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Encyclopedia > Sappho

Sappho (Attic Greek Σαπφώ [sapːʰɔː], Aeolic Greek Ψάπφω [psapːʰɔː]) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet, born on the island of Lesbos. In history and poetry texts, she is sometimes associated with the city of Mytilene on Lesbos (Carson 2002); she was also said to have been born in Eresos, another city on Lesbos. Her birth was sometime between 630 BC and 612 BC, and it is said that she died around 570 BC. The bulk of her poetry, which was well-known and greatly admired throughout antiquity, has been lost, but her immense reputation has endured through surviving fragments. Look up Sappho (disambiguation) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... Aeolic Greek is a linguistic term used to describe a set of rather archaic Greek sub-dialects, spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece), in Lesbos (an island close to Asia Minor) and in other Greek colonies. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The nine lyric poets (nine melic poets) were a canon of archaic Greek composers esteemed by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria as worthy of critical study. ... Lesbos (Modern Greek: Lesvos (Λέσβος), Turkish: Midilli), is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. ... Mytilene (Greek: Μυτιλήνη - Mytilíni, Turkish: Midilli), also Mytilini, is the capital city of Lesbos (formerly known as Lesbos but the modern name is Mytilene), a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, and the Lesbos Prefecture as well. ... Eresos (Greek: Ερεσός) and its twin beach village Skala Eresou are located in the southwest part of the Greek island of Lesbos. ...

Contents

Life

Sappho by Gustav Klimt
Sappho by Gustav Klimt

No contemporary historical sources exist for Sappho's life — only her poetry. Scholars have rejected a biographical reading of her poetry and have cast doubt on the reliability of the later biographical traditions from which all more detailed accounts derive.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2566, 461 KB) Description: Title: de: Sapho Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 39 × 31,6 cm Country of origin: de: Österreich Current location (city): de: Wien Current location (gallery): de: Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien Other notes: de: Wiener... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2566, 461 KB) Description: Title: de: Sapho Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 39 × 31,6 cm Country of origin: de: Österreich Current location (city): de: Wien Current location (gallery): de: Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien Other notes: de: Wiener... Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Art Nouveau (Vienna Secession) movement. ...


Sappho is said to have been the daughter of Scamander and Cleïs and to have had three brothers. Attic comedy makes reference, in an apocryphal account, to her marriage to a wealthy merchant. There is a tradition that she was married to a certain Kerkylas of Andros, but that is likely to be a mere witticism, as the name means "prick from the Isle of Man."[2] Some translators have interpreted a poem about a girl named Cleïs as being evidence that she had a daughter by that name. It was a common practice of the time to name daughters after grandmothers, so there is some basis for this interpretation. But the actual Aeolic word pais was more often used to indicate a slave or any young girl, rather than a daughter. In order to avoid misrepresenting the unknowable status of young Cleïs, translator Diane Rayor and others, such as David Campbell, chose to use the more neutral word "child" in their versions of the poem. Greek comedy is the name given to a wide genre of theatrical plays written, and performed, in Ancient Greece. ... Linguists use the term Aeolic to describe a set of rather archaic Greek sub-dialects, spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece), in Lesbos (an island close to Asia Minor) and in other Greek colonies. ... Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ...


Sappho was born into an aristocratic family, which is reflected in the sophistication of her language and the sometimes rarefied environments which her verses record. References to dances, festivals, religious rites, military fleets, parading armies, generals, and ladies of the ancient courts abound in her writings. She speaks of time spent in Lydia, one of the wealthiest and most powerful countries of that time. More specifically, Sappho speaks of her friends and happy times among the ladies of Sardis, capital of Lydia, once the home of Croesus and near the gold-rich lands of King Midas. Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... Midas was a character in Greek mythology, who is most recognized for his ability to turn anything he touched into gold. ...

Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881)
Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881)

A violent coup on Lesbos, following a rebellion led by Pittacus, toppled the ruling families from power. For many years, Sappho and other members of the aristocracy, including fellow poet Alcaeus, were exiled. Her poetry speaks bitterly of the mistreatment she suffered during those years. Much of her exile was spent in Syracuse on the island of Sicily. Upon hearing that the famous Sappho would be coming to their city, the people of Syracuse built a statue of her as a form of welcome. Much later, in 581 BC, when Pittacus was no longer in power, she was able to return to her homeland. A tradition going back at least to Menander (fr. 258 K) suggested that Sappho killed herself by jumping off the Leucadian cliffs for love of Phaon, a ferryman. Some 20th-century scholars have suggested that this legend of Sappho's leap from the cliff over the love for a man may have resulted in part from a desire to assert herself as heterosexual.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 479 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 958 pixel, file size: 539 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1881 Lawrence Alma-Tadema - Sappho and Alcaeus oil on canvas. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 479 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 958 pixel, file size: 539 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1881 Lawrence Alma-Tadema - Sappho and Alcaeus oil on canvas. ... Alcaeus (Alkaios) of Mitylene (ca. ... Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, OM, RA (January 8, 1836, Dronrijp, the Netherlands. ... Pittacus was the son of Hyrradius, and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. ... Alcaeus (Alkaios) of Mitylene (ca. ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Pittacus was the son of Hyrradius, and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. ... Bust of Menander Menander (342–291 BC) (Greek ), Greek dramatist, the chief representative of the New Comedy, was born in Athens. ... There are two literary characters by this name. ... Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ...


Sappho's poetry centers around passion and love for various personages and genders. The word "lesbian" derives from the name of the island of her birth, Lesbos; her name is also the origin of its less common synonym sapphic. The narrators of many of her poems speak of infatuations and love (sometimes requited, sometimes not) for various women, but descriptions of physical acts between women are few and subject to debate. Whether these poems are meant to be autobiographical is not known, although elements of other parts of Sappho's life do make appearances in her work, and it would be compatible with her style to have these intimate encounters expressed poetically, as well. Her homoerotica should be placed in the seventh century (BC) context. The poems of Alcaeus and later Pindar record similar romantic bonds between the members of a given circle.[4] This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... Homoeroticism refers to same-sex love and desire, most especially as it is depicted or manifested in the visual arts and literature. ... Alcaeus (Alkaios) of Mitylene (ca. ... For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ...


Sappho's contemporary Alcaeus described her thus: "Violet-haired, pure, honey-smiling Sappho" (ἰόπλοκ᾽ ἄγνα μελλιχόμειδε Σάπφοι, fr. 384). The 3rd Century philosopher Maximus of Tyre wrote that Sappho was "small and dark" and that her relationships to her female friends were similar to those of Socrates: Alcaeus may refer to several ancient Greek figures: in mythology, Alcaeus was the son of Perseus and the father of Amphitryon. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Cassius Maximus Tyrius (Maximus of Tyre), a Greek rhetorician and philosopher who flourished in the time of the Antonines and Commodus (2nd century A.D). ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ...

What else was the love of the Lesbian woman except Socrates' art of love? For they seem to me to have practised love each in their own way, she that of women, he that of men. For they say that both loved many and were captivated by all things beautiful. What Alcibiades and Charmides and Phaedrus were to him, Gyrinna and Atthis and Anactoria were to the Lesbian.

During the Victorian era, it became the fashion to describe Sappho as the headmistress of a girls' finishing school. As Page DuBois (among many other experts) points out, this attempt at making Sappho understandable and palatable to the genteel classes of Great Britain was based more on conservative sensibilities than evidence. In fact, many argue there are no references to teaching, students, academies, or tutors in any of Sappho's admittedly scant collection of surviving works. Burnett follows others, like C.M. Bowra, in suggesting that Sappho's circle was somewhat akin to the Spartan agelai or the religious sacred band, the thiasos, but Burnett nuances her argument by noting that Sappho's circle was distinct from these contemporary examples because "membership in the circle seems to have been voluntary, irregular and to some degree international."[5] The notion that Sappho was in charge of some sort of academy persists nonetheless. Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... The Charmides is a dialogue of Plato, discussing the nature and utility of temperance. ... Phaedrus, ¹ (15 B.C. – AD 50), Roman fabulist, was by birth a Macedonian and lived in the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. ... In Greek mythology, Cranaus was the second King of Athens, succeeding Cecrops I. He was autochthonous (born from the earth), like his predecessor. ... Historically, a lover of Sappho. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


