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Encyclopedia > Sarawak

States and Territories of Malaysia
Sarawak
سراوق
Flag of Sarawak
Flag Coat of arms
State motto: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti
State anthem: Ibu Pertiwiku
Capital Kuching
Ruling party Barisan Nasional
 - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Abang Muhammad Salahuddin
 - Ketua Menteri Abdul Taib Mahmud
History  
 - Brunei Sultanate 19th century 
 - Brooke dynasty 1841 
 - Japanese occupation 1941-1945 
 - British control 1946 
 - Accession into Malaysia 1963 
Area
 - Total 124,450 km²
Population
 - 2006 estimate 2,357,500
 - Density 19.1/km²
HDI  (2000) 0.757 (medium)
National calling code 082a
083b
084c
085d
086e
National postal code 93xxx to 98xxx
License plate prefix QA & QK1
QB²
QC³
QL4
QM5
QP6
QR7
QS8
QT9
QSG10
Website: http://www.sarawak.gov.my
a For Kuching
b For Sri Aman
c For Sarikei & Sibu
d For Lawas, Limbang & Miri
e For Bintulu
1 Kuching
² Sri Aman
³ Kota Samarahan
4 Limbang
5 Miri
6 Kapit
7 Sarikei
8 Sibu
9 Bintulu
10 Sarawak State Government vehicle

Sarawak (Jawi: سراوق) is one of the two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi Kenyalang (‘Land of the Hornbills’), it is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia; the second largest, Sabah, lies to the northeast. Sarawak River or Sungai Sarawak is the river in Sarawak state of Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sarawak. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Sarawak. ... Flag of Sarawak The flag of Sarawak is the state flag of Sarawak, a state of Malaysia. ... Image:Antigua and barbuda coa. ... An anthem is a composition to an English religious text sung in the context of an Anglican service. ... Image File history File links Malaysia Sarawak map. ... Kuching is the capital of the East Malaysian State of Sarawak. ... General elections were held in Malaysia on March 21, 2004. ... Barisan Nasional (National Front or BN) is a political coalition in Malaysia. ... Yang di-Pertua Negeri, literally the head of state in Malay, is the title of the largely symbolic state Governors of the Malaysian states of Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak, who are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or King of Malaysia. ... Tuan Yang Terutama Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Haji Muhammad Salahuddin is the fifth and current Yang di-Pertua Negeri Sarawak. ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ... Pehin Sri Dr. Haji Abdul Taib bin Mahmud (born 21 May 1936 in Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia) is the current Chief Minister of Sarawak of Melanau descent. ... The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ... Throughout much of the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... Telephone numbering in Malaysia is regulated by the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC). ... The postal codes used in Malaysia is a 5 digit code. ... Malaysian vehicle license plates are the license plates displayed on all motorized road vehicles in Malaysia, as required by law. ... Kuching is the capital of the East Malaysian State of Sarawak. ... Sri Aman is one of the districts (daerah) in Sarawak. ... Website: http://www. ... Sibu is a town, and the capital of Sibu District (2,229. ... District Councillor Abang Kiprawi bin Abang Rosli Area  - Total (District) 3,811. ... Limbang is a town and the capital of Limbang District in the Limbang Division of northern Sarawak, eastern Malaysia, on the island Borneo. ... For other uses, see Miri (disambiguation). ... Bintulu is a coastal town, and the capital of the Bintulu District (7,220. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Yawi. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... Genera Aceros Anorrhinus Anthracoceros Buceros Bucorvus Ceratogymna (=Bycanistes) Ocyceros Penelopides Tockus Hornbills (Family Bucerotidae) are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cows horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. ... For other uses, see Sabah (disambiguation). ...


