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Encyclopedia > Saratoga Campaign
Campaign of 1777
Part of the American Revolutionary War

Surrender of General Burgoyne by John Trumbull
Date 1777
Location Upstate New York region
Result British surrender of most northern armies.
Commanders
Horatio Gates John Burgoyne
Template:Campaignbox American Revolutionary War: Campaign of 1777

The campaign of 1777 was a series of battles in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War for control of the Hudson River. Combatants United States France Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida Tuscarora Polish volunteers Quebec volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz Kościuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben King George... Image File history File links Surrender_of_General_Burgoyne. ... John Trumbull, 1756–1843 John Trumbull (June 6, 1756 – November 10, 1843) was a famous American artist from the time of the American Revolutionary War. ... The areas highlighted in YELLOW and GREEN are those which are considered to be a bona fide part of Upstate New York from the perspective of New York City. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... John Burgoyne General John Burgoyne (February 24, 1722 – August 4, 1792) was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. ... Combatants United States France Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida Tuscarora Polish volunteers Quebec volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz Kościuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben King George... The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and New Jersey. ...


The campaign ended in the climactic Battle of Saratoga which resulted in the capture of the British Army under John Burgoyne. The American victory inspired France to enter the conflict on behalf of the Americans, providing money, soldiers and naval support. Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Brian green and anthony bararta 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... John Burgoyne General John Burgoyne (February 24, 1722 – August 4, 1792) was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. ...

Contents

British strategy

As the year's campaigns were winding down in the autumn of 1776, the British began to plan operations for the next year. (European armies at the time were typically inactive during the winter months.) There were two main armies in North America to work with: Sir Guy Carleton's army in Canada, which had successfully driven back the American invasion of 1775, and General William Howe's Army, which had driven George Washington's Army from New York City in the 1776 campaign. Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sir William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC (August 10, 1729 – July 12, 1814) was an English General who was Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American Revolutionary War, one of the three Howe brothers. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington, Charles Lee Sir William Howe, Lord Cornwallis Strength 19,000 regulars and militia 25,000 soldiers, 10,000 seamen The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of engagements in the American Revolutionary War between forces led by General Sir...


Howe's plan to attack Philadelphia

On 30 November 1776, Howe—the British commander-in-chief in North America—wrote to Lord Germain in England, outlining an ambitious plan for the 1777 campaign. Howe said that if Germain would send him substantial reinforcements, Howe could launch various offensives, including sending 10,000 men up the Hudson River to take Albany, New York. Then, in the autumn, Howe could gather his troops and capture the rebel capital of Philadelphia. Howe soon changed his mind after writing this letter: any reinforcements would probably arrive too late, and the retreat of the Continental Army over the winter of 1776 made Philadelphia an increasingly vulnerable target. Therefore, Howe decided that in the 1777 campaign, Philadelphia should be captured before diverting any troops to Albany. Howe sent Germain this revised plan, which Germain received on 23 February 1777.[1] is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The office of Commander-in-Chief, North America was the commander of British forces in North America before 1859. ... Lord George Germain (1780). ... Location in Albany County and the State of New York Coordinates: , Country United States State New York County Albany Founded 1614 Incorporated 1686 Government  - Mayor Gerald D. Jennings (D) Area  - City  21. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Burgoyne's plan to capture Albany

Meanwhile, General Burgoyne was in London trying to get appointed to an independent command in North America. He brought up a plan that had been discussed by various British generals since 1775: an attempt to divide the American colonies by an invasion from the province of Quebec. This had already been attempted by General Carleton in 1776, although he had stopped short of a full scale invasion. Carleton had been heavily criticized in London for not taking more advantage of the American retreat from Canada, and he was out of favor with Germain, which meant that Burgoyne was in a good position to get command of the 1777 Canadian campaign. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article describes the Canadian province. ...