Works

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Meters and genres

Ancient sources state that Sappho produced nine volumes of poetry.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

The surviving poetry

The surviving proportion of the nine-volume corpus of poetry read in antiquity is small but still constitutes a poetic corpus of major importance. There is a single complete poem, Fragment 1, Hymn to Aphrodite.[6] There is another modern translation of that ode, and translations of two more virtually-complete poems (16 and 31 in the standard numeration) and three shorter fragments, including one whose authorship is uncertain (168b).[7][8] The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ...


Recent discoveries

Sappho's recently discovered poem on old age (lines 9-20). 3rd cent. B.C. papyrus, from an exhibit of the Altes Museum
Sappho's recently discovered poem on old age (lines 9-20). 3rd cent. B.C. papyrus, from an exhibit of the Altes Museum

The most recent addition to the corpus is a virtually-complete poem on old age. The line-ends were first published in 1922 from an Oxyrhynchus papyrus, no. 1787 (fragment 1: see the third pair of images on this page), but little could be made of them, since the indications of poem-end (placed at the beginnings of the lines) were lost, and scholars could only guess where one poem ended and another began. Most of the rest of the poem has recently (2004) been published from a 3rd century BC papyrus in the Cologne University collection. The latest reconstruction, by M. L. West, appeared in the Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 151 (2005), 1-9, and in the Times Literary Supplement on 21 June 2005 (English translation and discussion). Another full literary translation is available.[9] The Greek text has been reproduced with helpful notes for students of the language,[10] together with other examples of Greek lyric poetry. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 592 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,608 × 1,628 pixels, file size: 865 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) {{Information |Description= Saphhos poem An Old Age (lines 9-20). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 592 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,608 × 1,628 pixels, file size: 865 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) {{Information |Description= Saphhos poem An Old Age (lines 9-20). ... Berlin, Old Museum, June 2003 The Altes Museum or Old Museum (until 1845 Royal Museum) located on Berlins Museum Island was built between 1825 and 1828 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian Royal familys art collection. ... Oxyrhynchus (Greek: Οξύρυγχος; sharp-nosed; ancient Egyptian Per-Medjed; modern Egyptian Arabic el-Bahnasa) is an archaeological site in Egypt, considered one of the most important ever discovered. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... The University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln) is one of the oldest Universities in Europe and, with over 43,000 students, is one of the largest institutions of higher education in Germany. ... Martin Litchfield West (b. ... The Times Literary Supplement (or TLS) is a weekly literary review published in London by News International, a subsidiary of News Corporation. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A major new literary discovery, the Milan Papyrus,[11] recovered from a dismantled mummy casing and published in 2001, has revealed the high esteem in which the poet Posidippus of Pella, an important composer of epigrams (3rd century BC), held Sappho's 'divine songs'. An English translation of the new epigrams, with notes, is available,[12] as is the original Greek text.[13] The Milan Papyrus is a papyrus scroll written in the 3rd century BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... Posidippus (also transliterated Poseidippos) was a Hellenistic Greek epigrammatic poet (c. ... An epigram is a short poem with a clever twist at the end or a concise and witty statement. ...


