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Encyclopedia > Santa Claus
A typical depiction of Santa Claus.

Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Father Christmas, Kris Kringle, or simply "Santa" is a holiday character. The popular North American form Santa Claus originated as a mispronunciation of Dutch Sinterklaas, which in turn is a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas (Saint Nicholas). Santa Claus has a suit that comes in many colors depending on the country. The most common depiction (red with white sleeves, collar, and belt) became the more popular image in the United States in the mid-to-late 19th century [1]. Image File history File links Santa_usairforce. ... Image File history File links Santa_usairforce. ... Saint Nicholas (Greek: , Agios Nikolaos, victory of the people) is the common name for Saint Nicholas, Bishop of Myra (in modern day Antalya province, Turkey), who had a reputation for secret gift-giving, but is now commonly identified with Santa Claus. ... Excerpt from Josiah Kings The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England Father Christmas is the name used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and several other Commonwealth countries, for the gift-bringing figure of Christmas... Bold textItalic textLink titlelink title Media:Example. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Sinterklaas and his Zwarte Pieten helpers arrive in the town of Sneek in November 2005 Sinterklaas (also called Sint Nikolaas in Dutch ( (help· info)) and Saint Nicolas in French) is a holiday tradition in the Netherlands and Belgium, celebrated every year on Saint Nicholas eve (December 5) or, in Belgium...

Contents

Origins

Ancient Christian origins

St. Nicholas, with his crozier and miter, as he appears on a German holy card.

Saint Nicholas of Myra is the primary inspiration for the Christian figure of Santa Claus. He was a 4th century Christian bishop of Myra in Lycia, a province of the Byzantine Anatolia, now in Turkey. Nicholas was famous for his generous gifts to the poor, in particular presenting the three impoverished daughters of a pious Christian with dowries so that they would not have to become prostitutes. He was very religious from an early age and devoted his life entirely to Christianity. In Europe (more precisely the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria and Germany) he is still portrayed as a bearded bishop in canonical robes. The relics of St. Nicholas were transported to Bari in southern Italy by some enterprising Italian merchants; a basilica was constructed in 1087 to house them and the area became a pilgrimage site for the devout. Saint Nicholas became revered by many as the patron saint of seamen, merchants, archers, children, prostitutes, pharmacists, lawyers, pawnbrokers, prisoners, the city of Amsterdam and of Russia. In Greece, Saint Nicholas is substituted for Saint Basil (Agios Vasilis in Greek), a 4th century AD bishop from Caesarea. Also, the Northern part of the Netherlands and a few villages in Flanders, Belgium, celebrate a near identical figure, Sint-Maarten (Saint Martin of Tours).[2] Saint Nicholas, from an early 20th century holy card. ... Saint Nicholas, also known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) in the Netherlands and Flanders, is the common name for the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Anatolia, (now in modern Turkey) and had a reputation for secret gift... A crosier (crozier, pastoral staff) is the stylized staff of office carried by high-ranking Catholic prelates. ... This article is about the ceremonial head-dress; see also mitre (disambiguation). ... A German holy card from around 1910 depicts the Crucifixion. ... Saint Nicholas, also known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) in the Netherlands and Flanders, is the common name for the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Anatolia, (now in modern Turkey) and had a reputation for secret gift... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... Saint Nicholas of Myra, by Ilya Repin. ... Lycia (Lycian: Trm̃misa) is a region in the modern day Antalya Province on the southern coast of Turkey. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to the grooms at the time of their marriage. ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... St. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Archers in Competition Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... Pharmacists are health professionals who practice pharmacy. ... For information on the type of fish called Lawyer, see the article on Burbot. ... A pawnbroker offers monetary loans in exchange for an item of value to the given pawn broker. ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province North Holland Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... Basil (ca. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; the constituent governing institution... Statue of Saint Martin cutting his cloak in two. ...

Germanic folklore

Odin, the wanderer.
Odin, the wanderer.

Prior to the Germanic peoples' Christianization, Germanic folklore contained stories about the god Odin (Wodan), who would each year, at Yule, have a great hunting party accompanied by his fellow gods and the fallen warriors residing in his realm. Children would place their boots, filled with carrots, straw or sugar, near the chimney for Odin's flying horse, Sleipnir, to eat. Odin would then reward those children for their kindness by replacing Sleipnir's food with gifts or candy [Siefker, chap. 9, esp. 171-173]. This practice survived in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands after the adoption of Christianity and became associated with Saint Nicholas. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x733, 96 KB) Georg von Rosen - Oden som vandringsman, 1886 (Odin, the Wanderer) Artwork from 1886 by Georg von Rosen (1843-1923). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x733, 96 KB) Georg von Rosen - Oden som vandringsman, 1886 (Odin, the Wanderer) Artwork from 1886 by Georg von Rosen (1843-1923). ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ... Yule is the winter solstice celebration of the Scandinavian Norse mythology and Germanic pagans. ... The wild hunt: Åsgårdsreien (1872) by Peter Nicolai Arbo The Wild Hunt was a folk myth prevalent in former times across Northern Scandinavia, Germany and Britain. ... Binomial name Daucus carota A carrot (Daucus Carota) is a root vegetable, typically orange or white in color with a woody texture. ... Bales of straw bundles of rice straw Pile of straw bales, sheltered under a tarpaulin Straw is an agricultural byproduct, the dry stalk of a cereal plant, after the nutrient grain or seed has been removed. ... Magnification of grains of sugar, showing their monoclinic hemihedral crystalline structure. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... The Ardre image stone is thought to show Odin entering Valhalla riding on Sleipnir Sleipnir is also a Japanese web browser. ... A wide range of candies on display on a market in Barcelona, Spain. ...