When asked to submit a plan, Burgoyne outlined the strategy in a paper entitled "Thoughts for Conducting the War on the Side of Canada", and submitted it to Lord Germain on 28 February 1777. The plan was approved with modifications. Burgoyne won appointment as leader of the expedition, beating out General Henry Clinton, who was also in Britain trying to get an independent command of his own. (As consolation, Clinton was given a knighthood, but otherwise he had to continue serving as General Howe's second-in-command.) Burgoyne was so confident of his success that he bet a friend 50 guineas that he would return victorious within one year.[2] February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... General Sir Henry Clinton K.B. Commander-in-Chief of British troops in America. ...


Burgoyne's invasion from Canada had two components: he would lead the main force of about 10,000 men along Lake Champlain towards Albany while a second column of about 2,000 men, led by Barry St. Leger, would move down the Mohawk River valley in a strategic diversion. Both expeditions would converge upon Albany, where they would link up with troops from Howe's army. Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... Barrimore Matthew St. ... The Mohawk River is a major waterway in north-central New York, United States. ...


This last point proved to be the most controversial part of the campaign: Germain approved Burgoyne's plan after having received Howe's letter which stated that Howe would not be able to support the northern Army until late in the year, after the capture of Philadelphia. Whether Germain told Burgoyne about Howe's revised plans is unclear; presumably he did.[3] Whether Germain, Howe, and Burgoyne had the same expectations about the degree to which Howe was supposed to support the invasion from Canada is also unclear. Some have argued that Howe failed to follow instructions and essentially abandoned Burgoyne's Army; others suggest that Burgoyne failed on his own and then tried to shift the blame to Howe and Clinton.[4] What is clear is that Germain either left his generals with too much latitude, or without a clearly defined overall strategy.[5]


Burgoyne returned to Quebec on 6 May 1777, bearing a letter from Lord Germain which introduced the plan but lacked some details. This produced another of the conflicts of command that plagued the British throughout the war. Nominally, Lieutenant General Burgoyne outranked Major General Carleton, but Carleton was still the governor of Canada. Carleton refused Burgoyne's request for enough Canadian troops to garrison Crown Point and Fort Ticonderoga. He also required Burgoyne to leave some of his regular forces as a Canadian garrison. By June, all was ready, and the troops began moving.They were moving to the east, more near New Jersey Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Coordinates: , Country  Canada Province  Quebec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government  - Mayor... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Crown Point is a town located in Essex County, New York. ... Fort Ticonderoga as seen from Lake Champlain Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA.The fort controlled both commonly used...


Campaign

Burgoyne's expedition begins

Burgoyne began his assault on Albany in June 1777. He planned to go south through the lakes and Hudson River valley towards Albany. By 13 June, he had assembled his forces at St. Johns. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk in Mahican, is a river that runs through the eastern portion of New York State and, along its southern terminus, demarcates the border between the states of New York and New Jersey. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu is a city in the province of Quebec, Canada about 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of Montreal. ...


He expected no repeat of last season's delay at Valcour Island since he had an overpowering naval force. Besides last year's five sailing ships, a sixth had been built and three had been captured from Benedict Arnold after the Battle of Valcour Island. Besides these, he had 28 armed barges or gun boats and a large fleet of canoes and bateaux (flat-bottomed boats) for transportation. Valcour Island, about two miles long and a mile broad, lies in Lake Champlain, forming a narrow strait against the New York mainland. ... Benedict Arnold V (January 14, 1741 – June 14, 1801) was a successful Connecticut merchant who fought for American independence from the British Empire as a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. ... The Battle of Valcour Island, 11 October 1776, also known as Battle of Valcour Bay, was a naval engagement fought on Lake Champlain in a narrow strait between the New York mainland and Valcour Island. ... Bateau men poling the James River The James River Bateau was a shallow draft river craft used during the period from 1775 to 1840 to transport tobacco and other cargo on the James river and its tributaries in the state of Virginia. ...