Legacy

Loss and preservation of Sappho's works

Although Sappho's work endured well into Roman times, with changing interests, styles, and aesthetics her work was copied less and less, especially after the academies stopped requiring her study. Part of the reason for her disappearance from the standard canon was the predominance of Attic and Homeric Greek as the languages required to be studied. Sappho's Aeolic dialect, a difficult one, and by Roman times, arcane and ancient as well, posed considerable obstacles to her continued popularity. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 373 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (631 × 1013 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sappho History of feminism Manchester Art... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 373 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (631 × 1013 pixel, file size: 83 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sappho History of feminism Manchester Art... Sappho, by Charles Mengin (1877) Manchester Art Gallery, UK Charles August Mengin, (1853 - 3rd April 1933, Paris) French painter of the Academic art movement. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Occupying three buildings, including what was originally the Royal Manchester Institution designed by Sir Charles Barry in 1824, the Manchester Art Gallery houses the civic art collection of Manchester, England. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ...


Once the major academies of the Byzantine Empire dropped her works from their standard curricula, very few copies of her works were made by scribes. Still, the greatest poets and thinkers of ancient Rome continued to emulate her or compare other writers to her, and it is through these comparisons and descriptions that we have received much of her extant poetry. Byzantine redirects here. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Modern legends, with origins that are difficult to trace, have made Sappho's literary legacy the victim of purposeful obliteration by scandalized church leaders, often by means of book-burning. There is no known historical evidence for these accounts. Indeed, Gregory of Nazianzus, who along with Pope Gregory VII features as the villain in many of these stories, was a reader and admirer of Sappho's poetry. For example, modern scholars have noted the echoes of Sappho fr. 2 in his poem On Human Nature, which copies from Sappho the quasi-sacred grove (alsos), the wind-shaken branches, and the striking word for "deep sleep" (kōma).[14] Book burning is the practice of ceremoniously destroying by fire one or more copies of a book or other written material. ... Saint Gregory of Nazianzus (329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... Pope Gregory VII (c. ...


It appears likely that Sappho's poetry was largely lost through action of the same forces of cultural change that obliterated, without prejudice, the remains of all the canonical archaic Greek poets. Indeed, as one would expect from ancient critical estimations, which regard Sappho and Pindar as the greatest practitioners of monodic lyric and choral poetry (respectively), more of Sappho's work has survived through quotation than any of the others, with the exception of Pindar (whose works alone survive in a manuscript tradition). The nine lyric poets (nine melic poets) were a canon of archaic Greek composers esteemed by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria as worthy of critical study. ... For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ...


Sources of the surviving fragments

Although the manuscript tradition broke off, some of Sappho's poetry has been discovered in Egyptian papyri fragments from an earlier period, such as those found in the ancient rubbish heaps of Oxyrhynchus, where a major find brought many new but tattered verses to light, providing a major new source.[15] One substantial fragment is preserved on a potsherd. The rest of what we know of Sappho comes through citations in other ancient writers, often made to illustrate grammar, vocabulary, or meter. A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Blank papyrus. ... Oxyrhynchus (Greek: Οξύρυγχος; sharp-nosed; ancient Egyptian Per-Medjed; modern Egyptian Arabic el-Bahnasa) is an archaeological site in Egypt, considered one of the most important ever discovered. ... In archaeology, a sherd is a fragment of pottery or other ceramic. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ...


Reputation in antiquity

In antiquity, Sappho was commonly regarded as the greatest, or one of the greatest, of lyric poets. An epigram in the Anthologia Palatina (9.506) ascribed to Plato states: An epigram is a short poem with a clever twist at the end or a concise and witty statement. ... Greek Anthology (also Anthologia Graeca) is a collection of poems, mostly epigrams, that span the Ancient and Byzantine periods of Greek Literature. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...

Some say the Muses are nine: how careless!
Look, there's Sappho too, from Lesbos, the tenth.

Claudius Aelianus wrote in Miscellany (Ποικίλη ἱστορία) that Plato called Sappho wise. A story is recounted in the Florilegium (3.29.58) of Stobaeus: In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think[1]) are a number of goddesses or spirits who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music and dance. ... Claudius Aelianus (c. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Joannes Stobaeus, so called from his native place Stobi in Macedonia, was the compiler of a valuable series of extracts from Greek authors. ...

Solon of Athens heard his nephew sing a song of Sappho's over the wine and, since he liked the song so much, he asked the boy to teach it to him. When someone asked him why, he said, "So that I may learn it, then die." For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ...