The administrative capital is Kuching which has a population of 579,900 (2006 census; Kuching City South - 143,500; Kuching City North - 133,600; Padawan- 3rd Mile/ 7th Mile/ 10th Mile - 302,800). The name Kuching literally means ‘cat’ (kucing). Major cities and towns also include Sibu (pop. 254,000), Miri (pop. 263,000) and Bintulu (pop. 176,800). As of last census (Dec 31, 2006), the state population was 2,357,500. For more details about the population see Demographics of Malaysia, though it is interesting to note that Sarawak is, like Sabah to the north, a multicultural state, with no ethnic majority. Kuching is the capital of the East Malaysian State of Sarawak. ... Rajang River, Sibu Sibu is a town, and the capital of Sibu District (2,229. ... For other uses, see Miri (disambiguation). ... Bintulu is a coastal town, and the capital of the Bintulu District (7,220. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Demographics of Malaysia is diverse. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Sarawak

Sarawak had been a loosely governed territory under the control of the Brunei Sultanate in the early 19th century. James Brooke (see figure below) became governor of Sarawak on September 24, 1841 and was appointed Rajah by the Sultan of Brunei on August 18, 1842; originally this territory was just the western end of later Sarawak, around Kuching. He ruled Sarawak until his death in 1868. His nephew Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke became Rajah after his death; he was succeeded on his death in 1917 by his son, Charles Vyner Brooke, with a provision that Charles should rule in consultation with his brother Bertram Brooke[1]. The territory was greatly expanded under the White Rajahs, mostly at the expense of areas nominally under the control of Brunei. In practice Brunei had only controlled strategic river and coastal forts in much of the lost territory, and so most of the gain was at the expense of Muslim warlords and of the de facto independence of local tribes. Flag Capital Kuching Language(s) English, Iban, Malay, Chinese Government Monarchy Rajah  - 1841–1868 James Brooke  - 1868–1917 Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke  - 1917–1946 Charles Vyner Brooke Legislature Council Negri Historical era New Imperialism  - Independence August 18, 1842  - Protectorate June 14, 1888  - Ceded to the United Kingdom June 30, 1946... Sir James Brooke Sir James Brooke (the most legendary person ever!!)(29 April 1803 – 11 June 1868) was born in Coombe Grove, near Bath, educated at Norwich School, England and became the first White Rajah of Sarawak. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... A Raja (sometimes spelled Rajah) is a king, or princely ruler. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Kuching is the capital of the East Malaysian State of Sarawak. ... Sir Charles Anthony Johnson-Brooke, by Leslie Ward, 1899. ... Sir Charles Vyner deWindt Brooke (September 30, 1874–May 9, 1963) was the third and final white Rajah of Sarawak. ... The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ...

Sir James Brooke
Sir James Brooke

The Brooke dynasty ruled Sarawak for a hundred years and became famous as the "White Rajahs", accorded a status within the British Empire similar to that of the rulers of Indian princely states. In contrast to many other areas of the empire, however, the Brooke family was intent on a policy of paternalism to protect the indigenous population against exploitation. They governed with the aid of the Muslim Malay and enlisted the Ibans and other "Dayak" as a contingent militia. They also encouraged the immigration of Chinese merchants but forbade the Chinese to settle outside of towns in order to minimize the impact on the Dayak way of life. They also established the Sarawak Museum, the first museum in Borneo. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... The Dayak (or Dyak) are indigenous natives of Borneo. ... The Sarawak Museum is the oldest museum in Borneo. ...


In the early part of 1941 preparations were afoot to introduce a new constitution, designed to limit the power of the Rajah and give the people of Sarawak a greater say in government.


While the intention was clearly admirable, the draft constitution contained defects and improprieties, not least by reason of a secret agreement drawn up between Charles Vyner Brooke and his top government officials, by which he was to be financially compensated for this gesture out of treasury funds.


Japan invaded Sarawak and occupied the island of Borneo in 1941, occupying Miri on December 16 and Kuching on December 24, and held it for the duration of World War II until the area was secured by Australian forces in 1945. The Rajah formally ceded sovereignty to the British Crown on July 1, 1946, under pressure from his wife among others. In addition the British Government offered a healthy pension to sweeten the negotiations. His nephew Anthony continued to claim sovereignty as Rajah of Sarawak. Combatants Empire of Japan Netherlands remnant forces British Empire Commanders Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi Lieutenant-General A.E. Percival (UK) Lieutenant-General Hein ter Poorten (KNIL) The Battle of Borneo was a successful campaign in the Japanese war for control of Southeast Asia, culminating in the subjugation of the island... For other uses, see Miri (disambiguation). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kuching is the capital of the East Malaysian State of Sarawak. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the end of the Second World War, Anthony Brooke then opposed the cession of the Rajah's territory to the British Crown, and was associated with anti-secessionist groups in Sarawak. Anthony was banished from the country. He was allowed to return only seventeen years later, when Sarawak became part of the Federation of Malaysia.