His army had about 7,800 men and over 130 artillery pieces ranging from light mortars to 24 pound (11 kg) pieces. His regulars were organized into two divisions. Major General William Phillips led the 3,700 British Regulars on the right, while Major General Riedesel's 3,000 Brunswickers held the left. His regular troops started out in good condition but were poorly equipped for wilderness fighting. William Phillips (1731-1781) was an Artilleryman and General Officer in the British Army who served as a Major General in the American Revolutionary War. ... Friedrich Adolph Riedesel who, like all adult men of his family, carried the title Freiherr (Baron)zu Eisenbach (1738 - 1800) was commander of a regiment of soldiers from the Duchy of Brunswick, who were among the German units hired by the British during the American Revolution. ...


Fort Ticonderoga

Fort Ticonderoga
Fort Ticonderoga

Moving down Lake Champlain, Burgoyne's combination of naval, artillery, and infantry forces seemed sufficient to overwhelm any American defense. American General Philip Schuyler had agreed that Fort Ticonderoga probably could not be held against this force. But he ordered General Arthur St. Clair to make the first American defense there and to hold out as long as possible before withdrawing. On 24 June, Burgoyne took Crown Point without opposition. He strengthened its defenses and began construction of a magazine, or supply depot, to support his attack on Fort Ticonderoga. Image File history File linksMetadata Ticonderoga1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ticonderoga1. ... The Battle of Ticonderoga on July 5 and July 6, 1777 was more a battle of maneuver than a direct conflict in the American Revolutionary War. ... Philip Schuyler Philip John Schuyler (November 10, 1733 – November 18, 1804) was a general in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York. ... Portrait of St. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... Crown Point is a town located in Essex County, New York. ...


Burgoyne and Schuyler both expected the taking of Ticonderoga to be a major operation. But the British found a way to get artillery onto the hilltop known as Sugar Loaf overlooking the fort. St. Clair managed to withdraw at night, and Burgoyne's men occupied the main fortification and the Mt. Independence works on 6 July. Although a later investigation cleared both Schuyler and St. Clair of any wrongdoing in this surrender, it did cause the Continental Congress to replace Schuyler with General Horatio Gates as commander in the Northern Department of the Continental Army. is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... POOP HS;JHGF;JADHGJHASGHASJHGJSAHGJWJITHADHSGJHDASJLGFNKRA The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The overall Continental Army of the American Revolutionary War was organized into six departments for command and administrative purposes. ...


Battles of Hubbardton and Fort Ann

After losing Ticonderoga, St. Clair's force withdrew. Burgoyne sent forces out from his main body to pursue them. They caught up with elements of the retreating Americans at least three times. The major incident was the Battle of Hubbardton, while others occurred at Fort Anne and Skenesboro. In aggregate, these actions cost the Americans about 50% more losses as those of the British forces. Still, St. Clair brought most of his men out safely to join with General Schuyler at Fort Edward, and the Americans proved they were still capable of standing up to the British regulars. Burgoyne's advance seized Fort Anne on 7 July, while his main force landed at Skenesboro on 8 July. Combatants Continental army Great Britain Brunswick-Luneburg Commanders Seth Warner Simon Fraser Baron von Riedesel Strength 1,200 men 850 men 180 Germans Casualties 41 killed, 96 wounded, 234 captured 60 killed, 148 wounded The Battle of Hubbardton was an engagement in the Saratoga campaign of the American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants British United States Commanders Lt Col. ... Combatants Continental army Great Britain Brunswick-Luneburg Commanders Seth Warner Simon Fraser Baron von Riedesel Strength 1,200 men 850 men 180 Germans Casualties 41 killed, 96 wounded, 234 captured 60 killed, 148 wounded The Battle of Hubbardton was an engagement in the Saratoga campaign of the American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants British United States Commanders Lt Col. ... Whitehall is a village located in the Town of Whitehall in Washington County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 2,667. ... Fort Edward can refer to at least two places: Fort Edward (village), New York Fort Edward (town), New York a temporary fort in South Africa, ca. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The campaign so far had been mainly a British success, but now things began to go wrong. Burgoyne had taken some losses, and even if the 220 men killed or wounded were minor for the his accomplishments, they weakened the invasion. He had left 400 men to garrison the magazine at Crown Point and another 900 to defend Ticonderoga. He could have returned to Fort Ticonderoga and then sailed to the south end of Lake George, but this might appear to be a withdrawal. He made the fatal mistake of deciding to proceed overland to Fort Edward. He thought he would need his artillery and supply train to keep enough firepower to avoid a repeat of the kind of losses taken at Bunker Hill. Combatants Kingdom of Great Britain Province of Massachusetts Bay Commanders British Army: William Howe, Robert Pigot, Henry Clinton, Royal Navy: Samuel Graves Israel Putnam, William Prescott, Joseph Warren†, Seth Pomeroy, (Both Warren and Pomeroy declined command) Strength 2,600 1,500 Casualties 226 dead, 828 wounded 140 dead, 271 wounded...