A few centuries later, Horace wrote in his Odes that Sappho's lyrics are worthy of sacred admiration. One of Sappho's poems was famously translated by the 1st century BC Roman poet Catullus in his "Ille mi par esse deo videtur" (Catullus 51). Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... Carminum Liber primus, secundus et tertius (also known as Odes I, II and III) was a collection of poems published in 23BC by Horace. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Fresco from Herculaneum, presumably showing a love couple. ... Catullus 51 is a poem written by Gaius Valerius Catullus. ...


Modern translations

From the time of the European Renaissance, the interest in Sappho's writing has grown, seeing waves of fairly widespread popularity as new generations rediscover her work. Since few people are able to understand ancient languages, each age has translated Sappho in its own idiomatic way. Poetry, such as Sappho's, that relies on meter is difficult to reproduce in English which uses stress-based meters and rhyme compared to Ancient Greek's solely length-based meters. As a result, many early translators used rhyme and worked Sappho's ideas into English poetic forms. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar terminal sounds in two or more different words (i. ...


In the 1960s, Mary Barnard reintroduced Sappho to the reading public with a new approach to translation that eschewed the use of rhyming stanzas or forms of poetry, such as the sonnet. Subsequent translators have tended to work in a similar manner, seeking to allow the essence of Sappho's spirit to be visible through the translated verses. Mary Barnard (1909-2001) is known for her clear translations of the works of Sappho. ... In poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger poem. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ...


References in modern literature

Lord Byron wrote the following lines about her in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Stanza XXXIX: Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Childe Harolds Pilgrimage by J.M.W. Turner, 1823. ...

And onward viewed the mount, not yet forgot,
The lover's refuge and the Lesbian's grave.
Dark Sappho! could not verse immortal save
That breast imbued with such immortal fire?

Charles Baudelaire writes about Sappho in Les Fleurs du mal. “Baudelaire” redirects here. ... Les Fleurs du Mal (literal trans. ...


Ezra Pound admired Sappho's work and wrote "'Ιμερρω" (Poetry, September 1916) to Atthis, the subject of many of Sappho's poems. Ezra Pound in 1913. ...


Comedy Central actor Jade Esteban Estrada portrays Sappho in the solo musical ICONS: The Lesbian and Gay History of the World, Vol. 1. Comedy Central is an American cable television and satellite television channel in the United States. ... Jade Esteban Estrada (born September 17, 1975 at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas) is a successful Latin pop singer, comedian, choreographer and actor. ...


The Greek poet Odysseas Elytis (20th century AD from Lesbos) admired her in one of his Mikra Epsilon: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Such a being, both sensitive and courageous, is not often presented by life. A small-built deep-dark-skinned girl, that did prove to be equally capable of subjugating a rose-flower, interpreting a wave or a nightingale, and saying 'I love you', to fill the globe with emotion.

Lawrence Durrell wrote a play in verse titled Sappho, set in 7th Century BC Lesbos. Lawrence George Durrell (February 27, 1912 – November 7, 1990) was a British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer, though he resisted affiliation with Britain and preferred to be considered cosmopolitan. ...


Algernon Swinburne wrote a poem concerning Sappho, Sapphics, and another, Anactoria, concerning her and her lover Anactoria, which makes Sappho into a rather hyperbolic sadomasochist. The Sapphic stanza is a poetic form occasionally imitated by modern writers, including Swinburne's Sapphics. Algernon Swinburne, Portrait by Rossetti Algernon Charles Swinburne (April 5, 1837 – April 10, 1909) was a Victorian era English poet. ... Ancient Greek bust of Sappho the Eresian. ... Historically, a lover of Sappho. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... The Sapphic stanza is a poetic form spanning 4 lines. ... In literature, meter or metre (sometimes known as prosody) is a term used in the scansion (analysis into metrical patterns) of poetry, usually indicated by the kind of feet and the number of them. ...