Sarawak became a British colony (it was formerly an independent state under British protection) in July 1946, but Brooke's campaign continued. The Malays in particular resisted the cession to Britain, dramatically assassinating the first British governor. Sarawak was one of the main sites of the Indonesian Confrontation between 1962 and 1966. It became an autonomous state of the federation of Malaysia on September 16, 1963, despite initial opposition from parts of the population. The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962-1966. ... Malaysia is a federation of 13 states. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Geography

The Sarawak State Legislative Assembly building
The Sarawak State Legislative Assembly building

Having land area of 124,450 km² spreading between latitude 0° 50′ and 5°N and longitude 109° 36′ and 115° 40′ E, it makes up 37.5% of the land of Malaysia. Sarawak also contains large tracts of tropical rain forest home to an abundance of plant and animal species. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2496x1664, 1651 KB)Photo taken by Kenny Sia of kennysia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2496x1664, 1651 KB)Photo taken by Kenny Sia of kennysia. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ...


Sarawak is currently divided into eleven Administrative Divisions: Kuching Division, Samarahan Division, Sri Aman Division, Betong Division, Sarikei Division, Sibu Division, Mukah Division, Kapit Division, Bintulu Division, Miri Division and Limbang Division. Kuching Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Samarahan Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Sri Aman Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Betong Division, formed on March 26, 2002, is the 11th and newest of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Sarikei Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Sibu Division is the one of the eleven administrative divisions of Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Mukah Division is the tenth of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Kapit Division, formed on April 2, 1973, is the seventh of eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Bintulu Division is the one of the eleven administrative divisions of Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Miri Division is the one of the eleven administrative divisions of Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Limbang Division is an administrative division of Sarawak, Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ...


The country stretches for some 750 km along the north east coastline of Borneo interrupted in the north by about 150 km of Brunei coast (not adding the coastline along the bays). Sarawak is separated from the Indonesian part of Borneo, Kalimantan, by ranges of high hills and mountains that are part of the central mountain range of Borneo. These get higher to the north and culminate near the source of the Baram River with the steep Mount Batu Lawi, Mount Mulu in the Park of the same name and Mount Murud with the highest peak in Sarawak. The Baram river is a river in Sarawak, East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ... Mount Mulu (Malay: Gunung Mulu) is a sandstone and shale mountain. ... Mount Murud (Malay: Gunung Murud) is a sandstone mountain located in the Malaysian part of Borneo. ...


The most important rivers are from the south to the north the Sarawak River, the Lupar River, the Saribas River, the Rajang River with 563 km the longest river in Malaysia with the Baleh River branch, the Baram River, the Limbang River that drains into the Brunei Bay as it divides the two parts of Brunei and the Trusan River that also flows into the Brunei Bay. Sarawak River or Sungai Sarawak is the river in Sarawak state of Malaysia. ... The Rajang River is a river in East Malaysia, in northwest Borneo. ... Balleh River is a river in Sarawak state, Malaysia. ... The Baram river is a river in Sarawak, East Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ...


Sarawak can be divided into three natural regions. The coastal region is rather low lying flat country with large extents of swamps and other wet environments. The hill region provides most of the easily inhabited land. Most of the larger cities and towns have been built in this region. As the swamps make up much of the coast, the ports of Kuching and Sibu have been built some distance from the coast on rivers, while Bintulu and Miri are close to the coast at the only places that the hills stretch right to the China Sea. The third region is the mountain region along the border and with the Kelabit and Murut highlands in the north. A freshwater swamp A swamp is a wetland that features permanent inundation of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water, generally with a substantial number of hummocks, or dry-land protrusions. ... The Kelabit, who have close ties to the Lun Bawang, are an indigenous race of the Sarawak highlands--the remotest and highest of Borneos mountains. ... The Murut are an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. ...


