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Encyclopedia > Saponification
Saponification of a lipid with potassium hydroxide.
Saponification of a lipid with potassium hydroxide.
Simplified diagram of the saponification process

Saponification is the hydrolysis of an ester under basic conditions to form an alcohol and the salt of a carboxylic acid. Saponification is commonly used to refer to the reaction of a metallic alkali (base) with a fat or oil to form soap. Saponifiable substances are those that can be converted into soap. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A polyunsaturated triglyceride. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound reacts with water. ... A carboxylic acid ester. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit In chemistry, a base is... Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated... It has been suggested that Handmade soap be merged into this article or section. ...

CH2-OOC-R - CH-OOC-R - CH2-OOC-R (fat) + 3 NaOH ( or KOH)

both heated → Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye or caustic soda or sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ...

CH2-OH -CH-OH - CH2-OH (glycerol) + 3 R-CO2-Na (soap)
where R=(CH2)14CH3 in the example (right)

Lye is a form of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which is a caustic base. If NaOH is used a hard soap is formed, whereas a soft soap is formed when potassium hydroxide (KOH) is used. Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye or caustic soda or sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Causticity is, in chemistry, the property of a substance that causes corrosion, the deterioration of a material. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ...


Vegetable oils and animal fats are fatty esters in the form of triglycerides. The alkali breaks the ester bond and releases the fatty acid and glycerol. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Example of an unsaturated fat triglyceride. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Glycerol is a chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH. This colorless, odorless, viscous liquid is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. ...


If necessary, soaps may be precipitated by salting it out with saturated sodium chloride. Salting out is a method of separating proteins based on the principle that proteins are less soluble at high salt concentrations. ... In chemistry, saturation has four different meanings: In physical chemistry, saturation is the point at which a solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of that substance will appear as a precipitate. ... Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ...

Contents

Saponification in corpses

Saponification can also refer to the other soft tissue in a conversion of fat and corpse into adipocere, often called "grave wax." This process is more common where the amount of fatty tissue is high, the agents of decomposition are absent or only minutely present, and the burial ground is particularly alkali For other uses, see Body (disambiguation). ... Adipocere or grave wax or mortuary wax is the insoluble fatty acids left as residue from pre-existing fats from decomposing material such as a human cadaver. ... It has been suggested that Subcutaneous fat be merged into this article or section. ... “Spoilage” redirects here. ...


Saponification in fire extinguishers

Fires involving cooking fats and oils should be extinguished with a wet chemical extinguisher. Extinguishers of this type are designed to extinguish cooking fats and oils through saponification. The extinguishing agent rapidly converts the burning substance to a non-combustible soap. This process is endothermic, meaning it absorbs energy (in this case, thermal energy) from its surroundings, eliminating the fire and decreasing the temperature. Cooking oil is purified fat of plant or animal origin, which is liquid at room temperature. ... Fire extinguisher A fire extinguisher is a device used to put out a fire, often in an emergency situation. ... In thermodynamics, the word endothermic describes a process or reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat. ... 1. ...


See also

Saponification value (or saponification number, also referred to as sap in short) represents the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide required to saponify 1g of fat under the conditions specified. ... Soapmaking is the process of creating soap from raw ingredients such as fats, oils and lye. ... Unsaponifiables are components of an oil, fat, wax, etc. ... St. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Cold Process for Soap Making (1178 words)
Saponification is a chemical process which converts a fat into a soap by reaction with an alkali (lye).
The amounts of the fats, along with their saponification values, are inserted into a mathematical formula that will give the total amount of lye needed to saponify a batch of soap.
Once the saponification process has begun to take place, at trace (the point at which a line begins to form when stirring the mixture) the soap is poured into molds and allowed to solidify.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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