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Encyclopedia > Saparmurat Niyazov
Saparmyrat Ataýewiç Nyýazow


In office
January 13, 1990 (titled as chairman of the Supreme Soviet until October 27, 1990) – December 21, 2006
Preceded by Muhammetnazar Gapurow (as General Secretary)
Succeeded by Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow

Born February 19, 1940(1940-02-19)
Gypjak, Turkmen SSR, Soviet Union Flag of the Soviet Union
Died 21 December 2006 (aged 66)
Flag of Turkmenistan Turkmenistan
Political party Democratic Party of Turkmenistan
Spouse Muza Sokolova
Russian: Муза Соколова[1]

Saparmyrat Ataýewiç Nyýazow (February 19, 1940, Gypjak, Turkmen SSR, Soviet Union21 December 2006), also commonly known by the romanization Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov of the Russian spelling Сапармурат Атаевич Ниязов of his Turkmen name, served as the head of state of Turkmenistan from 1985 until his death in 2006. He served as the First Secretary of the Turkmen Communist Party from 1985 until 1991 and the first President of Turkmenistan from 1990 until his death. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x1960, 540 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Saparmurat Niyazov Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Turkmenistan local long form: none local short form: Turkmenistan former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic Data code: TX Government type: republic Capital: Ashgabat Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, Turkmenistan declared its independence on October 27, 1991. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Muhammetnazar Gapurowiç Gapurow (15 February 1922 – 13 July 1999) (sometimes referred to in the Western media by his Russianized name: Мухамедназар Гапурович Гапуров Mukhamednazar Gapurovich Gapurov) served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR from 1969 until 1985 when Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev replaced him with Saparmurat Niyazov... Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhammedow (Russianized name: Курбанкули (or Гурбангулы) Мяликгулыевич Бердымухаммедов[1], born 1957) has been the President of Turkmenistan since December 21, 2006, when he became acting president following the death of Saparmurat Niyazov. ... is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gypjak (also known as Kipchak) is a small village about 10 kilometers away from the Turkmen capital of AÅŸgabat. ... State motto: Turkmen: Әхли юртларың пролетарлары, бирлешиң! Ökhli yurtlaryn proletalary, birlishin Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Ashgabat Official language Turkmen and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until August 7, 1921 May 30, 1925 October 27, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 4th in the USSR 488,100 km² 4. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ... The Democratic Party of Turkmenistan is the only political party in Turkmenistan. ... is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gypjak (also known as Kipchak) is a small village about 10 kilometers away from the Turkmen capital of AÅŸgabat. ... State motto: Turkmen: Әхли юртларың пролетарлары, бирлешиң! Ökhli yurtlaryn proletalary, birlishin Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Ashgabat Official language Turkmen and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until August 7, 1921 May 30, 1925 October 27, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 4th in the USSR 488,100 km² 4. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Head of state or Chief of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchic or republican nation-state, federation, commonwealth or any other political state. ... The Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR was the ruling communist party of the Turkmen SSR, and a part of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Turkmenistan local long form: none local short form: Turkmenistan former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic Data code: TX Government type: republic Capital: Ashgabat Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, Turkmenistan declared its independence on October 27, 1991. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


Turkmen media referred to him using the title "His Excellency Saparmurat Niyazov Türkmenbaşy, President of Turkmenistan and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers". His title Türkmenbaşy, or Turkmenbashi (IPA: [tyrkmenbaʃɯ]), meaning Leader of Turkmens, referred to his position as the founder and president of the Association of Turkmens of the World.[2] His / Her Excellency is an honorific title given to certain high-ranking political officials. ... TürkmenbaÅŸy, or Turkmenbashi in westernized spelling, literally Head/Leader of all [ethnic] Turkmens, is: The self-proclaimed title of the president for life of the Republic of Turkmenistan, Saparmurat Niyazov, from 22 October 1993 until his death on 21 December 2006. ... IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ... The Association of Turkmens of the World, is the organization meant to bring together Turkmen people in Turkmentistan and other parts of the world. ...


Foreign media criticized him as one of the world's most authoritarian and repressive dictators, highlighting his reputation of imposing his personal eccentricities upon the country. He was also known for an all-pervasive cult of personality which, in many ways, rivaled that of Joseph Stalin. Global Witness, a London-based human rights organization, reported that money under Niyazov's control and held overseas may be in excess of US$3 billion, of which $2 billion is supposedly situated in the Foreign Exchange Reserve Fund at Deutsche Bank in Germany. The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... Dictator is originally the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... In popular usage, eccentricity refers to unusual or odd behavior on the part of an individual. ... A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a countrys leader uses mass media to create a larger-than-life public image through unquestioning flattery and praise. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Global Witness is an international NGO that highlights the links between natural resource exploitation, poverty, corruption, and human rights abuses worldwide. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... Deutsche Bank AG (ISIN: DE0005140008, NYSE: DB) (English: ) is a bank operating worldwide and employing more than 75,000 people (June, 2007). ...