Environment

Sarawak was naturally blessed with vast areas of both lowland and highland rainforest. However, Sarawak has been hit hard by the logging industry and the expansion of monoculture tree plantations and oil palm plantations. Malaysia's deforestation rate is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. Statistics estimate Sarawak's primary forest has been depleted by around 90%. Malaysia's rates of deforestation are among the highest in Asia, jumping almost 86 percent between the 1990-2000 period and 2000-2005. In total, Malaysia lost an average of 1,402 km² —0.65 percent of its forest area—per year since 2000 [1]. By comparison, South East Asian countries lost an average of 0.35% of their forest per annum during the 1990s.


Demographics

A Modern Iban Longhouse, built using new materials and preserving essential features of communal living
A Modern Iban Longhouse, built using new materials and preserving essential features of communal living

Sarawak has more than 40 ethnic groups, each with their own distinct language, culture and lifestyle. Cities and larger towns are populated predominantly by Malays, Melanaus, Chinese, and a smaller percentage of Ibans and Bidayuhs who have migrated from their home-villages for employment reasons. Sarawak is rather distinctive from the rest of Malaysia in that there is only a small community of Indians living in the state. Image File history File linksMetadata Modern_Iban_Longhouse. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Modern_Iban_Longhouse. ...


Iban

The Ibans form the largest percentage of Sarawak's population, making up some 30%. Reputed to be the most formidable headhunters on the island of Borneo, the Ibans of today are a generous, hospitable and placid people. Because of their history as pirates and fishermen, they were conventionally referred to as the "Sea Dayaks". The early Iban settlers who migrated from Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo south of Sarawak) set up home in the river valleys of Batang Ai, the Skrang River, Saribas, and the Rajang River. The Ibans dwell in longhouses, a stilted structure comprising many rooms housing a whole community of families.


The Ibans are renowned for their Pua Kumbu (traditional Iban weavings), silver craftings, wooden carvings and beadwork. Iban tattoos which were originally symbols of bravery for the Iban warriors have become amongst the most distinctive in the world.


The Ibans are also famous for their tuak, a sweet rice wine which is served during big celebrations and festive occasions.


Today, the majority of Ibans practice Christianity. However, like most other ethnic groups in Sarawak, they still hold strong to their many traditional rituals and beliefs. Sarawak is unique to colourful festivals such as the Gawai Dayak (harvest festival), Gawai Kenyalang (hornbill festival) penuaian padi and Gawai Antu (festival of the dead).


Chinese

The Chinese first came to Sarawak as traders and explorers in the 6th century. Today, they make up 29% of the population of Sarawak and comprise of communities built from the economic migrants of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The first Chinese migrants worked as labourers in the gold mines at Bau or on plantations. Through their clan associations, business acumen and work ethic, the Chinese organised themselves economically and rapidly dominated commerce. Today, the Chinese are amongst Sarawak's most prosperous ethnic groups.


The Sarawak Chinese belong to a wide range of dialect groups, the most significant being Hokkien, Foochow, Hakka, Teochew, Cantonese and Henghua. Hokkien and Mandarin are the most widely spoken dialects. The Chinese maintain their ethnic heritage and culture and celebrate all the major cultural festivals, most notably Chinese New Year and the Hungry Ghost Festival. The Sarawak Chinese are predominantly Buddhists and Christians.


Malay

The Malays make up 21% of the population in Sarawak. Traditionally fishermen, these seafaring people chose to form settlements on the banks of the many rivers of Sarawak. Today, many Malays have migrated to the cities where they are heavily involved in the public and private sectors and taken up various professions. Malay villages (kampungs) - a cluster of wooden houses on stilts, many of which are still located by rivers on the outskirts of major towns and cities, play home to traditional cottage industries. The Malays are famed for their wood carvings, silver and brass craftings as well as traditional Malays textile weaving with silver and gold thread (kain songket).