Children still place their straw filled shoes at the chimney every winter night, and Saint Nicholas rewards them with candy and gifts. Odin's appearance was often similar to that of Saint Nicholas, being depicted as an old, mysterious man with a beard. This practice in turn came to America via the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam prior to the British seizure in the 17th century, and evolved into the hanging of socks or stockings at the fireplace. In many regions of Austria and former Austro-Hungarian Italy (Friuli, city of Trieste) children are given sweets and gift Saint Nicholas's Day (San Niccolò in Italian), in accordance with the Catholic calendar, December the 6th. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw Amsterdam) was the name of the 17th century town which grew outside of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island in the New Netherland territory (1614–1674) which was situated between 38 and 42 degrees latitude as a provincial extension of the Dutch Republic since 1624. ... Stockings hung by the chimney with care A Christmas stocking is an empty sock or sock_shaped bag that children in the United States and some other cultures hang on Christmas Eve so that Santa can fill it with small toys, candy, fruit, coins, or other small gifts when he arrives. ... Friulian Coats of Arms Friuli (Furlan: Friûl, German: Friaul, Slovenian: Furlanija) is an area in northeastern Italy, comprising the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. ... Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian, Croatian and Serbian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ...


An early folk tale, originating among the Germanic tribes, tells of a holy man (sometimes Saint Nicholas), and a demon (sometimes the Devil, Krampus, or a troll). Young men dressed as Krampus are still involved in the celebration of Saint Nicholas's Day in Kärnten (southern Austria) and Carnia (northern-eastern Italy). The story states that the land was terrorized by a monster who at night would slither down the chimneys and slaughter children (disembowelling them or stuffing them up the flue, or keeping them in a sack to eat later). The holy man sought out the demon, and tricked it with blessed or magical shackles (in some versions the same shackles that imprisoned Christ prior to the crucifixion, in other versions the shackles were those used to hold St. Peter or Paul of Tarsus); the demon was trapped and forced to obey the saint's orders. The saint ordered him to go to each house and make amends, by delivering gifts to the children. Depending on the version, the saint either made the demon fulfill this task every year, or the demon was so disgusted by the act of good will that it chose to be sent back to Hell. The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... St. ... The Devil is the name given to a supernatural entity who, in most Western religions, is the central embodiment of evil. ... The Dutch version, called Zwarte Piet Knecht Ruprecht, companion of Father Christmas or Saint Nicholas, is also known as Servant Ruprecht, Farmhand Ruprecht, Pelzebock, Pelznickel (Nicholas in furs), Zwarte Piet or Zwarte Peter in the Netherlands and Flanders, Black Peter, and Schmutzli Samichlaus in Switzerland, sometimes associated with Saint Rupert. ... Trolls with an abducted princess (John Bauer, 1915). ... Disembowelment is evisceration, or the removing of vital organs, usually from the abdomen. ... A flue is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, furnace, boiler, or generator. ... Fetters, shackles or leg irons are a kind of physical restraint used on the feet or ankles. ... Christ is the English of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the condemned was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Medieval illustration of Hell in the Hortus deliciarum manuscript of Herrad of Landsberg (about 1180) Hell, according to many religious beliefs, is an afterlife of suffering where the wicked or unrighteous dead are punished. ...


Yet other versions have the demon reform under the saint's orders, and go on to recruit other elves and imps into helping him, thus becoming Santa Claus. Another form of the above tale in Germany is of the Pelznickel or Belsnickle ("Furry Nicholas") who visited naughty children in their sleep. The name originated from the fact that the person appeared to be a huge beast since he was covered from head to toe in furs. For alternate meanings, see Lightning (disambiguation). ... An imp is a mythological being similar to a fairy, frequently described in folklore and superstition. ... The Dutch version, called Zwarte Piet Knecht Ruprecht, companion of Father Christmas or Saint Nicholas, is also known as Servant Ruprecht, Farmhand Ruprecht, Pelzebock, Pelznickel (Nicholas in furs), Zwarte Piet or Zwarte Peter in the Netherlands and Flanders, Black Peter, and Schmutzli Samichlaus in Switzerland, sometimes associated with Saint Rupert. ... For alternative meanings, see Fur (disambiguation). ...


Dutch folklore

In the Netherlands Saint Nicolas (often called "De Goede Sint" — "The Friendly Saint") was originally aided by slaves, commonly known as Zwarte Piet ("Black Peter"). Some tales depict Zwarte Piet beating bad children with a rod or even taking them to Moorish Spain in a sack. Some consider the legend of Zwarte Piet to be racist because it refers to Saint Nicholas having African slaves work for him in the days before pakjesavond (the 5th of December — the day on which presents are opened), even though the Zwarte Pieten are not depicted as slaves today. Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... A white Dutch woman in blackface costume as Zwarte Piet. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including: al-Maghrib (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former Islamic sovereign... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ...