Contents

Background

Turkmenistan

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Turkmenistan
Image File history File links Turkmenistan_coa. ... Politics of Turkmenistan take place in the framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Turkmenistan is both head of state and head of government. ...



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Niyazov's father died fighting against Nazi Germany in World War II. The other members of his family were killed in a massive earthquake that leveled Aşgabat in 1948. He grew up in a Soviet orphanage before the state put him in the custody of a distant relative. Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Turkmenistan local long form: none local short form: Turkmenistan former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic Data code: TX Government type: republic Capital: Ashgabat Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, Turkmenistan declared its independence on October 27, 1991. ... Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhammedow (Russianized name: Курбанкули (or Гурбангулы) Мяликгулыевич Бердымухаммедов[1], born 1957) has been the President of Turkmenistan since December 21, 2006, when he became acting president following the death of Saparmurat Niyazov. ... The Assembly (Mejlis) has 50 members, elected for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies. ... Next to the Assembly (Mejlis), the Peoples Council (Khalk Maslakhaty) is considered the ultimate representative body. ... It has been suggested that State Security Council of Turkmenistan be merged into this article or section. ... Turkmenistan is a single-party state. ... The Democratic Party of Turkmenistan is the only political party in Turkmenistan. ... Elections in Turkmenistan gives information on election and election results in Turkmenistan. ... Presidential elections were held in Turkmenistan on February 11, 2007, following the death of President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov on 21 December 2006. ... Turkmenistan is divided into 5 provinces or welayatlar (singular - welayat): Ahal (capital Ashgabat) Balkan (capital Nebitdag) Dashhowuz (formerly Tashauz, capital Dashhowuz) Lebap (capital Turkmenabat, formerly known as Charjew) Mary (capital Mary). ... Districts of Turkmenistan The provinces (velayets) of Turkmenistan are divided into districts (etraplar, sing. ... The human rights situation in Turkmenistan, an authoritarian state, remains extremely poor. ... Turkmenistans declaration of permanent neutrality was formally recognized by the United Nations in 1995. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: ‎, UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, and `Ishqábád, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


In 1962 Niyazov joined the Communist Party. He quickly rose through the ranks, becoming first secretary of the Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR in 1985. He gained this post after Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev removed his predecessor, Muhammetnazar Gapurow, following a cotton-related scandal. Under Niyazov, the Turkmen Communist Party was one of the most hardline and unreformed party organizations in the Soviet Union. On January 13, 1990; Niyazov became Chairman of the Supreme Soviet, the supreme legislative body in the republic. The post was equivalent to that of president. Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... The Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR was the ruling communist party of the Turkmen SSR, and a part of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Muhammetnazar Gapurowiç Gapurow (15 February 1922 – 13 July 1999) (sometimes referred to in the Western media by his Russianized name: Мухамедназар Гапурович Гапуров Mukhamednazar Gapurovich Gapurov) served as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR from 1969 until 1985 when Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev replaced him with Saparmurat Niyazov... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ...


Niyazov supported the Soviet coup attempt of 1991, but after it collapsed he fell into line and set about separating Turkmenistan from the dying Soviet Union. The Supreme Soviet declared Turkmenistan independent and elected Niyazov as the country's first president on October 27. On June 21, 1992; Niyazov was elected as the country's first popularly elected president; he was the only candidate. A year later, he declared himself "Türkmenbaşy," or "Leader of all Turkmens." During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 1994 a plebiscite extended Niyazov's term to 2002 (99.9% of voters voted in favor, a figure similar to Soviet-era elections) so he could oversee a 10-year development plan. On December 28, 1999, Parliament declared Niyazov President for Life; parliamentary elections had been held a few weeks earlier in which all candidates were hand-picked by the president. Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Niyazov and his Russian-Jewish wife, Muza, had a son and a daughter, Myrat and Irina, respectively. The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ...


Personality cult

I admit it, there are too many portraits, pictures and monuments. I don't find any pleasure in it, but the people demand it because of their mentality.
 
