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Encyclopedia > Saponin

Saponins are the glycosides of 27 carbon atom steroids, or 30 carbon atom triterpenes. They are found in various parts of the plant: leaves, stems, roots, bulbs,blossom,and fruit.. Saponins dissolve in water to form a stable soapy froth; this is thought to be due to their amphiphilic nature. The word sapon means 'soap', referring to the permanent froth saponins make on being mixed with water. They are also characterized by their bitter taste, and their ability to hemolyze red blood cells. Soapwort, Saponaria officinalis also called "Bouncing Bet" in the carnation family is the quintessential saponin-producing plant. The plant contains mildly poisonous saponins, as reflected in the genus name from the Latin sapo, meaning soap. A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ... This article is about the chemical family of steroids. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ... An amphipathic (a. ... This article is about medical aspects of hemolysis. ... Binomial name Saponaria officinalis L. Soapwort (Saponaria officinalis) is a vespertine flower, and a common perennial plant from the carnation family (Caryophyllaceae). ... Binomial name L. The carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is a flowering plant native to the Near East and has been cultivated for the last 2,000 years. ...


The botanical family Sapindaceae with its defining member, the genus Sapindus (soapberry) or (soapnut), includes 2000 species in 150 genera; and now including new family members, Aceraceae (maples) and Hippocastanaceae (horse chestnuts). genera See text Sapindaceae, also known as the soapberry family, is a family of plants in the order Sapindales. ... Species See text Sapindus is a genus of about five to twelve species of shrubs and small trees in the Sapindaceae, native to warm temperate to tropical regions in both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. ... Species See text Sapindus is a genus of about 5-12 species of shrubs and small trees in the Sapindaceae, native to warm temperate to tropical regions in both the Old World and the New World. ... Type Genus Acer L. Genera   AcerL. - Maple   DipteroniaOliver The Aceraceae (Maple family) comprises between 120-150 species of trees and shrubs. ... Genera Aesculus Billia Handeliodendron The Hippocastanaceae is a small family, with the most widespread genus Aesculus (the horsechestnuts), which today is taken to include Pavia (the buckeyes). ...


Removal of the sugar moiety (hexoses, pentoses, and saccharic acids) from a saponin by complete hydrolysis, yields the aglycone, sapogenin. Diosgenin from the Mexican wild yam when subjected to the Marker degradation yields the synthetic hormone progesterone, the basis for combined oral contraceptive pill or simply "the pill." It was also the starting material for a cheap and plentiful supply of cortisone. This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... In chemistry, glycosides are certain molecules in which a sugar part is bound to some other part. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Binomial name Dioscorea villosa This is a species that is found wild in the United States. ... The Marker degradation is a synthetic route developed by Russell Earl Marker for the production of progesterone from a comparatively cheaply available Mexican yam. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ... The Pill redirects here. ... Cortisone (IPA:ˈkôrtəˌsōn) is a steroid hormone. ...


Saponins are highly toxic to cold-blooded animals, due to their ability to lower surface tension. Saponin as the sapogenin aglycone have also been identified in the animal kingdom in snake venom, starfish, and sea cucumber. In chemistry, glycosides are certain molecules in which a sugar part is bound to some other part. ...


Saponins are believed to be useful in the human diet for controlling cholesterol, but some (including those produced by the soapberry) are poisonous if swallowed and can cause urticaria (skin rash) in many people. Any markedly toxic saponin is known as a sapotoxin. Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... Saponins are glycosides of steroids, steroid alkaloids (steroids with a nitrogen function) or triterpenes found in plants, especially in the plant skins where they form a waxy protective coating. ...