The grateful Zwarte Piet had nowhere to go, as he was separated from his relatives and had no work to support himself, and so Saint Nicolas offered him a job. Some say that this job was listing children's wishes for Boxing Day, others say that Zwarte Piet was keeping track of all the bad children in order to capture them in a sack and take them back to Spain. In recent decades this story has been altered and the former slaves have become modern servants who have black faces because they climb through chimneys and get blackened by the soot from the fire. Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the...


Sinterklaas wears clothing similar to a bishop's. He wears a red mitre with a 'golden' cross and carries a bishop's staff. The connection with the original bishop of Myra is still evident here. A mitre. ...


Presents given during this feast are often accompanied by poems, sometimes fairly basic, sometimes quite elaborate pieces of art that mock events in the past year relating to the recipient (who is thus at the receiving end in more than one sense). The gifts themselves may be just an excuse for the wrapping, which can also be quite elaborate. The more serious gifts may be reserved for the next morning. Since the giving of presents is Sinterklaas's job, presents are traditionally not given at Christmas in the Netherlands, but commercialism is starting to tap into this market.


The Zwarte Pieten are roughly to the Dutch Saint Nicolas what the elves and reindeer are to America's Santa Claus. According to tradition, the saint has a Piet for every function: there are navigation Pieten to navigate the steamboat from Spain to Holland, or acrobatic Pieten for climbing up the roofs to stuff presents through the chimney, or to climb through themselves. Throughout the years many stories have been added, mostly made up by parents to keep children's belief in Saint Nicolas intact and to discourage misbehaviour. In most cases the Pieten are quite lousy at their job, such as the navigation Piet (Dutch "wegwijs piet") pointing in the wrong direction. This is often used to provide some simple comedy in the annual parade of Saint Nicolas coming to the Netherlands, and can also be used to laud the progress of children at school by having the Piet give the wrong answer to, for example, a simple mathematical question like 2+2, so that the child in question is (or can be) persuaded to give the right answer.


Modern origins

The Ghost of Christmas Present, a colorized version of the original illustration by John Leech made for Charles Dickens's novel A Christmas Carol (1843).

Pre-modern representations of the gift-giver from church history and folklore merged with the British character Father Christmas to create the character known to Britons and Americans as Santa Claus. Father Christmas dates back at least as far as the 17th century in Britain, and pictures of him survive from that era, portraying him as a well-nourished bearded man dressed in a long, green, fur-lined robe. He typified the spirit of good cheer at Christmas, and was reflected in the "Ghost of Christmas Present" in Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol. Image File history File links Leech_ghostpresent_big. ... Image File history File links Leech_ghostpresent_big. ... Portrait of John Leech. ... Dickens redirects here. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost Story of Christmas (commonly known as A Christmas Carol ) is what Charles Dickens described as his little Christmas Book and was first published on December 19, 1843 with illustrations by John Leech. ... Dickens redirects here. ... A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost Story of Christmas (commonly known as A Christmas Carol ) is what Charles Dickens described as his little Christmas Book and was first published on December 19, 1843 with illustrations by John Leech. ...


The name Santa Claus is derived from Sinterklaas, the Dutch name for the character based on St. Nicholas. He is also known there by the name of Sint Nicolaas which explains the use of the two fairly dissimilar names Santa Claus and Saint Nicholas or St. Nick.

Main article: Tomte
Folk tale depiction of Father Christmas riding on a goat. Perhaps an evolved version of the Swedish Tomte.

In other countries, the figure of Saint Nicholas was also blended with local folklore. As an example of the still surviving pagan imagery, in Nordic countries there was the Yule Goat (Swedish julbock, Norwegian "julebukk", Danish "julebuk" Finnish joulupukki), a somewhat startling figure with horns which delivered the presents on Christmas Eve. A straw goat is still a common Christmas decoration in Sweden, Norway and Finland. One of Jenny Nyströms Christmas-themed tomte paintings, a popular image of the modern tomte A tomte or nisse is a mythical creature of Scandinavian folklore, believed to take care of a farmers home and barn and protect it from misfortune, in particular at night, when the... Image File history File links Santaandgoat. ... Image File history File links Santaandgoat. ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... One of Jenny Nyströms Christmas-themed tomte paintings, a popular image of the modern tomte A tomte or nisse is a mythical creature of Scandinavian folklore, believed to take care of a farmers home and barn and protect it from misfortune, in particular at night, when the... Norse paganism or Nordic religion is a termed used to abbreviate the religion preferably amongst the Germanic tribes living in Nordic countries under pre-Christian period that are supported by archaeology findings and early written materials. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... A Yule Goat from Uppland, Sweden. ...


In the 1840s, the Tomte or Nisse in Nordic folklore started to deliver the Christmas presents in Denmark, but was then called the "Julenisse", dressed in gray clothes and a red hat. By the end of the 19th century this tradition had also spread to Norway and Sweden (where the "nisse" is called Tomte), replacing the Yule Goat. The same thing happened in Finland, but there the more human figure retained the Yule Goat name. One of Jenny Nyströms Christmas-themed tomte paintings, a popular image of the modern tomte A tomte or nisse is a mythical creature of Scandinavian folklore, believed to take care of a farmers home and barn and protect it from misfortune, in particular at night, when the...


American origins

Thomas Nast immortalized Santa Claus with an illustration for the January 3, 1863, issue of Harper's Weekly.
Thomas Nast immortalized Santa Claus with an illustration for the January 3, 1863, issue of Harper's Weekly.