— Saparmurat Niyazov[3]

Niyazov ruled as an authoritarian leader, notorious in the Western world for the cult of personality he established around himself in Turkmenistan.[4] Niyazov, at the beginning of his rule, referred to Turkmenistan as a nation devoid of a national identity. He renamed the town of Krasnovodsk, on the Caspian Sea, Türkmenbaşy, in addition to renaming several schools, airports and even a meteorite after himself and his immediate family. He even renamed the months and days of the week after his family; January becoming Turkmenbashi.[5] Niyazov's portrait is on Manat banknotes and large portraits of the late President hang all over the country, especially on major public buildings and avenues. Statues of himself and his mother are located throughout Turkmenistan, including one in the Karakum Desert as well as a gold-plated statue atop Aşgabat's largest building, the Neutrality Arch. The statue rotates so that it will always face into the sun and shine light onto the capital city. Niyazov commissioned a palace in Aşgabat commemorating his rule. The government has given him the Hero of Turkmenistan award five times.[6] Niyazov said he opposed having his "pictures and statues in the streets, but it's what the people want."[7] Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a countrys leader uses mass media to create a larger-than-life public image through unquestioning flattery and praise. ... Türkmenbaşy is a city in Turkmenistan, part of the Balkan Welayaty, on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... TürkmenbaÅŸy is a city in Turkmenistan, part of the Balkan Province, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... On August 10, 2002 the government of Turkmenistan adopted a law to rename all the months and most of the days of week. ... The manat is the currency unit of Turkmenistan. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... The Karakum Desert, also spelled Kara-Kum and Gara Gum (“Black Sand”) (Turkmen: Garagum, Russian: Каракумы) is a desert in Central Asia. ... A pic of the arch. ...


Erika Dailey, a specialist for the Open Society Institute, said the education system under Niyazov indoctrinated and brainwashed young Turkmen through the Ruhnama, a national epic written by Niyazov. In 2004, he ordered the closure of all rural libraries on the grounds that he thought that village Turkmen do not read.[8] The Ruhnama, a mixture of revisionist history and moral guidelines, was intended as the "spiritual guidance of the nation" and the basis of the nation's arts and literature. The Open Society Institute (OSI) is a coordinating body, started in early 1994, of the national Soros Foundations, especially in Eastern Europe, which spends money donated by billionaire philanthropist George Soros. ... Indoctrination is instruction in the fundamentals of a system of belief (such as a philosophy, religion or science). ... Brainwash may refer to: Brainwashing, the application of coercive techniques to change the beliefs or behavior of one or more people, usually for political or religious purposes Brainwashed, the final studio album by George Harrison, released in 2002 Brainwashed, a not-for-profit online music publication that specializes in the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In Niyazov's home village of Gypjak, a complex has been built to the memory of his mother, including a mosque (est. at US$100 million, built by the French company Bouygues) conceived as a symbol of the rebirth of the Turkmen people. The walls of this edifice display precepts from the Ruhnama along with Qur'an suras. The Ruhnama was introduced to Turkmen culture in a gradual but eventually pervasive way. Gypjak (also known as Kipchak) is a small village about 10 kilometers away from the Turkmen capital of Aşgabat. ... Bouygues (Euronext: EN) is a French industrial group listed on Euronext Paris. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ...


Niyazov first placed copies in the nation's schools and libraries but eventually went as far as to make an exam on its teachings an element of the driving test.


In older pictures, Niyazov had white hair; at the time of his death, it was black.


Domestic policy

Economy

Turkmenistan has the second largest reserves in the gas-rich former Soviet Union, generating high revenue for the state. The government has used central planning, such as state control of production and procurement, direct bank credits with low interest rates, exchange rate restrictions, and price controls, since it existed as a Republic within the U.S.S.R.[9] This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ...


In 1991 Niyazov's government put forth a decree granting "the free use of water, gas and electricity by the people of Turkmenistan."[2] In reality, the population receives the lowest possible minimum wage and then the state distributes free water, gas and electricity.[9]


Culture

The Neutrality Arch, atop the monument is a gold-plated statue of Niyazov which rotates 360 degrees every 24 hours so as to always face the sun.
The Neutrality Arch, atop the monument is a gold-plated statue of Niyazov which rotates 360 degrees every 24 hours so as to always face the sun.

Niyazov put the revival of Turkmen culture as one of the top priorities in Turkmenistan's development. He introduced a new Turkmen alphabet based on the Latin alphabet to replace Cyrillic. The Turkmen language is the state language. All names of months in Turkmenistan were changed from Roman to Turkmen representing famous Turkmen heroes, poets and state leaders. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 67 KB) A golden statue of the president on the top of this tower turns as the sun is moving across the sky. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 67 KB) A golden statue of the president on the top of this tower turns as the sun is moving across the sky. ... A pic of the arch. ... The current official Turkmen alphabet as used in Turkmenistan is a modified Latin alphabet based on the Turkish alphabet, but with notable differences: J is used instead of the Turkish C; Ž is used instead of the Turkish J; Y is used instead of the dotless i (I/ı); Ý is used instead... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Security

