aleph has successfully sued some of these governments, and Human Rights Watch has included criticism of these government actions in some of its annual reports. Some businesses refuse to sell goods or provide services to known Aleph followers; some landlords refuse to rent to members; and some cities have spent public money to persuade Aleph members to leave town; some high schools and universities reject the children of Aum followers. Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


References

is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Underground is a book by Japanese novelist Haruki Murakami about the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway by Aum Shinrikyo in 1995. ... Haruki Murakami , born January 12, 1949) is a popular contemporary Japanese writer and translator. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Apologetics Index, Aum Shinrikyo, Aum Supreme Truth; Aum Shinri Kyo; Aleph, 2005
  2. ^ CDC website, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Aum Shinrikyo: Once and Future Threat?, Kyle B. Olson, Research Planning, Inc., Arlington, Virginia
  3. ^ CW Terrorism Tutorial, A Brief History of Chemical Warfare, Historical Cases of CW Terrorism, Aum Shinrikyo, 2004
  4. ^ Tokyo Cult Finds an Unlikely Supporter, The Washington Post, T.R. Reid, May 1995."The Americans said the sect had invited them to visit after they expressed concern to Aum's New York branch about religious freedom in Japan. The said their airfare, hotel bills and 'basic expenses' were paid by the cult"
  5. ^ Holy Smoke.org, Japan's Waco: Aum Shinrikyo and the Eclipse of Freedom in the Land of the Rising Sun, James R. Lewis, 1998

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See also

Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ... Time Magazine cover after the Sarin gas attack in Tokyo Aum Shinrikyo, now known as Aleph, is a Japanese religious group founded by Shoko Asahara. ... Underground is a book by Japanese novelist Haruki Murakami about the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway by Aum Shinrikyo in 1995. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... In 1995, the GIA Islamist militant group staged a series of attacks against the French public, targeting public transportation. ... Time Magazine cover after the Sarin gas attack in Tokyo Aum Shinrikyo, now known as Aleph, is a Japanese religious group founded by Shoko Asahara. ... Shoko Asahara (麻原 彰晃 Asahara Shōkō) (born Chizuo Matsumoto (松本智津夫 Matsumoto Chizuo) on March 2, 1955) is the founder of Japans controversial Buddhist religious group Aum Shinrikyo (now known as Aleph). ... Masami Tsuchiya (土谷正実 Tsuchiya Masami) is a former senior Aum Shinrikyo scientist who played a leading role in the production of lethal chemicals including sarin. ... Fumihiro Joyu (上祐史浩 JōyÅ« Fumihiro; born 17 December 1962) was the spokesperson and public relations manager of the controversial Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo, and has been the de facto chief of the organization since 1999. ... Ikuo Hayashi (æž— 郁夫 Hayashi Ikuo, born January 23, 1947) is a former AUM Shinrikyo member indicted for participation in the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway. ... Hideo Murai (村井 秀夫 Murai Hideo, December 5, 1958 - April 23, 1995) was a member of Aum Shinrikyo and a scientist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tsutsumi Sakamoto (坂本 å ¤ Sakamoto Tsutsumi, April 8, 1956 - November 4, 1989) is a lawyer murdered in 1989 by a group of former members of Aum Shinrikyo and a controversial Japanese Buddhist group. ... Soka Gakkai International or SGI is the umbrella organization for affiliate lay organizations in over 190 countries practicing a form of the Buddhism of Nichiren Daishonin. ... Kōfuku-no-Kagaku (幸福の科学), also called The Institute for Research in Human Happiness (IRH), is a sect in Japan. ... Yoshinori Kobayashi (Penname: 小林 よしのり, Real name: 小林 善範; Kobayashi Yoshinori, born in Fukuoka, Japan, August 31, 1953) is a bestselling Japanese conservative author and manga artist. ... The U.S. State Departments list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations is a list of non-US organizations that are designated as terrorist by the United States Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). ... On October 31, 1989, Tsutsumi Sakamoto (坂本 å ¤ Sakamoto Tsutsumi, April 8, 1956 - November 4, 1989), a lawyer working against Aum Shinrikyo, successfully persuaded Aum leader Shoko Asahara to submit to a blood test to test for the special power that the leader claimed was present throughout his body. ... The Matsumoto incident was an outbreak of sarin poisoning that occurred in Matsumoto, Japan, in the Nagano prefecture, on the evening of June 27 and the morning of June 28, 1994. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2922 words)
The Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway, usually referred to in the Japanese media as the 地下鉄サリン事件 (chikatetsu sarin jiken "subway sarin incident") was an act of domestic terrorism perpetrated by members of the religious group Aum Shinrikyo on March 20, 1995.
The attack came at the peak of the Monday morning rush hour on one of the world's busiest commuter transport systems: the Tokyo subway system transports millions of passengers daily; during rush hour, trains are frequently so crowded that it is impossible to move.
Sarin poisoning was not well-known at the time, and many hospitals only received information on diagnosis and treatment because a professor at Shinshu University's school of medicine happened to see reports on television.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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