In the British colonies of North America and later the United States, British and Dutch versions of the gift-giver merged further. For example, in Washington Irving's History of New York, (1809), Sinterklaas was Americanized into "Santa Claus" but lost his bishop's apparel, and was at first pictured as a thick-bellied Dutch sailor with a pipe in a green winter coat. Irving's book was a lampoon of the Dutch culture of New York, and much of this portrait is his joking invention. Image File history File links Summary Thomas Nast immortalized Santa Claus with an illustration for the January 3, 1863 issue of Harpers Weekly The first Santa Claus appeared as a small part of a large illustration titled A Christmas Furlough in which Nast set aside his regular news and... Image File history File links Summary Thomas Nast immortalized Santa Claus with an illustration for the January 3, 1863 issue of Harpers Weekly The first Santa Claus appeared as a small part of a large illustration titled A Christmas Furlough in which Nast set aside his regular news and... Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a famous German-American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Teresa Bagioli Sickles confession, 1859 Harpers Weekly (A Journal of Civilization) was an American political magazine based in New York City. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Washington Irving (April 3, 1783–November 28, 1859) was an American author of the early 19th century. ... In contemporary usage, parody is a form of satire that imitates another work of art in order to ridicule it. ...


Modern ideas of Santa Claus seemingly became canon after the publication of the poem "A Visit From St. Nicholas" (better known today as "The Night Before Christmas") in the Troy, New York, Sentinel on December 23, 1823. In this poem Santa is established as a heavyset individual with eight reindeer (who are named for the first time). Santa Claus later appeared in various colored costumes as he gradually became amalgamated with the figure of Father Christmas, but red soon became popular after he appeared wearing such on an 1885 Christmas card. Still, one of the first artists to capture Santa Claus' image as we know him today was Thomas Nast, an American cartoonist of the 19th century. In 1863, a picture of Santa illustrated by Nast appeared in Harper's Weekly. Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... Cover of a 1912 edition of the poem. ... Looking west down Broadway at downtown Troy. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Some christmas cards A Christmas card is a greeting card that is decorated in a manner that celebrates Christmas. ... Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a famous German-American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. ... Cartoonist Jack Elrod at work. ... Teresa Bagioli Sickles confession, 1859 Harpers Weekly (A Journal of Civilization) was an American political magazine based in New York City. ...


Another popularization was L. Frank Baum's The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, a 1902 children's book. Much of Santa Claus's mythos was not set in stone at the time, leaving Baum to give his "Neclaus" (Necile's Little One) a wide variety of immortal support, a home in the Laughing Valley of Hohaho, and ten reindeer which could not fly, but leapt in enormous, flight-like bounds. Claus's immortality was earned, much like his title ("Santa"), decided by a vote of those naturally immortal. Also established Claus's motives: a happy childhood among immortals. When Ak, Master Woodsman of the World, exposes him to the misery and poverty of children in the outside world, he strives to find a way to bring joy into the lives of all children, and eventually invents toys as a principal means. The Laughing Dragon of Oz, see Frank Joslyn Baum . ... It has been suggested that Kilter be merged into this article or section. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Basic Characteristics There is some debate as to what constitutes childrens literature. ... This article is about living for infinite period of time. ...


Images of Santa Claus were further cemented through Haddon Sundblom's depiction of him for The Coca-Cola Company's Christmas advertising. The popularity of the image spawned urban legends that Santa Claus was in fact invented by Coca-Cola or that Santa wears red and white because those are the Coca-Cola colors. In fact, Coca-Cola was not even the first soft drink company to utilize the modern image Santa Claus in its advertising – White Rock Beverages used Santa in advertisements for its ginger ale in 1923 after first using him to sell mineral water in 1915.[1][2] Haddon Hubert Sunny Sundblom (June 22, 1899 - 1976) was a United States artist who created the modern image of Santa Claus in 1931 while working for Coca Cola. ... The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE: KO) is the largest manufacturer, distributor and marketer of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups in the world. ... An urban legend or urban myth is a kind of modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... White Rock Beverages is an American beverage company. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... In many places, mineral water is often colloquially used to mean carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water, as opposed to tap water). ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The image of Santa Claus as a benevolent character became reinforced with its association with charity and philanthropy, particularly organizations such as the Salvation Army. Volunteers dressed as Santa Claus typically became part of fundraising drives to aid needy families at Christmas time. Philanthropy is the act of donating money, goods, time, or effort to support a charitable cause, usually over an extended period of time and in regard to a defined objective. ... Shield of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is a non-military evangelical Christian organization. ... Fundraising is the process of soliciting and gathering money or other gifts in-kind, by requesting donations from individuals, businesses, charitable foundations, or governmental agencies. ...

A man dressed up as Santa Claus fundraising for Volunteers of America on the sidewalk of street in Chicago, Illinois, in 1902. He is wearing a mask with a beard attached. DN-0001069, Chicago Daily News negatives collection, Chicago Historical Society.

In 1889, the poet Katherine Lee Bates created a wife for Santa, Mrs. Claus, in the poem "Goody Santa Claus on a Sleigh Ride." The 1956 popular song by George Melachrino, "Mrs. Santa Claus," helped standardize and establish the character and role in the popular imagination. Image File history File links N001069. ... Image File history File links N001069. ... Fundraising is the process of soliciting and gathering money or other gifts in-kind, by requesting donations from individuals, businesses, charitable foundations, or governmental agencies. ... Volunteers of America is an United States-based religious social welfare organization founded 1896 by Ballington and Maud Booth in New York City after their departure from the Salvation Army. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Mrs. ... George Melachrino (born George Militiades 1 May 1909 in London, England — died 18 June 1965) was a musician, movie composer, and musical director who was English born of Greek and Italian descent. ...