Schuyler and St. Clair meanwhile decided to make this passage as difficult as possible. Their main weapon in this phase of the campaign was the axe, and they were superior with its use. It is much easier to fell large trees in the enemy's path than it is to remove them after they are down. They would draw out and tire the troops and use up supplies. When Benedict Arnold joined them on 24 July, he gratefully supported their plan before being sent west to stop St. Leger at Stanwix. The tactic worked well because Burgoyne had to build a road through the wilderness for his guns. His progress was reduced to about one mile (1.5 km) per day. He occupied Fort Edward on 29 July with no major battles. Schuyler had withdrawn to Stillwater, New York, and the Americans were prepared to repeat the tactic of delay from Fort Edward to Saratoga. Benedict Arnold V (January 14, 1741 – June 14, 1801) was a successful Connecticut merchant who fought for American independence from the British Empire as a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stillwater, New York is both a town and a village located in Saratoga County, New York. ...


Battles of Fort Stanwix and Oriskany

Main articles: Fort Stanwix and Battle of Oriskany Fort Stanwix was a colonial fort erected in 1758 by British General John Stanwix, at the location of present-day Rome, New York. ... Combatants Patriot militia {3rd Battalion Tryon County Militia} Native American allies Britain Kings Royal Regiment of New York, Butlers Rangers Six Nations Commanders Nicholas Herkimer † Sir John Johnson John Butler Chief Joseph Brant Strength 800 450 Casualties 200 killed or wounded 150 killed or wounded The Battle of...


Lieutenant Colonel St. Leger sailed up the St. Lawrence and crossed Lake Ontario to arrive at Oswego without incident. He had about 300 regulars, supported by 650 Canadian and Tory militia, and they were joined by 1,000 Indians led by John Butler and the Mohawk war captain Joseph Brant. Leaving Oswego on 25 July they marched to lay siege to Fort Stanwix on the Mohawk River. About 800 Revolutionary militiamen and their Indian allies marched to relieve the siege, but they were ambushed and scattered by British and Indians on 6 August at the Battle of Oriskany. Iroquois warriors fought on both sides of the battle, marking the beginning of a civil war within the Six Nations. Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... Fort Ontario is an historic fort situated by the City of Oswego, in Oswego County, New York in the United States of America. ... [[ This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an organization of citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Bust of John Butler at the Valiants Memorial in Ottawa John Butler (1728-1796) was a Loyalist who led an irregular unit known as Butlers Rangers on the northern frontier in the American Revolutionary War. ... The Kanienkehaka, or Mohawk tribe of Native American people live around Lake Ontario and the St. ... Joseph Brant, painted in London by leading court painter George Romney in 1776 Thayendanegea or Joseph Brant (sometimes spelled Brandt or Brand) (c. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fort Stanwix was a colonial fort erected in 1758 by British General John Stanwix, at the location of present-day Rome, New York. ... The Mohawk River is a major waterway in north-central New York, United States. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Patriot militia {3rd Battalion Tryon County Militia} Native American allies Britain Kings Royal Regiment of New York, Butlers Rangers Six Nations Commanders Nicholas Herkimer † Sir John Johnson John Butler Chief Joseph Brant Strength 800 450 Casualties 200 killed or wounded 150 killed or wounded The Battle of... Languages Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora, English, French Religions Christianity, Longhouse religion The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power; the Five Nations; the Six Nations; or the People of the Long house) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans that originally consisted of... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... The term Six Nations can refer to: The six nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, a union of Native American/First Nations tribes. ...