After Uzbek President Islom Karimov unsuccessfully tried to have Niyazov assassinated on November 25, 2002, the Turkmen government arrested suspected conspirators and members of their families. Critics claim the government staged the attempt in order to crack down on mounting domestic and foreign political opposition.[10] List of Presidents of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov (1991 - present) Last election See also Politics of Uzbekistan Categories: | | ... Islom Abdug‘aniyevich Karimov (Russian: Ислам Абдуганиевич Каримов Islam Abduganiyevich Karimov) (born on 30 January 1938) has served as the President of Uzbekistan since 1991. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


The summer of 2004 saw a leaflet campaign in the capital, Aşgabat, calling for the overthrow and trial of Niyazov. The authorities were unable to stop the campaign and the President responded by firing his Interior Minister and director of the police academy on national television.[11] He accused the minister of incompetence and declared: "I cannot say that you had any great merits or did much to combat crime." AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: ‎, UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, and `Ishqábád, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... An overthrow or coup is a term referring to a change in government, whereby a leader or party is removed from power, often through the use of force. ... In legal parlance, a trial is an event in which parties to a dispute present information (in the form of evidence) in a formal setting, usually a court, before a judge, jury, or other designated finder of fact, in order to achieve a resolution to their dispute. ... The Interior Minister is a member of a Cabinet in a Government. ...


In May 2000, the government revoked all Internet licenses except for the state-owned Turkmen Telecom and in June 2001 shut down all Internet cafés.[12] 2000 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December This is a timeline for events in May, 2000. ...


By 2005 there were 36,000 Internet users, representing 0.7% of the population.[13]


Foreign policy

Niyazov promoted a policy of strict neutrality in foreign affairs, refraining from seeking membership in NATO or GUUAM and almost ignoring the CSTO. Turkmenistan has not participated in any United Nations peacekeeping missions. Neutrality: Neutrality in international law is the status of a nation that refrains from participation in a war between other states and maintains an impartial attitude toward the belligerents. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... : GUUAM grouping : The rest of the CIS. GU(U)AM (Cyrillic: ГУ(У)АМ) is a regional organization of five CIS states: Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Moldova. ... Headquarters Moscow Membership 7 member states Official language Russian Secretary General Nikolai Bordyuzha Formation As CST - Signed - Effective As CSTO - Signed - Effective - 15 May 1992 - 20 April 1994 - 7 October 2002 - 18 September 2003 In the framework of Commonwealth of Independent States the CIS Collective Security Treaty (CST) was signed... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


He met with former Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien to discuss an oil contract in Turkmenistan for a Canadian corporation in late 2004. In March 2005 news of this meeting caused uproar amongst opposition circles in Canada, who claimed the affair could damage Chrétien's legacy. Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated...


He announced in 2005 that Turkmenistan would downgrade its links with the Commonwealth of Independent States. He furthermore promised free and fair elections by 2010 in a move that surprised many Western observers.  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Viktor Yanukovych Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ...


In 2006 the European Commission and the international trade committee of the European Parliament voted to grant Turkmenistan "most favored nation" trading status with the European Union, widely seen as motivated by interest in natural gas, after Niyazov announced he would enter a "human rights dialogue" with the EU.[14] The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... Most favoured nation (or most favored nation, MFN) is a term used in international trade. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Presidential decrees

As President-for-Life of Turkmenistan, Saparmurat Niyazov issued many controversial and unusual decrees: Decree is an order that has the force of law. ...