Sappho is the name of the lesbian sister of protagonist Van Albert in L. E. Modesitt, Jr.'s The Ethos Effect. L. E. (Leland Exton) Modesitt, Jr was born in 1943 in Denver, Colorado. ... The Ethos Effect (2003) is a science fiction novel by L. E. Modesitt, Jr. ...


Christine de Pizan praised Sappho in Part I, Chapter 30 of The Book of the City of Ladies. Christine de Pizan instructing her son. ... Picture from The Book of the City of Ladies The Book of the City of Ladies (1405) was Christine de Pizans response to Giovanni Boccaccios De mulieribus claris (On Famous Women), as well being part of a larger intellectual discussion in that era centered on works such as...


The Italian composer Giovanni Pacini (1796-1867) composed an opera entitled Saffo for the San Carlo Theatre in Naples. It premiered on 29 November, 1840.


The French composer Charles Gounod's first opera entitled Sapho, was about the lyric poet. Charles Gounod. ... Sapho is an opera in five acts by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Henri Cain and Arthur Bernède. ...


Christina Stead wrote a short story about Sappho which is included in her book The Salzburg Tales. Christina Stead (1902 - 1983) was an Australian novelist and short-story writer noted for her satirical wit and psychological penetration. ...


Nancy Freedman wrote a novelisation of Sappho's life entitled Sappho: The Tenth Muse, incorporating surviving fragments of her poetry into the story.


The Polish poet Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska wrote the poems The Roses for Sappho. Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska by Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz (Witkacy), 1924 Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska, née Kossak, (November 24, 1891, Kraków, Poland - July 9, 1945, Manchester, England) is known as the Polish Sappho and queen of lyrical poetry of Polands interwar period. ...


Sarah Waters refers to Sappho and Sapphists in her novel, Tipping the Velvet. Sarah Waters is a British novelist. ... Tipping the Velvet is a novel written by Sarah Waters and published by Virago. ...


Erica Jong wrote a novel about Sappho called Sappho's Leap. Erica Jong (née Mann, born March 26, 1942, in New York City, New York) is an American author and educator. ...


Sappho figures heavily in the later books of William Carlos Williams' Paterson (poem). William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... Paterson is a poem by influential modern American poet William Carlos Williams. ...


Notes

  1. ^ See, for example, J. Fairweather, "Fiction in the biographies of ancient writers," Ancient Society 5 (1974); Mary R. Lefkowitz, The lives of the Greek poets, Johns Hopkins UP, 1981.
  2. ^ Holt Parker, "Sappho Schoolmistress" (orig. pub. Transactions of the American Philological Association 123 (1993), pp. 309-51.
  3. ^ For example, in Reading Sappho: Contemporary Approaches, ed. Ellen Greene, University of California Press, 1996: Mary Lefkowitz, "Critical Stereotypes and the Poetry of Sappho," pp. 28f. (the story of Sappho's death represents her as "deprived because of her hugliness of male attention...which she craves"); Judith Hallett, "Sappho and Her Social Context: Sense and Sensuality," pp. 126f., while sounding a note of caution about careless assumptions of Sappho's homosexuality, discusses the story of Sappho's sexual conversion and death in the context of "disbelief and disapproval" regarding accounts of her homosexuality, which such legends may aim to disprove; Eva Stehle, "Sappho's Gaze: Fantasies of a Goddess and Young Man," p. 195 n. 10, considers that "The story probably developed in fourth-century comedy."
  4. ^ Anne Pippin Burnett, Three Archaic Poets: Archilochus, Alcaeus, Sappho, Harvard UP, 1983.
  5. ^ Burnett, op. cit., p. 210
  6. ^ Hymn to Aphrodite, translation, and notes
  7. ^ Fragment 168b
  8. ^ Main fragments and translations
  9. ^ A New Poem by Sappho (from archive.org).
  10. ^ AOIDOI.org: Epic, Archaic and Classical Greek Poetry. Retrieved on October 30, 2005.
  11. ^ Partial image: http://cds.colleges.org//lecture_files/posidippuscols3-562.jpg. Retrieved on October 30, 2005.
  12. ^ Translations and notes are available: Diotima. Retrieved on October 30, 2005.
  13. ^ The Greek text: Center for Hellenic Studies - Epigrams. Retrieved on October 30, 2005.
  14. ^ Quintino Cataudella, "Saffo fr. 5 (5) – 6 (5) Diehl," Atene e Roma ser. 3 vol. 8 (1940), pp. 199-201. Cf. D.L. Page, Sappho and Alcaeus, Oxford, 1955, p. 37.
  15. ^ An example from book 2 of the collected edition: Virtual Exhibition. Retrieved on October 30, 2005.

Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...

References

  • Greek Lyric 1: Sappho and Alcaeus, D. A. Campbell (ed.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., (1982) ISBN 0-674-99157-5 (Contains complete Greek text and English translation, including references to Sappho by ancient authors. A good starting-point for serious students who are new to this poetry.)
  • If Not, Winter: Fragments of Sappho by Anne Carson (Translator) Knopf (2002) ISBN 0-375-41067-8; also Virago Press Ltd, UK, ISBN 1-84408-081-1 (A modern bilingual edition for general readers as well as students of ancient Greek languages; N.Y. Times review)
  • Poetarum Lesbiorum fragmenta, E. Lobel, D. L. Page (eds.), Oxford, Clarendon Press, (1955).
  • Sappho: 100 Lyrics by Bliss Carman (1907). Public domain text available from Project Gutenberg [1]
  • Sappho: A New Translation by Mary Barnard, University of California Press; Reissue edition (June 1986) ISBN 0-520-22312-8
  • Sappho and the Greek Lyric Poets translated by Willis Barnstone, Schoken Books Inc., New York (paperback 1988) ISBN 0-8052-0831-3 (A collection of modern English translations suitable for a general audience, includes complete poems and fragments along with a brief history of each of the featured poets.)
  • Sappho Is Burning by Page DuBois, University of Chicago Press (1995) ISBN 0-226-16755-0
  • Sappho's Immortal Daughters by Margaret Williamson, Harvard University Press (1995) ISBN 0-674-78912-1
  • Sappho's Lyre: Archaic Lyric and Women Poets of Ancient Greece Translated by Diane Rayor, University of California Press (1991) ISBN 0-520-07336-3 (cloth); ISBN 0-520-07336-3 (paper)

Bliss Carman , FRSC Bliss Carman, FRSC (April 15, 1861 - June 8, 1929) was a preeminent Canadian poet. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ...

External links

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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Joe Dolce Joe Dolce (, originally pronounced ; born 1947 in Painesville, Ohio) is an American-born, Australian-resident singer/songwriter who achieved fame with the song Shaddap You Face, recorded under his vehicle, the group named Joe Dolce Music Theatre. ...

Nine Lyric Poets | Ancient Greek Literature
Alcman | Sappho | Alcaeus | Anacreon | Stesichorus | Ibycus | Simonides | Pindar | Bacchylides

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sappho - LoveToKnow 1911 (520 words)
SAPPHO (7th-6th centuries B.C.), Greek poetess, was a native of Lesbos, contemporary with Alcaeus, Stesichorus and Pittacus, in fact, with the culminating period of Aeolic poetry.
Sappho wrote an ode, in which she severely satirized and rebuked him.
Six comedies entitled Sappho and two Phaon, were produced by the Middle Comedy; but, when we consider, for example, the way in which Socrates was caricatured by Aristophanes, we are justified in putting no faith whatever in such authority.
Isle of Lesbos: Poetry of Sappho (1317 words)
Sappho was called a lyrist because, as was the custom of the time, she wrote her poems to be performed with the accompaniment of a lyre.
Sappho composed her own music and refined the prevailing lyric meter to a point that it is now known as sapphic meter.
That Sappho's poetry was not condemned in her time for its homoerotic content (though it was disparaged by scholars in later centuries) suggests that perhaps love between women was not persecuted then as it has been in more recent times.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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