On 10 August, Benedict Arnold had left Stillwater, New York, with 800 men of the Continental Army from Schuyler's Northern Department. He expected to use local militia from the neighborhood of Fort Dayton, which he reached on 21 August. Arnold could only raise about 100 militia, so he resorted to subterfuge. He sent agents and staged the escape of a captive, who informed St. Leger that Arnold was coming with a large force. is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stillwater, New York is both a town and a village located in Saratoga County, New York. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Burgoyne's march on Albany June-October 1777.
Burgoyne's march on Albany June-October 1777.

On this news, Brant and the rest of St. Leger's Indians withdrew. They took most of his remaining supplies with them, and the expedition was forced to head back through Oswego to Canada. Arnold sent a detachment after them, and turned the rest of his force east to support the American forces at the Battle of Saratoga. St. Leger's expedition returned to Canada, and Burgoyne was left on his own. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (901x1055, 312 KB) Burgoynes March on Albany June-October 1777 aka. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (901x1055, 312 KB) Burgoynes March on Albany June-October 1777 aka. ...


Battle of Bennington

Main article: Battle of Bennington

The delaying tactics established by Schuyler, St. Clair, and Arnold had succeeded in several ways. British General Burgoyne was not ready to force the issue and had to leave more men in his rear to secure his lines of communication. His Indian allies became impatient and began more raids on frontier families and settlements. These increased rather than reduced American resistance. The death of Tory settler Jane McCrea served as a catalyst for rebel support in the area. Each day that went by, the Americans gained strength as militia units and even individuals arrived. Schuyler sent Benedict Arnold west to relieve Fort Stanwix and used the time to have Thaddeus Kosciusko build defenses on the Bemis Heights between Saratoga and Albany to block Burgoyne from his objective. Combatants Vermont, militiamen/Green Mountain Boys, Massachusetts, New Hampshire Brunswick, British Army troops, Native Americans Commanders John Stark Friedrich Baum Strength 2,000 1,250 Casualties 40 killed, 30 wounded 207 killed, 700 captured The Battle of Bennington was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, taking place on August... Jane McCrae (1752?- 1777) was a Tory loyalist during the American Revolutionary War. ... Tadeusz Kościuszko. ...


The death of Jane McCrea and the Battle of Bennington had another important effect. Burgoyne blamed his Indian and Canadian allies for her death, and even after the Indians had lost 80 of their numbers at Bennington, Burgoyne had shown no gratitude toward them. The Indians began to leave the British side. As such, Charles Langlade and Saint Luc de La Corne, their Canadian leader, had no choice but to leave with them. Burgoyne was left with no protection in the woods against the American rangers. After the war Burgoyne blamed La Corne for deserting him. La Corne replied to him that he never respected the Indians. In the British Parliament, Lord Germain was on La Corne's side. Both Langlade and La Corne had been major contributors to prior victories in the region (Braddock's defeat 1755, Fort Williams-Henry 1757, Oswego 1756). Charles Michel de Langlade (1729–c. ...