  • In April 2001, ballet and opera were banned after Niyazov felt they were "unnecessary ... not a part of Turkmen culture".[15]
  • In 2004 it was forbidden for young men to grow long hair or beards.[15]
  • In March 2004, 15,000 public health workers were dismissed including nurses, midwives, school health visitors and orderlies and replaced with military conscripts.[16]
  • In April 2004 the youth of Turkmenistan were encouraged to chew on bones to preserve their teeth rather than be fitted with gold tooth caps or gold teeth.[17]
  • In April 2004 it was ordered that an ice palace be constructed near the capital.[18] (In December 2006 an article in the UK's Sunday Times revealed the 'ice palace' to be an ornate ice skating rink.[19])
  • In 2004 all licensed drivers were required to pass a morality test.[20]
  • In 2004 it was prohibited for news readers to wear make-up[21]
  • In February 2005 all hospitals outside Aşgabat were ordered shut, with the reasoning that the sick should come to the capital for treatment. All rural libraries were ordered closed as well, citing ordinary Turkmen do not read books.[22]
  • In November 2005 physicians were ordered to swear an oath to the President, replacing the Hippocratic Oath.[23]
  • In December 2005 video games were banned as being too violent for young Turkmen to play.
  • In January 2006 one-third of the country's elderly had their pensions discontinued, while another 200,000 had theirs reduced. Pensions received during the prior two years were ordered paid back to the state.[24] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan strongly denied allegations that the cut in pensions resulted in the deaths of many elderly Turkmen, accusing foreign media outlets of spreading "deliberately perverted" information on the issue.[25]
    • (Note: On March 19, 2007 Turkmenistan's new president Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow has reversed a decision of his predecessor by restoring pensions to more than 100,000 elderly citizens..[26])
  • In September 2006 Turkmen teachers who failed to publish praise of the Turkmen leader would remain at a lower payscale or be sacked.[27]
  • In October 2006 Turkmenistan claimed to have set free 10,056 prisoners, including 253 foreign nationals from 11 countries on the Night of Omnipotence. Niyazov said, "Let this humane act on the part of the state serve strengthening truly moral values of the Turkmen society. Let the entire world know that there has never been a place for evil and violence on the blessed Turkmen soil."[28]
  • The Turkmen words for bread and the month of April were changed to the name of his late mother, Gurbansoltanedzhe. [29]
  • Car radios, lip-synching, and recorded music are all prohibited.[30]
  • Video monitors are required in all public places.[30]
  • Dogs are restricted from the capital city due to unappealing odour.[31]

For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... // A nurse is a health care professional who is engaged in the practice of nursing. ... Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ... This article is about orderlies in medical work. ... Gold dental fixtures, originally intended for dental restoration, have become a popular fashion trend amongst devotees to hip hop culture in the United States. ... An ice palace or ice castle is a castle-like structure made of blocks of ice. ... Current EU driving licence, German version - front 1. ... ITV newscaster Mark Austin. ... Cosmetics or makeup are substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, apart from simple cleaning. ... Aşgabat Aşgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: ‎, UniPers: Ešq-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, and `Ishqábád, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... A twelfth-century Byzantine manuscript of the Oath in the form of a cross. ... “Computer and video games” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhammedow (Russianized name: Курбанкули (or Гурбангулы) Мяликгулыевич Бердымухаммедов[1], born 1957) has been the President of Turkmenistan since December 21, 2006, when he became acting president following the death of Saparmurat Niyazov. ...

New names for months and days

All the new names Niyazov introduced refer to the president, national heroes or important historical incidents.

Month New Name Meaning
January Türkmenbaşy named in honour of the Türkmenbaşy; also, this month is the beginning (Turkmen baş) of the year
February Baýdak named in honour of the flag of Turkmenistan, as in this month it was created for the independent Turkmenistan
March Nowruz named after the New Year's Day festival (Nowruz), which is celebrated in March
April Gurbansoltan named in honour of Niyazov's mother, as the month in which everything grows and blooms should be dedicated to the mothers
May Magtymguly named in honour of the Turkmen People's Writer, who is honoured on 18th and 19th of May
June Oguz according to Turkmen tradition, all Turkmens are descended from the legendary Oguz Khan
July Gorkut Gorkut, apart from Oguz Khan, is the second great historical person of the Turkmens
August Alp Arslan Alp Arslan is remembered as a Turkmen national hero. In August of 1071 he defeated the army of the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Manzikert and introduced the Turkmen language
September Ruhnama named in honour of the book written by Niyazov, which he finished writing on September 19th, 2001
October Garaşsyzlyk named in honour of independence (Turkmen Garaşsyzlyk), which Turkmenistan obtained on October 27th, 1991
November Sanjar Sultan Sanjar continued the work of Alp Arslan, and led the Seljuqs to their last full flowering
December Bitaraplyk named in honour of neutrality (Turkmen Bitaraplyk), which was announced to the United Nations General Assembly on December 12th, 1995

The days of the week are composed of the word Gün (Eng. day) plus the word of the respective meaning. Friday remained unchanged. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Turkmenistan was adopted on January 24, 2001. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Persepolis all nations stair case. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic forces... Turkmen (Latin script: türkmen, Cyrillic: түркмен, ISO 639-1: tk, ISO 639-2: tuk) is the name of the national language of Turkmenistan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Muizz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar (1084/1086 - May 8, 1157) was the sultan of Great Seljuk from 1118 to 1153. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian: á¹¢aljÅ«qÄ«yān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations. ...