Malays are Muslim by religion, having brought the faith to Asia some 1000 years ago. Their religion is reflected in their culture and art and Islamic symbolism is evident in local architecture - from homes to government buildings.


Melanau

The Melanaus have been thought to be amongst the original settlers of Sarawak. Originally from Mukah (the 10th Administrative Division as launched in March 2002), the Melanaus traditionally lived in tall houses. Nowadays, they have adopted a Malay lifestyle, living in kampong-type settlements. Traditionally, Melanaus were fishermen and till today, they are reputed as some of the finest boat-builders and craftsmen.


While the Melanaus are ethnically different from the Malays, their lifestyles and practices are quite similar especially in the larger towns and cities where most Melanau have adopted the Islamic faith.


The Melanaus were believed to originally worship spirits in a practice brinking on paganism. Today many of them are Christian and Muslim, though they still celebrate traditional animist festivals such as the annual Kaul Festival.


Bidayuh

Originally from West Kalimantan, the Bidayuhs are now most numerous in the hill country of Bau and Serian, within an hour's drive from Kuching. Historically, as other tribes were migrating into Sarawak and forming settlements, the meek-natured Bidayuhs retreated further inland, hence earning them the name of "Land Dayaks". The traditional Bidayuh abode is the "baruk", a roundhouse that rises about 1.5 metres off the ground. Typical of the Sarawak indigenous groups, the Bidayuhs are well-known for their hospitality, and are reputed to be the best makers of tuak, or rice wine.


The Bidayuhs speak a number of different but related dialects.To some Bidayuhs they either speak Malay or English as lingua franca.

 While some of them still practice traditional religions, most modern-day Bidayuhs have adopted the Christian faith. 

Orang Ulu

The phrase Orang Ulu means upriver people and is a term used to collectively describe the numerous tribes that live upriver in Sarawak's vast interior. Such groups include the major Kayan and Kenyah tribes, and the smaller neighbouring groups of the Kajang, Kejaman, Punan, Ukit, and Penan. Nowadays, the definition also includes the down-river tribes of the Lun Bawang, Lun Dayeh, Murut, Berawan, Saban as well as the plateau-dwelling Kelabits. The various Orang Ulu groups together make up roughly 5.5% of Sarawak's population. The Orang Ulu are artistic people with longhouses elaborately decorated with murals and woodcarvings. They are also well-known for their intricate beadwork detailed tattoos. The Orang Ulu tribe can also be identified by their unique music - distinctive sounds from their sape, a stringed instrument not unlike the mandolin.


A vast majority of the Orang Ulu tribe are Christians but old traditional religions are still practiced in some areas.


Some of the major tribes making up the Orang Ulu group include :


Kayan

There are approximately 15,000 Kayans in Sarawak. The Kayan tribe built their longhouses in the northern interiors of Sarawak midway on the Baram River, the upper Reiang River and the lower Tubau River, and were traditionally headhunters. They are well known for their boat making skills, which they carve from a single block of belian, the strongest of the tropical hardwoods.


Although many Kayan have become Christians, some are still practise paganistic beliefs.


Kelabit

With a population of approximately 3000, the Kelabit are inhabitants of Bario - a remote plateau in the Sarawak Highlands, slightly over 1,200 meters above sea-level. The Kelabits form a tight-knit community and practise a generations-old form of agriculture. Famous for their rice-farming, they also cultivate a variety of other crops which are suited to the cooler climate of the Highlands of Bario.


The Kelabit are predominantly Christian, the Bario Highlands having been visited by Christian missionaries many years ago.


Kenyah

There are few findings on the exact origin of the Kenyah tribe. Their heartland however, is Long San, along the Baram River. Their culture is very similar to that of the Kayan tribe with whom they live in close association. The typical Kenyah village consists of only one longhouse and the people are mainly farmers, planting rice in burnt jungle clearings.With the rapid economic development, especially in timber industry, many of them work in timber camps.