In some images of the early 20th century, Santa was depicted as personally making his toys by hand in a small workshop like a craftsman. Eventually, the idea emerged that he had numerous elves responsible for making the toys, but the toys were still handmade by each individual elf working in the traditional manner.


The concept of Santa Claus continues to inspire writers and artists, such as in author Seabury Quinn's 1948 novel "Roads", which draws from historical legends to tell the story of Santa and the origins of Christmas. Other modern additions to the "mythology" of Santa include Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, the ninth and lead reindeer immortalized in a Gene Autry song, written by a Montgomery Ward copywriter. Seabury Grandin Quinn (aka Jerome Burke) (1889 - 1969) was a pulp magazine author most famous for his stories of the supernatural detective Jules de Grandin, published in Weird Tales to great success. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer is a popular Christmas story about Santa Claus ninth and lead reindeer who possesses an unusually power of destuction that gives off its own light that is powerful enough to illuminate the teams path through anal cavities. ... Gene Autry. ... Montgomery Ward (later known as Wards) was an American department store chain, founded as the worlds first mail order business in 1872 by Aaron Montgomery Ward. ...


Santa Claus in popular culture

Santa parading with a Santa Christmas ornament

In Poland, Santa Claus gives gifts on the 6th of December. On the Christmas Eve it is the Angel that brings presents, though. In Hungary, Santa Claus (Télapó or Mikulás) brings small gifts (usually candy and chocolate) during the night of the 6th of December and Little Jesus (Jézuska) brings the tree as well as the presents on Christmas Eve. Santa is often dressed up in red. Image File history File linksMetadata MiniSanta. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MiniSanta. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... The Christmas Eve (1904-05), watercolor painting by the Swedish painter Carl Larsson (1853-1919) Christmas Eve, the evening of December 24th, the preceding day or vigil before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the Christmas season. ...


By the end of the century, the reality of mass mechanized production became more fully accepted by the Western public. That shift was reflected in the modern depiction of Santa's residence—now often humorously portrayed as a fully mechanized production and distribution facility, equipped with the latest manufacturing technology, and overseen by the elves with Santa and Mrs. Claus as executives and/or managers [see Nissenbaum, chap. 2; Belk, 87-100]. An excerpt from a 2004 article, from a supply chain managers' trade magazine, aptly illustrates this depiction:

Santa’s main distribution center is a sight to behold. At 4 million square feet, it’s one of the world’s largest facilities. A real-time warehouse management system is of course required to run such a complex. The facility makes extensive use of task interleaving, literally combining dozens of DC activities (putaway, replenishing, order picking, sleigh loading, cycle counting) in a dynamic queue...the DC elves have been on engineered standards and incentives for three years, leading to a 12% gain in productivity...The WMS and transportation system are fully integrated, allowing (the elves) to make optimal decisions that balance transportation and order picking and other DC costs. Unbeknownst to many, Santa actually has to use many sleighs and fake Santa drivers to get the job done Christmas Eve, and the TMS optimally builds thousands of consolidated sacks that maximize cube utilization and minimize total air miles. [3].

Many television commercials, comic strip and other media depict this as a sort of humorous business, with Santa's elves acting as a sometimes mischievously disgruntled workforce, cracking jokes and pulling pranks on their boss. For instance, an early Bloom County story has Santa telling the story of how his elves went on strike, only to be fired by Ronald Reagan and replaced by unemployed Aircraft control personnel. A distribution center for a set of products is a warehouse or other specialized building with refrigeration or air conditioning which is stocked with products to be re-distributed to retailers or wholesalers. ... Inside Green Logistics Co. ... From the earliest days of the medium, television has been used as a vehicle for advertising in some countries. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... Bloom County was a popular American comic strip by Berke Breathed which ran from December 8, 1980 until August 6, 1989. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... Visual flight is the control of an aircraft by using the view from the aircraft as the primary reference point. ...


Christian opposition to Santa Claus

Excerpt from Josiah King's The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England. Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D.C.

Though Santa Claus has Christian origins, he has become a secular representation of Christmas. As such, a number of Christian churches dislike the secular focus on Santa Claus and the materialist focus that present-receiving gives to the holiday. Christmas controversy refers to publicized controversy surrounding the public acknowledgement or celebration of the Christmas holiday in media, advertising, government, and other secular environments. ... Image File history File links FatherChristmastrial. ... Image File history File links FatherChristmastrial. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2006 estimate... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


Such a condemnation of Santa Claus is not a 20th-century phenomenon, but originated among some Protestant groups of the 16th century and was prevalent among the Puritans of 17th-century England and America who banned the holiday as either pagan or Roman Catholic. Following the English Civil War, under Oliver Cromwell's government Christmas was banned. Following the Restoration of the monarchy and with Puritans out of power in England,[4] the ban on Christmas was satirized in works such as Josiah King's The Examination and Tryal of Old Father Christmas; Together with his Clearing by the Jury (1686) [Nissenbaum, chap. 1]. The twentieth century Anno Domini (common) era began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000, according to the Gregorian calendar. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700 in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Excerpt from Josiah Kings The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England Father Christmas is the name used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and several other Commonwealth countries, for the gift-bringing figure of Christmas...