Saponins have been identified in:

and many other plants used in medicine or as food items. Species See Species For other uses, see Aloe (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Speg. ... For other uses, see Amaranth (disambiguation). ... For the botanical genus, see Asparagus (genus). ... Stellaria Categories: Plant stubs | Caryophyllales ... Binomial name Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell Water Hyssop (Bacopa monnieri) is a perennial, creeping herb, also known as brahmi (note. ... Species About 200-220, including: Chlorophytum amaniense Chlorophytum arundinaceum Chlorophytum bichetii Chlorophytum borivilianum Chlorophytum capense Chlorophytum comosum Chlorophytum heynei Chlorophytum hoffmannii Chlorophytum inornatum Chlorophytum macrophyllum Chlorophytum nepalense Chlorophytum orchidastrum Chlorophytum is a genus of about 200-220 species of evergreen perennial flowering plants in the Agavaceae, native to the tropical... Species Chlorogalums angustifolium Chlorogalum grandiflorum Chlorogalum parviflorum Chlorogalum pomeridianum Chlorogalum purpureum The Soap Plants, Soaproots or Amoles are the genus Chlorogalum of flowering plants. ... Binomial name Aesculus hippocastanum L. The Common Horse-chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is a large deciduous tree, native to a small area in the mountains of the Balkans in southeast Europe, mainly in Albania, but also locally in northeastern Bulgaria (Preslavska Mountains), northern Greece and Macedonia. ... Genera Abobra Acanthosicyos Actinostemma Alsomitra Ampelosycios Anacaona Apatzingania Apodanthera Bambekea Benincasa Biswarea Bolbostemma Brandegea Bryonia Calycophysum Cayaponia Cephalopentandra Ceratosanthes Chalema Cionosicyos Citrullus Coccinia Cogniauxia Corallocarpus Cremastopus Ctenolepis Cucumella Cucumeropsis Cucumis Cucurbita Cucurbitella Cyclanthera Dactyliandra Dendrosicyos Dicoelospermum Dieterlea Diplocyclos Doyerea Ecballium Echinocystis Echinopepon Edgaria Elateriopsis Eureiandra Fevillea Gerrardanthus Gomphogyne Gurania Guraniopsis... Species About 20 species, including: Digitalis cariensis Digitalis ciliata Digitalis davisiana Digitalis dubia Digitalis ferruginea Digitalis grandiflora Digitalis laevigata Digitalis lanata Digitalis leucophaea Digitalis lutea Digitalis obscura Digitalis parviflora Digitalis purpurea Digitalis thapsi Digitalis trojana Digitalis viridiflora Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Binomial name Rupr. ... Binomial name Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) belongs to the family Fabaceae. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell Water Hyssop (Bacopa monnieri) is a perennial, creeping herb, also known as brahmi (note. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... Gypsophila is a genus of hardy annual and perennial plants (family Caryophyllaceae). ... Binomial name Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb. ... Binomial name L. Liquorice or licorice (see spelling differences) (IPA: , or ) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. ... Species L. - Moth mullein - Denseflower mullein L. - White mullein L. - Black mullein L. - Orange mullein L. - Purple mullein L. - Wavyleaf mullein Schrad. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Species Panax ginseng - Chinese Ginseng Panax japonicus - Japanese Ginseng Panax pseudoginseng - Himalayan Ginseng Panax quinquefolius - American Ginseng Panax trifolius - Dwarf Ginseng Panax vietnamensis - Vietnamese Ginseng Ginseng (Panax) is a genus of about five or six species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, in the family Araliaceae. ... Ginsenosides are a class of steroid-like compounds, triterpene saponins, found exclusively in the plant genus Panax (ginseng). ... Quillaia is the milled inner bark or small stems and branches of the soapbark Quillaja saponaria Molina (family Rosaceae). ... Global distribution of Rosaceae Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ... Binomial name Willd. ... American Pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, is a large, shrubby perennial native to Eastern North America. ... Binomial name Nephelium lappaceum L. The Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) is a medium-sized tropical tree in the family Sapindaceae, native to southeast Asia, and the fruit of this tree. ... Species See text Sapindus is a genus of about five to twelve species of shrubs and small trees in the Sapindaceae, native to warm temperate to tropical regions in both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. ... genera See text Sapindaceae, also known as the soapberry family, is a family of plants in the order Sapindales. ... Species Aesculus arguta: Texas Buckeye Aesculus californica: California Buckeye Aesculus chinensis: Chinese Horse-chestnut Aesculus flava (): Yellow Buckeye Aesculus glabra: Ohio Buckeye Aesculus hippocastanum: Common Horse-chestnut Aesculus indica: Indian Horse-chestnut Aesculus neglecta: Dwarf Buckeye Aesculus parviflora: Bottlebrush Buckeye Aesculus pavia: Red Buckeye Aesculus sylvatica: Painted Buckeye Aesculus turbinata... Species About 20 species, including: Saponaria bellidifolia Saponaria caespitosa Saponaria calabrica Saponaria lutea Saponaria ocymoides Saponaria officinalis Saponaria pumilio Saponaria sicula Saponaria, also known as soapwort, is a genus of about 20 species of perennial herbs in the Caryophyllaceae, native to southern Europe and southwest Asia. ... Binomial name Allium oschaninii O. Fedtsch For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Tribulus terrestris is a flowering plant in the family Zygophyllaceae, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World in southern Europe, southern Asia, throughout Africa, and in northern Australia. ... Binomial name Dioscorea villosa This is a species that is found wild in the United States. ... Species many, see text The yuccas comprise the genus Yucca of 40-50 species of perennials, shrubs, and trees in the agave family Agavaceae, notable for their rosettes of evergreen, tough, sword-shaped leaves and large terminal clusters of white or whitish flowers. ...