Burgoyne was running low on supplies, most specifically horses to work on his road and light armaments. Fearing future problems, he decided to send out detachments to forage for supplies. Since the Hessian dragoons suffered most from a lack of horses, he sent Colonel Friedrich Baum's regiment into western Massachusetts and New Hampshire, along with the Brunswick dragoons, and gave his main body a few days of rest. The detachment never returned, and the reinforcements he sent after them came back ravaged from the Battle of Bennington, fought on 16 August, which deprived Burgoyne of nearly 1,000 men and the much-needed supplies. The term Hessian refers to the inhabitants of the German state of Hesse. ... French dragoon, 1745. ... Lieutenant Colonel Friedrich Baum (1727-1777), German dragoon officer serving under Baron Friedrich Adolph von Riedesel in support of British General John Burgoynes 1777 campaign to attack the Lake Champlain-Hudson River corridor, which ended in Burgoynss surrender at Saratoga on October 15, 1777. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,359 sq mi (24,239 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 3. ... Combatants Vermont, militiamen/Green Mountain Boys, Massachusetts, New Hampshire Brunswick, British Army troops, Native Americans Commanders John Stark Friedrich Baum Strength 2,000 1,250 Casualties 40 killed, 30 wounded 207 killed, 700 captured The Battle of Bennington was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, taking place on August... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


While the tactic of delay worked well in the field, the result in the Continental Congress was a different matter. General Horatio Gates was in Philadelphia when Congress discussed their shock at the fall of Ticonderoga, and Gates was more than willing to help assign the blame to reluctant generals. Some in the Congress had already been impatient with General George Washington, wanting a large, direct confrontation that might eliminate occupation forces but which Washington feared would probably lose the war. John Adams, the head of the War Committee, praised Gates and remarked that "we shall never hold a post until we shoot a general." Over the objections of the New York delegation, Congress sent Gates to take command of the Northern Department. POOP HS;JHGF;JADHGJHASGHASJHGJSAHGJWJITHADHSGJHDASJLGFNKRA The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as Americas first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ...


Battle of Saratoga

Monument at Victory, New York
Monument at Victory, New York

See main articles: Battle of Saratoga, Battle of Freeman's Farm, Battle of Bemis Heights Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1160x2220, 348 KB) Summary Saratoga Monument at Victory, New York. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1160x2220, 348 KB) Summary Saratoga Monument at Victory, New York. ... Victory is the name of some places in the U.S. state of New York: Victory, Cayuga County, New York Victory, Saratoga County, New York This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Combatants British 9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser Brunswick Brian green and anthony bararta 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. ... Combatants Continental Army Patriot militia Britain Hessian Army Commanders Benedict Arnold Daniel Morgan Henry Dearborn Ebenezer Learned Enoch Poor Simon Fraser Baron von Riedesel James Inglis Hamilton Casualties 300 killed or wounded 600 killed or wounded The Battle of Freemans Farm (September 19, 1777) was the first engagement in... The Battle of Bemis Heights on October 7, 1777 is also known as the 2nd Battle of Saratoga since it was the second and last major engagement in the Battle of Saratoga of the American Revolutionary War. ...


The Battle of Saratoga entered American history as a single event. Actually, it was a month long series of maneuvers punctuated by two battles. General Burgoyne had paused in Saratoga, New York, to await word of Howe's and St. Leger's forces and rest after his difficult passage through the wilderness. Facing supply problems and realizing that no help was coming, he had to take the offensive. He crossed to the west bank of the Hudson by a pontoon bridge about eight miles (13 km) south of Saratoga and two miles (3 km) north of the heights being fortified by the Americans.


General Gates arrived at the developing works on the Bemis Heights and took command on 19 August. He was cold and arrogant in manner, and he refused to give Schuyler any subordinate command, so Schuyler resigned the next day. Gates did endorse Schuyler and Arnold's general plan, and Kosciuko continued his work on the fortifications. August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Benedict Arnold returned on 24 August and was surprised to find Gates in command. Their disagreements started almost immediately. Arnold wanted to use the fortification as a redoubt, sallying out to attack from the cover of woods—a tactic that favored the Americans—and falling back to the fort as needed. While Gates had some cannons from the French, General Burgoyne's firepower greatly outclassed the Americans, and the British and Hessian forces were adept at siegecraft. is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A redoubt is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort. ...