Rev. Paul Nedergaard, a clergyman in Copenhagen, Denmark attracted controversy in 1958 when he declared Santa to be a "pagan goblin" after Santa's image was used on fundraising materials for a Danish welfare organization Clar, 337. One prominent religious group that refuses to celebrate Santa Claus, or Christmas itself, for similar reasons is the Jehovah's Witnesses. A number of denominations of Christians have varying concerns about Santa Claus. Some Christians even claim that Santa is a hidden representation of Satan. [5] They note that the name Santa Claus sounds a bit like the term "Satan's claws". This article needs cleanup. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Satan (disambiguation). ...


Most Christians believe that their own focus in the Christmas season should be placed on the birth of Jesus [6] and many would prefer this to be the focus of the festival in general[citation needed], though attitudes to this vary according to country. In addition, some parents are uncomfortable about lying to their children about the existence of Santa. This is a concern which both Christians and non-Christians may have on the general basis that it is wrong to systematically lie to one's children. Christians are also often concerned that the lie suggests, when it is revealed, that Christianity is also a childish belief which one grows out of, thus providing a model for the critics of religion. Those with such concerns may tell their children that Santa Claus is just a sort of game, a "pretend" activity. Those whose objections are more to the materialist nature of the modern festival but still wish to participate in the festive gift-giving atmosphere of "Santa season" will shop for toys to donate to poor children on St. Nicholas's feast day, December 6. This is an opportunity to instill the Christian value of secret charity, which Nicholas was known for. Although feast days are usually not acknowledged in Protestant denominations, this tradition has found acceptance there as well. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Saint Nicholas, also known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) in the Netherlands and Flanders, is the common name for the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Anatolia, (now in modern Turkey) and had a reputation for secret gift... Saint Nicholas, also known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) in the Netherlands and Flanders, is the common name for the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Anatolia, (now in modern Turkey) and had a reputation for secret gift... December 6 is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Allegorical personification of Charity as a mother with three infants by Anthony van Dyck // The word charity entered the English language through the O.Fr word charite which was derived from the Latin caritas.[1] In Christian theology charity, or love (agapē), is the greatest of the three theological virtues... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


References

  • "Bad Disney". Washington Times. November 21, 2003.
  • "Santa's Elves in Alaskan Town Reply to Letters". AOL News. Dec. 9, 2006.
  • Barnard, Eunice Fuller. "Santa Claus Claimed as a Real New Yorker." New York Times. December, 19, 1926.
  • Baum, L. Frank. The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus. 1902; reprint, New York: Penguin, 1986. ISBN 0-451-52064-5
  • Belk, Russel W. "A Child's Christmas in America: Santa Claus as Deity, Consumption as Religion." Journal of American Culture, 10, no. 1 (Spring 1987), pp. 87-100.
  • "Christmas Customs; Are They Christian?". The Watchtower (New York). December 15, 2000.
  • Clar, Mimi. "Attack on Santa Claus." Western Folklore, 18, no. 4 (October 1959), p. 337.
  • Clark, Cindy Dell. Flights of Fancy, Leaps of Faith: Children's Myths in Contemporary America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. ISBN 0-226-10778-7
  • "The Claus That Refreshes" at Snopes.com.
  • Dini, Paul. Jingle Belle various issues [7]
  • Flynn, Tom. The Trouble with Christmas. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1993. ISBN 0-87975-848-1
  • Horowitz, Joseph. Classical Music in America: A History of Its Rise and Fall. New York: W. W. Norton, 2005. ISBN 0-393-05717-8
  • "Is There a Santa Claus?" New York Sun. September 21, 1897.
  • King, Josiah. The Examination and Tryal of Old Father Christmas; Together with his Clearing by the Jury . . . London: Charles Brome, 1686. Full text available here
  • Lalumia, Christine. "The restrained restoration of Christmas". In the Ten Ages of Christmas from the BBC website.
  • Moore, Clement Clarke. "A Visit from St. Nicholas." Troy (N.Y.) Sentinel. December 23, 1823.
  • Nissenbaum, Stephen. The Battle for Christmas. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996. ISBN 0-679-74038-4
  • Otnes, Cele, Kyungseung Kim, and Young Chan Kim. "Yes, Virginia, There is a Gender Difference: Analyzing Children's Requests to Santa Claus." Journal of Popular Culture, 28, no. 1 (Summer 1994), pp. 17-29.
  • Ott, Jonathan. Pharmacotheon: Entheogenic Drugs, Their Plant Sources and History. Kennewick, Wash.: Natural Products Company, 1993. ISBN 0-9614234-9-8
  • Plath, David W. "The Japanese Popular Christmas: Coping with Modernity." American Journal of Folklore, 76, no. 302 (October-December 1963), pp. 309-317.
  • Quinn, Seabury. Roads. 1948; facsimile reprint, Mohegan Lake, N.Y.: Red Jacket Press, 2005. ISBN 0-9748895-8-X
  • "St. Nicholas of Myra" in the Catholic Encyclopedia at NewAdvent.org.
  • Sedaris, David. The Santaland Diaries and Seasons Greetings: Two Plays. New York: Dramatists Play Service, 1998. ISBN 0-8222-1631-0
  • Shenkman, Richard. Legends, Lies, and Cherished Myths of American History. New York: HarperCollins, 1988. ISBN 0-06-097261-0
  • Siefker, Phyllis. Santa Claus, Last of the Wild Men: The Origins and Evolution of Saint Nicholas, Spanning 50,000 Years. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1996. ISBN 0-7864-0246-6
  • Twitchell, James B. Twenty Ads that Shook the World. New York: Crown Publishers, 2000. ISBN 0-609-60563-1
  • "Why Track Him?" at NORADsanta.org.

