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Encyclopedia > Sarcoma
Sarcoma
Classification & external resources
MeSH D012509

A sarcoma is a cancer of the connective or supportive tissue (bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels) and soft tissue. This is in contrast to carcinomas, which are cancers of glandular portions of major internal organs (breast, colon, pancreas, and others). Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... In medicine, the term soft tissue refers to tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body. ... A pregnant womans breasts. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates[2]. It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). ...

Contents

Classification

Sarcomas are given a number of different names, based on the type of tissue from which they arise. For example, osteosarcoma arises from bone, chondrosarcoma arises from cartilage, and leiomyosarcoma arises from smooth muscle. Sarcomas strike people in all age ranges, but they are very rare, accounting for only 1% of all cases of cancer.[1] Soft tissue sarcomas, such as leiomyosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), are more common in adults than in children. GIST is the most common form of sarcoma, with approximately 3000-3500 cases per year in the United States.[2] This should be compared with breast cancer, with approximately 200,000 cases per year in North America.[3] Bone sarcomas, such as osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma, are more common in children than in adults. These tumors most commonly strike adolescents and young adults between the ages of 12 and 25. Osteosarcoma is the most common type of malignant bone cancer, accounting for 35% of primary bone malignancies. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... A chondrosarcoma is a cancer of the cartilage. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... Leiomyosarcoma is a type of sarcoma which is a neoplasm of smooth muscle. ... Cultured Smooth muscle of the aorta. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Leiomyosarcoma is a type of sarcoma which is a neoplasm of smooth muscle. ... A chondrosarcoma is a cancer of the cartilage. ... Endoscopic image of GIST in fundus of stomach, seen on retroflexion. ... Osteosarcoma is the most common type of malignant bone cancer, accounting for 35% of primary bone malignancies. ... X-Ray of a child with Ewings sarcoma of the tibia Ewings sarcoma is the common name for primitive neuroectodermal tumor. ...


In addition to being named based on the tissue of origin, sarcomas are also assigned a grade, such as low grade or high grade. Low grade sarcomas are usually treated surgically, although sometimes radiation therapy or chemotherapy are used. High grade sarcomas are more frequently treated with chemotherapy. Since these tumors are more likely to undergo metastasis (spreading to distant sites), these tumors are treated more aggressively. Childhood sarcomas are almost always treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, and radiation is frequently used as well. The recognition that childhood sarcomas are sensitive to chemotherapy has dramatically improved the survival of patients. For example, in the era before chemotherapy, long term survival for patients with localized osteosarcoma was only approximately 20%, but now has risen to 60-70%.[4] Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ...


Organizations

Private funding Organizations such as the 'Sarcoma Foundation of America' are working to fund research toward a cure for sarcoma, while other patient-oriented organizations such as the Sarcoma Alliance are working to educate patients about the disease, and still others like the Rare Cancer Alliance are working to give patients online support. The Liddy Shriver Sarcoma Initiative publishes the Electronic Sarcoma Update Newsletterwhich is an online bi-monthly newsletter, containing articles of interest to patients, caregivers, physicians, nurses, and survivors. An organisation (or organization — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. ... A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ...


Notable patients

Actor Robert Urich had a soft-tissue sarcoma, and died of this disease. Actress Michelle Thomas died from a rare abdominal soft-tissue sarcoma. The most famous victims of this disease is Canadian Terry Fox, who was required to have a leg amputated as treatment, and the Soviet mathematician Nikolai Kochin who perished at the age of 43. Fox subsequently began heroic fundraising efforts towards medical research, which enabled advances that dramatically improved the survivability of the ailment. Robert Urich (December 19, 1946 – April 16, 2002) was an Emmy-winning actor, best known for playing private investigators on the television series Spenser: For Hire (1985-1988) and Vega$ (1978-1981). ... Michelle Thomas (September 23, 1969 – December 22, 1998) was an actress who is best known for her roles as Myra Monkhouse, the girlfriend of Steve Urkel, on the American sitcom Family Matters from 1993 to 1998 and Justine Phillips, girlfriend of Theo Huxtable on The Cosby Show. ... Terrance Stanley Terry Fox, CC (July 28, 1958 – June 28, 1981) was a Canadian humanitarian, athlete, and cancer treatment activist. ... Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. ... Nikolai Evgrafovoch Kochin (Russian: Николай Евграфович Кочин) (May 19, 1901, St Petersburg–December 31, 1944, Moscow) was a Russian mathematician specialising in applied mathematics, and especially fluid and gas mechanics. ...


Types of sarcoma

(ICD-O codes are provided where available.) The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ...