Except for cannon, the forces were relatively balanced. Burgoyne was down to about 7,000 men, while Gates had the Continental Army reinforcements sent by Washington and arriving militia to total about 8,000 men. Gates put Arnold in command of his left division, farthest from the river. The right wing, under General Benjamin Lincoln, was held by militia and artillery that overlooked the river road. Gates himself commanded the center with the strongest Continental regiments. Benjamin Lincoln (1733–1810) was a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. ...


Gates gave Arnold permission to send out reconnaissance. When Burgoyne finally moved on the American positions on 19 September, Arnold precipitated the Battle of Freeman's Farm which stopped that advance. But when Arnold attempted to lead Enoch Poor's brigade in support of the attack, Gates ordered him back to headquarters, and the battle was not decisive. Burgoyne fell back and started his own fortifications behind a ravine about 3 miles (5 km) north of Bemis Heights. is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Continental Army Patriot militia Britain Hessian Army Commanders Benedict Arnold Daniel Morgan Henry Dearborn Ebenezer Learned Enoch Poor Simon Fraser Baron von Riedesel James Inglis Hamilton Casualties 300 killed or wounded 600 killed or wounded The Battle of Freemans Farm (September 19, 1777) was the first engagement in... Enoch Poor (June 21, 1736 – September 8, 1780) was a Brigadier General in the Continental Army in the Revolutionary War. ...


After this battle, Gates took some of Arnold's regiments away to reinforce the center. Arnold offered his resignation but was stopped by a memorial signed by every line officer except General Lincoln. However, Gates removed him from command, so he was now attached to headquarters with no assignment. Lincoln's men, supported by militia, made an attack at Fort Ticonderoga, while American sharpshooters continued to harass the British positions.


Militia units continued to arrive as the American force swelled to over 10,000 men. With his supply lines threatened and his position becoming desperate, Burgoyne launched his next attack on 7 October. With messengers riding in and out of headquarters and the sound of gunfire from Daniel Morgan and Henry Dearborn's regiments, Arnold paced at headquarters, ignored by Gates. Finally, he mounted and galloped towards the fight, with no orders. Gates sent a rider to order him back, but he never caught Arnold, who took charge in the Battle of Bemis Heights and drove the British back to their starting positions. Afterwards, it was General Gates who became known as the "Hero of Saratoga." October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (281st in leap years). ... Daniel Morgan (July 6, 1736 – July 6, 1802) was an American pioneer, soldier, and United States Representative from Virginia. ... Henry Dearborn (February 23, 1751 – June 6, 1829) was an American physician, statesman and veteran of both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. ... The Battle of Bemis Heights on October 7, 1777 is also known as the 2nd Battle of Saratoga since it was the second and last major engagement in the Battle of Saratoga of the American Revolutionary War. ...


Surrender and the Convention Army

Main article: Convention Army

On 8 October, Burgoyne withdrew to Saratoga. He and General Gates took a week to negotiate the terms of surrender. Burgoyne's Indian allies faded into the woods, and several loyalist units made it back to Canada. Gates was generous in the terms, which were called the "Saratoga Convention". Burgoyne was allowed to keep his colors, and his men marched out of their camp on 17 October 1777, to surrender their arms. The convention called for the return of his army to England. The Convention Army (1777-1783) were the British and allied troops captured after the Battle of Saratoga in the American Revolutionary War. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


But after the surrendered army marched to Massachusetts, the Congress decided not to honor the terms. The army was kept for some time in sparse camps throughout New England. Although individual officers were exchanged, most of the "Convention Army" was marched south to Virginia and remained prisoners for several years. Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article contains a trivia section. ...


As Canadian and surviving British forces withdrew, the Americans regained Fort Ticonderoga and Crown Point without incident.


Aftermath

The effect of Burgoyne's surrender was enormous. Revolutionary confidence and determination, suffering from Howe's successful occupation of Philadelphia, was renewed. Even more importantly, the victory encouraged France to enter the war against Britain. Spain and the Netherlands soon did the same. The loss also further weakened the current British government under Lord North. For the British, the war had now become much more complicated. Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, KG, PC (13 April 1732 – 5 August 1792), more often known by his courtesy title, Lord North, which he used from 1752 until 1790, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782, and a major actor in the American Revolution. ...