Day New Name Meaning
Monday Baş Gün the Day of the Beginning, beginning of the week
Tuesday Ýaş Gün the Young Day
Wednesday Hoş Gün the Good Day
Thursday Sogap Gün the Blessed Day
Friday Anna (the Turkmen word for Friday)
Saturday Ruh Gün the Day of the Mind; at this day people should read the Ruhnama
Sunday Dynç Gün the Day of Recovery

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The god Týr, identified with Mars, after whom Tuesday is named. ... The god Woden, after whom Wednesday was named. ... The god Thor, after whom Thursday is named. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Death

On December 21, 2006, Turkmen state television announced that President Niyazov had died of sudden cardiac arrest.[32][33] Niyazov had been taking medication for an unidentified cardiac condition. The Turkmen Embassy in Moscow later confirmed this report. is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


According to the Constitution of Turkmenistan, Öwezgeldi Ataýew, Chairman of the Parliament, would assume the presidency. Deputy Prime Minister Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow was named as head of the commission organizing the state funeral. Due to the imprisonment of Öwezgeldi Ataýew who, under the Constitution is first in line to succeed the presidency, Berdimuhammedow was named as acting president. Berdimuhammedow and the Halk Maslahaty announced on December 26 that the next presidential elections would be held on February 11, 2007.[34] The Constitution of Turkmenistan is meant to be the supreme law[1] of the former-Soviet state of Turkmenistan. ... Öwezgeldi Ataýew (born in 1951; often referred to in the Western media by his Russianized name: Овезгелды Атаев Ovezgeldy Atayev) is the former Chairman of the Assembly of Turkmenistan. ... The Assembly (Medzhlis) is the legislative branch of Turkmenistan. ... Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhammedow (Russianized name: Курбанкули (or Гурбангулы) Мяликгулыевич Бердымухаммедов[1], born 1957) has been the President of Turkmenistan since December 21, 2006, when he became acting president following the death of Saparmurat Niyazov. ... The Halk Maslahaty (Peoples Council) is the highest representative body in Turkmenistan. ... Presidential elections were held in Turkmenistan on February 11, 2007, following the death of President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov on 21 December 2006. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


The New York Times reported that Niyazov's son, Murat, has been in contention for the presidency after the constitution was amended to allow Turkmen of mixed ethnic backgrounds to qualify for the post.[3] The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... Murat Niyazov is the son of the late President of Turkmenistan Saparmurat Niyazov. ...


The circumstances of Niyazov's passing has been surrounded by some media speculation, including that Niyazov had been the victim of poisoning.[35] Some Turkmen opposition sources also claim that Niyazov died several days before the officially announced date of December 21.[36] For biological toxicity, see toxin and poison. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Burial

Niyazov was buried on December 24 at his home village of Gypjak approximately 10 kilometres from the capital. Prior to being moved to the village, Niyazov's body lay in state in an open coffin in the presidential palace. Many mourners, including foreign delegations, passed by the coffin in a three hour period.[37] Tang Jiaxuan, the Chinese State Councilor and special envoy of President Hu Jintao to Turkmenistan[38], Assistant U.S. Secretary of State Richard Boucher,[39] Iranian Vice President Parviz Davoudi, Iranian Foreign Minister Manouchehr Mottaki, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Tajik President Emomali Rahmonov, Afghan President Hamid Karzai, Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Georgian Prime Minister Zurab Noghaideli, Pakistani Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, Ukrainian Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych, and Armenian Prime Minister Andranik Margaryan attended the funeral.[40] is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gypjak (also known as Kipchak) is a small village about 10 kilometers away from the Turkmen capital of AÅŸgabat. ... Tang Jiaxuan (Chinese: 唐家璇; pinyin: ) (born January 1938) was foreign minister of the Peoples Republic of China from 1998–2003. ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Hu Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born December 21, 1942) is currently the Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the... Richard Boucher is the name of at least two people: Rick Boucher - Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives representing Virginia Richard A. Boucher - United States Department of State spokesman, and former Ambassador and diplomat. ... Parviz Davoodi (born 1952 in Tehran) is the current First Vice President of Iran (since September 11, 2005). ... The first Minister of Foreign Affairs (or Foreign Minister) of Iran was Mirza Abdolvahhab Khan Motamed od-Dowleh Neshat who served between 1819 and 1824. ... Manouchehr Mottaki (Persian: منوچهر متکی) (born 1953 in Bandar Gaz) is the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs appointed by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. ... List of Presidents of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev (1990 - present) Politics of Kazakhstan Categories: | | | | ... Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев [Nûrsûltan Äbîshûlâ Nazarbayev]; Russian: Нурсултан Абишевич Назарбаев [Nursultan Abishyevic Nazarbayev] (born 6 July 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakh SSR, Soviet Union) has served as the President of Kazakhstan since the Fall of the Soviet Union and the nations independence in 1991. ... The President of Tajikistan is the Head of State and highest position within the Government of Tajikistan. ... Emomali Sharifovich Rahmonov (Tajik: Эмомалӣ Шарифович Раҳмонов or امامعلی شريفويچ رحمانف, Russian: Рахмонов Эмомали Шарипович; name also appears as Imamali Rakhmonov in literature. ... The President of Afghanistan is Afghanistans head of state, head of government, and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. ... Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ... The Prime Minister of Russia (in Russian : Председатель Правительства, Chairman of the Government) is the current Head of Government of the Russian Federation. ... Mikhail Yefimovich Fradkov (Russian: ) (born September 1, 1950) is a Russian politician, and the current Prime Minister of Russia. ... ... Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan (born February 26, 1954), became the Prime Minister of Turkey on March 14, 2003. ... The Prime Minister of Georgia is the most senior minister within the Cabinet of the Republic of Georgia. ... Zurab Noghaideli (Georgian: ზურაბ ნოღაიდელი) (born October 22, 1964) is a Georgian politician and the current Prime Minister of the nation. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam) is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... Shaukat Aziz (Urdu:: شوکت عزیز) (born March 6, 1949 in Karachi, Pakistan) is the current Prime Minister and Finance Minister of Pakistan. ... The Prime Minister of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) presides over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the top body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government. ... Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) (born on July 9, 1950 in Yenakiieve, Donetsk Oblast) is the Prime Minister of Ukraine. ... The Prime Minister of Armenia is the most senior minister within the Armenian government, and is required by the constitution to oversee the Governments regular activities and coordinate the work of the Ministers. ... Andranik Margaryan (Armenian: , alternative spelling: Andranik Margarian) (12 June 1951 – 25 March 2007) served as the Prime Minister of Armenia from 12 May 2000, when the President appointed him, until his death on 25 March, 2007 [1]. He was a member of the Republican Party of Armenia. ...