Lyman Frank Baum (May 15, 1856 - May 6, 1919) was an American author and the creator of one of the most beloved classics of childrens literature, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... The Urban Legends Reference Pages (also known as snopes. ... Jingle Belle: Naughty & Nice cover by Lynne Naylor Jingle Belle is a cartoon character created by Paul Dini. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... Sedaris in 2005. ... SantaLand Diaries is an essay by David Sedaris. ...

See also

Portal:Holidays
Holidays Portal

Image File history File links 500px-Xmas_tree_animated. ...

Related topics

Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Christmas Eve (1904-05), watercolor painting by the Swedish painter Carl Larsson (1853-1919) Christmas Eve, the evening of December 24th, the preceding day or vigil before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the Christmas season. ... Santa Claus parades are parades held in some countries, but above all in North America, to celebrate the official opening of the Christmas season with the arrival of Santa Claus. ... Official Target logo with an affixed Merry Christmas greeting, after 2005 public pressure to include Christmas. The secularization of Christmas and the War on Christmas refer to the notion that the Christmas holiday is under attack from a general secular trend or from persons and/or organizations with a deliberate... Secret Santa, Pollyanna, Kris Kindle or Kris Kringle, and sometimes, but rarely Gnoming is a Christmas ritual involving a group of people exchanging anonymous gifts. ... Santa Rampage, 2004 (Austin) Santacon 2005 (New York) Atlanta Santacon 2006 SantaCon is a mass gathering of people dressed in cheap Santa Claus costumes, performing publicly on streets and in bars. ... The Flying Santa is the name given to a tradition that dates to Christmas Day of 1929, when packages of gifts were dropped from a plane to lighthouse keepers and their families along the New England coast. ...

Variations of Christmas around the world

It is one of the German Christmas tradition, to put up the Christmas tree mostly one day before the 24th and decorate it with the family. ... Korvatunturi is a fell in Lapland, on the border of Finland (in the municipality of Savukoski) and Russia. ...

Related figures

Krampus (2003 Perchtenlauf in Woelfnitz, Austria) The Companions of Saint Nicholas (or Father Christmas) are a group of closely related figures who accompany St. ... Sinterklaas and his Zwarte Pieten helpers arrive in the town of Sneek in November 2005 Sinterklaas (also called Sint Nikolaas in Dutch ( (help· info)) and Saint Nicolas in French) is a holiday tradition in the Netherlands and Belgium, celebrated every year on Saint Nicholas eve (December 5) or, in Belgium... A white Dutch woman in blackface costume as Zwarte Piet. ... An Easter Bunny figurine The Easter Bunny is an example of folklore mythology. ... Hanukkah Harry is a humorous Jewish counterpart of Santa Claus. ... Hogfather is the 20th Discworld novel by Terry Pratchett. ... The Jólasveinar (sometimes known as Christmas boys) are an Icelandic Christmas myth, comparable to Santa Claus. ... Saint Nicholas, also known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) in the Netherlands and Flanders, is the common name for the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Anatolia, (now in modern Turkey) and had a reputation for secret gift... Basil (ca. ... 19th century cartoon of Jack Frost as a United States major-general during the American Civil War Jack Frost is an elfish creature who personifies crisp, cold, winter weather; a variant of Father Winter (AKA Old Man Winter). ... Father Winter (Old Man Winter), like the elfish creature Jack Frost, is a personification of winter. ... Zanta flexing his muscles. ... One of Jenny Nyströms Christmas-themed tomte paintings, a popular image of the modern tomte A tomte or nisse is a mythical creature of Scandinavian folklore, believed to take care of a farmers home and barn and protect it from misfortune, in particular at night, when the... A Yule Goat from Uppland, Sweden. ... Image:Saintclaps. ... In the culture of the eastern Slavs the traditional character Ded Moroz (Russian: ) plays a role similar to that of Santa Claus. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Santa Claus



Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The Library of Congress is the de facto national library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress. ... An archivist surveying an unprocessed collection of materials. ...

Christmas
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Main Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ...

HistoryThe NativityBringers of giftsDecorationsEconomicsCustomsArts and media
Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ...

Christianity Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...