Assessment

The British blamed lack of coordination for the defeat. Lord George Germain was accused on failing to coordinate Burgoyne's offensive with the activities of General Howe's army. Instead of working towards a common objective, the two British armies pursued independent campaigns in 1777, with Howe conducting his Philadelphia campaign instead. Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Henry Clinton The Philadelphia campaign (1777–1778) was a British initiative in the American Revolutionary War. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Jeremy Black, War for America, p. 127.
  2. ^ Richard M. Ketchum, Saratoga: Turning Point of America's Revolutionary War, pp. 79–83.
  3. ^ Ketchum, p. 84.
  4. ^ Mark M. Boatner, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, pp. 134–35.
  5. ^ Black, p. 126.

References

  • Black, Jeremy. War for America: The Fight for Independence, 1775-1783. St. Martin's Press (New York) and Sutton Publishing (UK), 1991. ISBN 0-312-06713-5 (1991), ISBN 0-312-12346-9 (1994 paperback), ISBN 0-7509-2808-5 (2001 paperpack).
  • Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. New York: McKay, 1966; revised 1974. ISBN 0-8117-0578-1.
  • Ketchum, Richard. Saratoga: Turning Point of America's Revolutionary War. New York Holt, 1997.

Further reading

  • Bird, Harrison. March to Saratoga: General Burgoyne and the American Campaign, 1777. New York: Oxford University Press, 1963.
  • Chidsey, Donald Barr. The War in the North: An Informal History of the American Revolution in and near Canada. New York: Crown, 1967.
  • Elting, John R. The Battles of Saratoga. Phillip Freneau Press, 1977. ISBN 0-912480-13-0.
  • Glover, Michael. General Burgoyne in Canada and America: Scapegoat for a System. London: Atheneum Publishers, 1976. ISBN 0-86033-013-3.
  • Graymont, Barbara. The Iroquois in the American Revolution. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1972. ISBN 0-8156-0083-6; ISBN 0815601166 (paperback).
  • Mintz, Max M. The Generals of Saratoga: John Burgoyne & Horatio Gates. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-300-04778-9. 1992 paperback: ISBN 0-300-05261-8.
  • Murray, Stuart. The Honor of Command: General Burgoyne's Saratoga Campaign. Images from the Past, 1998. ISBN 1-884592-03-1.
  • Nickerson, Hoffman. The Turning Point of the Revolution: Burgoyne in America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1928.
  • Taylor, Alan. The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution. Knopf, 2006. ISBN 0-679-45471-3.
  • Watt, Gavin. Rebellion in the Mohawk Valley: The St. Leger Expedition of 1777. Dundurn, 2002. ISBN 1-55002-376-4.

Stuart Murray (born November 24, 1954) is a Manitoba politician. ... Alan Taylor (born 1955) is an historian specializing in early American history. ...

External links

  • Histories of the Battle of Saratoga, 1777
  • [1] Saint Luc de La Corne controversy with Burgoyne after the war

  Results from FactBites:
 
Saratoga Campaign - definition of Saratoga Campaign in Encyclopedia (2674 words)
The Saratoga Campaign was a 1777 initiative by the British Army in the American Revolutionary War.
The campaign was designed to divide the American forces by creating a British zone of control between the New England colonies and their neighbors to the south.
The campaign ended in failure, when Burgoyne surrendered a British army on October 17, 1777 after the Battle of Saratoga.
Saratoga campaign - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3272 words)
The Saratoga campaign was a major British initiative in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War.
The campaign, led from Canada by General John Burgoyne, ended in failure when Burgoyne surrendered his army on October 17, 1777, after the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga.
As the year's campaigns were winding down in the autumn of 1776, the British began to plan operations for the next year.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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