Miscellaneous

  • In October 2005, 100,000 copies of Mahribanlarym, a new book by Niyazov, were printed. The book included his lyrical poetry and short stories.[41]
  • Niyazov ordered the building of a new university to be named after Ruhnama. The university was scheduled to be built in 2010.[42]

2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in October 28: Richard Smalley 26: Emil Kyulev 24: José Azcona del Hoyo 24: Rosa Parks 23: Stella Obasanjo 22: Liam Lawlor 22: Shirley Horn 20: Endon Mahmood 17: Ba Jin 10: Milton Obote 7: Charles...

See also

Absurdistan is a term sometimes used to satirically describe a country in which absurdity is the norm, especially in its public authorities and government. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ "Наследником Туркменбаши может стать следователь московской прокуратуры", Komsomolskaya Pravda, 2006-12-22. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. (Russian) 
  2. ^ a b Turkmenistan Fact Sheet, Government & Politics-President. Embassy of Turkmenistan. Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  3. ^ a b Chivers, C. J.. "Intrigue Follows Death of a President for Life", New York Times, 2006-12-22. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  4. ^ "Turkmenistan's 'iron ruler' dies", BBC News, 2006-12-21. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  5. ^ The Associated Press. "Saparmurat Niyazov, Turkmen Leader, Dies at 66", The New York Times, 2006-12-21. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  6. ^ Harvard Independent, March 1, 2007
  7. ^ "Turkmenbashi Everywhere", CBS News, 2004-01-04. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  8. ^ IFLA Blasts Turkmenistan Library Closings and Rights Violations. American Library Association (2005-5-6). Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  9. ^ a b Badykova, Najia (2004-06-18). The Turkmen Economy: Challenges and Opportunities. St Antony's College, University of Oxford. Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  10. ^ "Assassination Attempt A Response To Niyazov’s Authoritarian Policies", EurasiaNet, 2002-11-25. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  11. ^ Short resume maintained by Reporters Sans Frontières
  12. ^ Clarke, Michael (2003-01-24). Turkmenistan. Struggling For News In Turkmenistan. Glenn Hauser's World of Radio. Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  13. ^ The World Factbook entry for Turkmenistan information retrieved on August 30, 2006
  14. ^ "Double Standard for Dictators", WashingtonPost.com, 2004-04-14. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  15. ^ a b Whitlock, Monica. "Young Turkmen face beard ban", BBC News, 2004-02-25. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  16. ^ Whitlock, Monica. "Troops to replace Turkmen medics", BBC News, 2004-03-01. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  17. ^ Burke, Justin. "Turkmen president urges youth to avoid gold teeth", EurasiaNet.org, 2004-04-07. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  18. ^ Osborn, Andrew. "Dictator orders ice palace to be built in central Asian desert", The Independent on Sunday, 2004-08-15. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  19. ^ Januszczak, Waldemar. "In the realm of fantasy", The Sunday Times, 2006-12-17. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. 
  20. ^ Romanoff, Lance Jonn (2005-08-18). Absolute Power Makes You Absolutely Crazy. Ljonn.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  21. ^ Turkmenistan Project Weekly News Brief, August 13-19, 2004. EurasiaNet.org (2004-06-19). Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  22. ^ Morgan, David (Translator). "President of Turkmenistan closes hospitals, libraries and nature reserves", Prima-News, 2005-02-14. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  23. ^ "Turkmen Doctors Pledge Allegiance To Niyazov", Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty (RFERL), 2005-11-15. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  24. ^ "Туркменбаши решил истребить всех стариков", NEWSru.com, 2006-02-03. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. (Russian) 