Malignant (cancerous) tumors that develop in soft tissue are called sarcomas, a term that comes from a Greek word meaning fleshy growth. ... Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a very rare type of Soft tissue sarcoma - a slow growing tumor of an unknown origin that arises mainly in children and young adults. ... Angiosarcoma is a rare, malignant tumor consisting of endothelial and fibroblastic tissue that proliferates and eventually surrounds vascular channels. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP)[1] is a rare tumor. ... A desmoid tumor (sometimes referred to as aggressive fibromatosis) is a rare (3 per million population) tumor that may or may not be part of a genetic syndrome such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). ... Display of small round blue cells characteristic of desmoplastic small round cell tumor. ... Fibrosarcoma (fibroblastic sarcoma) is a malignant tumor derived from fibrous connective tissue and characterized by immature proliferating fibroblasts or undifferentiated anaplastic spindle cells. ... A hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a type of soft tissue sarcoma that originates in the pericytes in the walls of capillaries. ... Hemangiosarcoma is a rapidly growing, highly invasive variety of cancer. ... Leiomyosarcoma is a type of sarcoma which is a neoplasm of smooth muscle. ... Liposarcoma is a malignant tumor that arises in fat cells in deep soft tissue, such as that inside the thigh or in the retroperitoneum. ... Lymphangioma is a uncommon benign slow-growing congenital tumor derived of the lymphatic vessels. ... This article is about lymphoma in humans. ... Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a type of cancer that is the most common soft tissue sarcome of late adult life, most commonly occurring between age 50-70. ... Neurofibrosarcoma is a type of tumor combining characteristics of neurofibroma and fibrosarcoma. ... A rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer, specifically a sarcoma (cancer of connective tissues), in which the cancer cells are thought to arise from skeletal muscle progenitors. ... // Introduction A synovial sarcoma is one of the rarer types of soft-tissue sarcomas. ... X-Ray of a child with Ewings sarcoma of the tibia Ewings sarcoma is the common name for primitive neuroectodermal tumor. ... X-Ray of a child with Ewings sarcoma of the tibia Ewings sarcoma is the common name for primitive neuroectodermal tumor. ... Hemangioendothelioma is used to describe a group of vascular neoplasms that may be considered benign or malignant in their activity. ... Neurofibromas are moderately firm, usually benign, unencapsulated, slow-growing heterogeneous tumors of the nervous system arising from the supporting cells (Schwann cells) of peripheral nerves. ... Osteosarcoma is the most common type of malignant bone cancer, accounting for 35% of primary bone malignancies. ... A chondrosarcoma is a cancer of the cartilage. ...

References

  1. ^ Borden EC, Baker LH, Bell RS, Bramwell V, Demetri GD, Eisenberg BL, Fletcher CD, Fletcher JA, Ladanyi M, Meltzer P, O'Sullivan B, Parkinson DR, Pisters PW, Saxman S, Singer S, Sundaram M, van Oosterom AT, Verweij J, Waalen J, Weiss SW, Brennan MF. Soft tissue sarcomas of adults: state of the translational science.Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Jun;9(6):1941-56. Review. PMID 12796356
  2. ^ Tran T, Davila JA, El-Serag HB. The epidemiology of malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors: an analysis of 1,458 cases from 1992 to 2000. Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:162-8. PMID 15654796
  3. ^ Smigal C, Jemal A, Ward E, Cokkinides V, Smith R, Howe HL, Thun M. Trends in breast cancer by race and ethnicity: update 2006. CA Cancer J Clin 2006;56:168-83. PMID 16737949
  4. ^ Longhi A, Errani C, De Paolis M, Mercuri M, Bacci G. Primary bone osteosarcoma in the pediatric age: state of the art. Cancer Treat Rev. 2006;32:423-36. PMID 16860938

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
ACS :: What Is a Soft Tissue Sarcoma? (1720 words)
Sarcoma is the term used for cancers of these tissues.
Malignant schwannomas, neurofibrosarcomas, or neurogenic sarcomas are malignant tumors of the cells that surround a nerve.
Clear cell sarcoma is a rare cancer that often develops in tendons of the arms or legs.
Sarcoma News (689 words)
Sarcoma News continually updated from thousands of sources around the net.
Thursday, 11 January 2007 SAN BERNARDINO By Ernest Levister In the summer of1981 Kaposi's sarcoma a unique tumor was diagnosed in 26 previously healthy homosexual men in New York and Los Angels.
Background The four heterogeneous childhood cancers, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma present a similar histology of small round blue cell tumor and thus often leads to...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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