In particular the saponins from Quillaia saponaria are used in veterinary vaccines as adjuvant (e.g., foot-and-mouth disease vaccines, helping to enhance the immune response). Initially the crude fraction was used. Later on a purified mixture, called Quil A was developed by Dalsgaard which was more effective and caused less local side reactions. Still Quil A is a mixture of more than 25 different saponin molecules. One of them, the saponin QS21, is being investigated for possible beneficial adjuvant effects on the human immune system. Quillaia is the milled inner bark or small stems and branches of the soapbark Quillaja saponaria Molina (family Rosaceae). ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical diagnostic and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... A bottle and a syringe containing the influenza vaccine. ... In medicine, adjuvants are agents which modify the effect of other agents while having few if any direct effects when given by themselves. ... Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ... QS21 is a plant extract that may improve the ability of the immune system to respond to disease. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ...


Saponins are also mild detergents and are used commercially as well as for research. They are used in the British Museum as a mild detergent to gently clean ancient manuscripts. In laboratory studies saponins can be used at 0.04%-0.2% to permeabilize ("make holes in") the plasma membrane as well as the membranes of internal organelles such as ER and Golgi but does not penetrate the nuclear membrane. Therefore it is used in intracellular histochemistry staining to allow antibody access to intracellular proteins. A detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... The British Museum in London, England is a museum of human history and culture. ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the cell membrane (or plasma membrane) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell. ... In cell biology, an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. ...


Because of its reversible nature on cells and its ability to permeabilize cells without destroying cell morphology, it is used in laboratory applications to treat live cells in order to facilitate peptide or reagents such as antibodies to enter cells instead of the harsher detergent triton X-100. It is also done on whole cell preparations such as cell smears and cytospins where the cell membrane is intact. It can also be done on frozen sections but is not used on fixed tissue sections. To preserve the permeabilizing effect, saponin has to be used in all processes involved in the staining steps or otherwise removed after reagent of interest has reached the cell. Triton X-100 is a nonionic detergent which has a hydrophilic polyethylene oxide group (on average it has 9. ...


Medicinal uses:

Hypercholestrolaemia, Hyperglycaemia, Antioxidant, Anti-cancer, Anti-inflammatory, Weight loss, Gentle blood cleanser Hyperglycemia or High Blood Sugar is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ...


References

  1. ^ PlantaMed (Portuguese)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Saponins : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., saponin health benefits (1018 words)
Saponins are complex compounds that are composed of a saccharide attached to a steroid or triterpene.
The new saponins were found to possess antispasmodic activity in the guinea pig isolated ileum; such an effect might contribute to explaining the traditional use of onion in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.
During soaking and blanching, portions of saponins are dissolved in water and lost in the soaking, washing, and blanching liquors.
Archive Old Mail Automatically using Outlook AutoArchive (187 words)
Sapindus mukorossi is known and treasured not so much for its beautiful yellow autumn foliage as for its nuts — its nut's shells to be more precise.
In combination with water, ritha nutshells set free lots of saponin, the washing agent that gave soap its name and is also (to a lesser degree) found in many other plants.
Even Outlook has its own kind of saponin:
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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