  25. ^ "...Russian media outlets disseminate "deliberately perverted" information on republic's pension maintenance", Turkmenistan.ru, 2006-04-02. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  26. ^ "Turkmen leader restores pensions", bbc.co.uk, 2007-03-19. Retrieved on 2007-03-19. 
  27. ^ "Praise Turkmen leader or else, teachers are told", Telegraph (UK). Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  28. ^ "Turkmenistan to set free 10056 prisoners...", Turkmenistan.ru, 2006-10-17. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  29. ^ "“Tensions Rising as Turkmenistan Stops Pension Payments”", Taipei Times, 2006-02-05. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  30. ^ a b "Turkmenistan bans recorded music", BBC News, 2005-08-23. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  31. ^ "In the realm of fantasy", The Sunday Times Online, 2006-12-17. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  32. ^ "Turkmenistan's 'iron ruler' dies", BBC News, 2006-12-21. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  33. ^ "President of Turkmenistan dies at 66", BreakingNews.ie, 2005-12-21. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. 
  34. ^ "Two candidates named for Turkmen presidency", ITAR TASS, 2006-12-26. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. 
  35. ^ "Saparmurat Niyazov 's werelds gekste dictator", Het Nieuwsblad. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. (Dutch) 
  36. ^ "Turkmenbashi died several days ago", RIA Novosti, 2006-12-21. Retrieved on 2006-12-22. (Russian) 
  37. ^ Turkmen leader's funeral begins. CNN (2006-12-24). Retrieved on 2006-12-24.
  38. ^ Chinese envoy attends funeral of Turkmenistan's late president. China Economic (2006-12-25). Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  39. ^ Late President of Turkmenistan laid to rest. Calcutta News (2006-12-25). Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  40. ^ First VP leaves Turkmenistan. IRNA (2006-12-25). Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  41. ^ Turkmenistan Project Weekly news brief, October 14-20, 2005. EurasiaNet.org. Retrieved on 2007-01-12.
  42. ^ "New Turkmen University Named After Leader’s Book", RFE/RL, 2005-12-13. Retrieved on 2007-01-12. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ITAR-TASS (ИТАР-ТАСС), Information Telegraph Agency of Russia, is the major news agency of the Russian Federation. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Theroux, Paul. "The Golden Man: Saparmurat Niyazov's Reign of Insanity". The New Yorker, 28 May 2007, pp. 54-65.

External links

The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... International Freedom of Expression eXchange. ...

Monuments to Niyazov

  • A gold statue of Niyazov
  • A gold bust of Niyazov
  • Niyazov revolves to face the sun
  • Another gold statue of Niyazov
Preceded by
Muhammetnazar Gapurow
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR
December 21, 1985June 21, 1991
Succeeded by
None (Position Dissolved)
Preceded by
Roza Bazarova
President of Turkmenistan
January 19, 1990December 21, 2006
Succeeded by
Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow
Persondata
NAME Niyazov, Saparmurat Atayevich
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Nyýazow, Saparmyrat Ataýewiç (Turkmen); Ниязов, Сапармурат Атаевич (Russian)
SHORT DESCRIPTION first President of Turkmenistan
DATE OF BIRTH February 19, 1940
PLACE OF BIRTH Ashkabad, Turkmen SSR, Soviet Union
DATE OF DEATH December 2006
PLACE OF DEATH Ashgabat, Turkmenistan

  Results from FactBites:
 
Saparmurat Niyazov - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1688 words)
Niyazov is the main proponent of Turkmenistan's constitutional neutrality.
Niyazov was orphaned at an early age; his father died fighting the Germans in World War II and the rest of his family was killed in the massive earthquake that leveled Ashgabat in 1948.
In 1962 Niyazov joined the Communist Party where he quickly rose through the ranks, becoming head of the Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR (later known as the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan) in 1985 after the previous leader, Muhammad Gapusov, was removed by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev due to a cotton-related corruption scandal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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