Penan

The Penan are the only true nomadic people in Sarawak and amongst the last of the world's hunter-gatherers. The Penan make their home under the rainforest canopy, deep within the vast expanse of Sarawak's virgin jungle. Even today, the Penan continue to roam the rainforest hunting wild boar and deer with blowpipes. The Penan are skilled weavers and make high-quality rattan baskets and mats. The traditional Penan religion worships a supreme god called Bungan. However, the increasing number who have abandoned the nomadic lifestyle for settlement in longhouses have converted to Christians.


Sarawakians practice a variety of religions, including Islam, Christianity, Chinese folk religion (a fusion of Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism and ancestor worship) and animism. Many converts to Christianity among the Dayak peoples also continue to practice traditional ceremonies, particularly with dual marriage rites and during the important harvest and ancestral festivals such as Gawai Dayak, Gawai Kenyalang and Gawai Antu. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Clothed statues of Matsu / Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Gawai Day or Gawai Dayak is a festive celebrated in Sarawak on 1st June every year is both a religious and social occasion. ...


Agriculture, Logging Industry and Land Usage

Sarawak's rainforests have been gradually depleted by the demand driven by the logging industry and the following introduction of palm oil plantations. Many of Sarawak's rural communities have felt changes affected by the economic activity of these industries. Peaceful protests and timber blockades between native communities and logging companies are common, often resulting in preventive police action. The Penan, Borneo's nomadic hunter gatherers have been most affected by these changes, complaining of illness through polluted rivers, game depletion resulting in widespread hunger and loss of traditional medicines and forest products. Their resistance to logging companies culminated in a series of protests and timber blockades in the 1990s, of which many were dismantled by the Police, within the remit of the Law. The Penan claim that their rights are not respected by the State nor by logging companies [2]. Another example, the native customary rights court case of Rumah Nor in the Kemena Basin gave rural communities engaged in subsistence farming hope for continued communal use of land reserves. Although the Court of Appeal ruled against Rumah Nor on the grounds that they had not produced sufficient evidence for their claim, it nevertheless upheld the principles stated by the lower court. These principles are the basis of not only Rumah Nor's claim, but of the claims of all Sarawak's native communities, namely, (i) that native customary rights are NOT created by legislation, although they can be extinguished by legislation, on condition of adequate compensation, and (ii) that these communities have a territory including forest reserves and rivers, and farmland, including land under fallow. Thus, although the Court of Appeal ruled against Rumah Nor's specific claims, it upheld the lower court's ruling in favour of Rumah Nor with regard to the general principles. In this sense, it represents a significant blow to the state's claims that native customary rights comprise only those rights recognised by the state through its legislation.


Economy

Sarawak is blessed with an abundance of natural resources. LNG and petroleum have provided the mainstay of the state's economy for decades. Sarawak is also one of the world's largest exporters of tropical hardwood timber and is the major contributor to Malaysian exports. This has led to wide scale deforestation of Sarawak's rainforest. The last UN statistics estimated Sarawak's sawlog exports at an average of 14109000 m³ between 1996 and 2000 [3]. Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been cooled until it becomes liquid, and it is stored in tanks. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - creator of the process of refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


With such vast land expanse, Sarawak has large tracts of land suitable for commercial agricultural development. Approximately 32% or about 40,000 km² of the state's total land area has been identified as suitable agricultural land. Nevertheless, less than 9% of this is planted with productive permanent crops, while the balance is still under shifting cultivation for hill paddy (rice) which is estimated at more than 16,000 km². The main commercial crops are oil palm, which has been increasing steadily over the years, sago, and pepper. RICE is a treatment method for soft tissue injury which is an abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... For other uses, see Sago (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ...


Since the 1980s, Sarawak has started to diversify and transform its economy into a more industrialized one. This endeavor has been seeing continuing success, with manufacturing and high-tech industries now playing a significant role in shaping the economic expansion of the state.


The global economic environment is expected to remain robust and dynamic right up to the next decade, with both the industrial and developing countries anticipated to maintain sustainable output growth. Global trade is predicted to expand by about 8%. This continuing favorable external outlook should keep the high growth momentum of the state's economy at a steady and stable level.


As the largest state in the Federation of Malaysia, Sarawak aims to be a fully developed state along with the rest of the country by 2020. Sarawak has identified four sectors as key sources of growth:

The availability of vast competitively-priced land and rich reserves of natural resources has made Sarawak an attractive choice for manufacturing operations among investors. Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sarawak in popular culture

Sarawak is the subject of many Hollywood films especially the Raja Brooke era.

This is a romantic drama set starring Jessica Alba. The film was shot in Sarawak. The Sleeping Dictionary is a 2003 film by Guy Jenkin. ... Jessica Marie Alba (born April 28, 1981) is an American actress. ...

  • Farewell To The King stars Nick Nolte.

See also

Flag of Sarawak The flag of Sarawak is the state flag of Sarawak, a state of Malaysia. ... Sarawak dollar of 1935 The dollar was the currency of Sarawak from 1858 to 1953. ... Sarawak Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Kuching, Malaysia. ... The Football Association of Sarawak (Malay: Persatuan Bola Sepak Sarawak) enters a team in Malaysian football competitions to represent the state of Sarawak. ...

References

  1. ^ http://rainforests.mongabay.com/20malaysia.htm
  2. ^ http://www.bmf.ch/en
  3. ^ http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/AC778E/AC778E13.htm

Further reading

  • Gudgeon, L. W. W. (1913), British North Borneo. London, Adam and Charles Black.
  • Runciman, Steven (1960). The White Rajahs: A History of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946, Cambridge University Press.
  • Chin, Ung Ho (1997), Chinese Politics in Sarawak: A Study of the Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP), (Kuala Lumpur, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997) (ISBN 983-56-0039-2).
  • Barley, Nigel (2002), White Rajah, London, Brown Little/Abacus.
  • Cramb, R. A. (2007), Land and Longhouse: Agrarian Transformation in the Uplands of Sarawak, Hawaii University Press
  • Julitta Lim Shau Hua: „Pussy's in the well“ : Japanese occupation of Sarawak, 1941 - 1945. Research and Resource Centre SUPP Headquarters, Kuching 2006, ISBN 983-419982-1
  • Brooke, Sylvia (The last Ranee of Sarawak), (1970), Queen of the Headhunters. William Morrow Co.
  • Palmer, Gladys, (1929) Relations & Complications. Being the Recollections of H.H. The Dayang Muda of Sarawak. Foreword by T.P. O'Connor. Ghost-written by Kay Boyle. London, John Lane Co.

This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman (7 July 1903 - 1 November 2000) was a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... This article is about the state. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Kay Boyle Kay Boyle, born February 19, 1902 in St. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

External links

  • Sarawak government website
  • Sarawak National Parks
  • Static maps of Sarawak
  • WWF Heart of Borneo conservation initiative
  • Sarawak travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Virtual Malaysia - the official portal of the ministry of tourism - Sarawak page
  • Independent news outlet for Sarawak's Indigenous Communities and Sarawak's logging news
  • Swiss Charity who support Sarawak's indigenous population's rights to self-determinism

  Results from FactBites:
 
Malaysia / Sarawak (247 words)
Like Sabah, Sarawak is known to international visitors primarily because of the extraordinary natural wonders of its national parks, including Gunung Mulu, the Niah Caves, and Bako.
Boats are a common mode of transport in Sarawak, as its the dense vegetation of its interior is crisscrossed with rivers.
Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia, an outback of sheer beauty rich in resources such as pepper, cocoa, palm oil, timber and oil.
Sarawak - LoveToKnow 1911 (1589 words)
North of Sarawak is the Pamabo mountain range (8000 ft.),whence flow the rivers Limbang and Trusan, and the mountains Batu Lawei (8000 ft.) and Lawas (6000 ft.).
Of birds, Sarawak has over five hundred species; fish and reptiles are abundant; the jungle swarms with insect life, and is rich in many varieties of fern and orchid.
Sarawak is easily accessible from Singapore, whence the passage occupies about forty-six hours: steamers run at intervals of seven days.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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