Nativity of JesusNativity sceneJesusMaryJosephArchangel GabrielThree Wise MenAdoration of the shepherdsStar of Bethlehem • King Herod • Massacre of the InnocentsSaint Nicholas DayTwelfth NightEpiphany (Christian)AdventChristmastide
Adoration of the Shepherds (1535-40), by Florentine Mannerist painter Agnolo Bronzino Nativity windows at Trinity Church, Boston, designed by Edward Burne-Jones and executed by William Morris, 1882 The Nativity of Jesus, or simply the Nativity, is the account of the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... A traditional nativity scene from Naples, Italy A nativity scene, also called a crib or crèche (meaning crib or manger in French) generally refers to any depiction of the birth or birthplace of Jesus. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... According to the New Testament, Mary (Judeo-Aramaic מרים, Maryām, from Hebrew Miriam) was the mother of Jesus of Nazareth; at the time of his conception she was betrothed (or engaged) to Joseph and was a virgin. ... For other uses, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod In Abrahamic religions, Gabriel (גַּבְרִיאֵל, Standard Hebrew Gavriʼel, Latin Gabrielus, Greek , Tiberian Hebrew Gaḇrîʼēl, Arabic جبريل Jibrīl or Jibrail, literally Master, of God, i. ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... Anbetung der Hirten (Adoration of the Shepherds) by Carlo Crivelli (1490) The Adoration of the shepherds, in Christian iconography, is a scene in which shepherds are near witnesses to the birth of Jesus, at his birthplace, typically depicted as a barn, near Bethlehem. ... Adoration of the Magi by Florentine painter Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337). ... Hordes (Hebrew: , ; Greek: , ; trad. ... The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... Saint Nicholas (Greek: , Agios Nikolaos, victory of the people) is the common name for Saint Nicholas, Bishop of Myra (in modern day Antalya province, Turkey), who had a reputation for secret gift-giving, but is now commonly identified with Santa Claus. ... Twelfth Night is a holiday in some branches of Christianity marking the coming of the Epiphany, or Twelfth Day, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as the evening of the 5 January, preceding Twelfth Day, the eve of the Epiphany. In some traditions it is taken to mean... The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... Advent (from the Latin Adventus, implicitly coupled with Redemptoris, the coming of the Saviour) is a holy season of the Christian church, the period of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Christ, also known as the season of Christmas. ... The Christmas season is a term that covers the time when two interconnected periods of celebration are held. ...

Folklore Folklore is the body of expressive culture, including tales, music, dance, legends, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, customs, material culture, and so forth within a particular population comprising the traditions (including oral traditions) of that culture, subculture, or group. ...

Father ChristmasSaint NicholasSanta ClausMrs. ClausSanta Claus' reindeerRudolphElvesNorth Pole • Lapland • RovaniemiFrosty the SnowmanHow The Grinch Stole ChristmasEbenezer Scrooge • Other characters
Excerpt from Josiah Kings The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England Father Christmas is the name used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and several other Commonwealth countries, for the gift-bringing figure of Christmas... Saint Nicholas (Greek: , Agios Nikolaos, victory of the people) is the common name for Saint Nicholas, Bishop of Myra (in modern day Antalya province, Turkey), who had a reputation for secret gift-giving, but is now commonly identified with Santa Claus. ... Mrs. ... Santa Claus reindeer are a team of reindeer which pull his sleigh and help him deliver Christmas gifts. ... Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer is a popular Christmas story about Santa Claus ninth and lead reindeer who possesses an unusually power of destuction that gives off its own light that is powerful enough to illuminate the teams path through anal cavities. ... A small forest elf (älva) rescuing an egg, from Solägget (1932), by Elsa Beskow An elf is a creature of Germanic paganism which still survives in northern European folklore. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... National anthem Sámi soga lávlla Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area ca. ... City Rovaniemi (1960) Administrative Province Province of Lapland Historical Province Lappland Area  - Total  - Land  - Water Ranked 5th (municipalities), and 1st (cities) 8,016 km² 7,601 km² 415 km² Population  - Total (01/2006)  - Density Ranked 13th 58,500 7. ... Frosty the Snowman is a popular Christmas song written by Steve Jack Rollins and Steve Nelson in 1950. ... The Grinch is a popular cartoon character created by Dr. Seuss. ... Ebenezer Scrooge encounters Ignorance and Want in A Christmas Carol Ebenezer Scrooge is the main character in Charles Dickens 1843 novel, A Christmas Carol. ...

Traditions

Twelve Days of ChristmasChristmas treeWassailingYule logStockingsOrnamentsLightsHistory of Christmas traditions • Plants • Food • Feasts • Events • Traditions by country: Philippine, Polish, Worldwide
The Twelve Days of Christmas and the associated evenings of those twelve days (Twelve-tide), are the festive days beginning the evening of Christmas Day (December 25) through the morning of Epiphany on (January 6). ... A Christmas tree from 1900. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A chocolate yule log. ... Stockings hung by the chimney with care A Christmas stocking is an empty sock or sock-shaped bag that children in the United States and some other cultures hang on Christmas Eve so that Santa can fill it with small toys, candy, fruit, coins, or other small gifts when he... Christmas bauble (called a Christmas ball in American English Christmas ornaments are decorations (usually made of glass, metal, wood or ceramics) that are used to festoon a Christmas tree. ... Section of a string of Christmas lights Christmas lights (also sometimes called fairy lights, twinkle lights or holiday lights in the United States) are strands of electric lights used to decorate homes, public/commercial buildings and Christmas trees during the Christmas season, mostly in the West. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Media

Fiction • Films • Plays • Television: Episodes, Specials • Music: Albums, Hit singles and tracks, Carols, Other Christmas music and songs
The following is an incomplete list of Christmas songs (hit singles and tracks) recorded by well known and obscure artists, many of which have hit on various charts around the world. ...

Society Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...

Christmas controversyChristmas creepChristmas truceLanguageBlack FridayWhite ChristmasChristmas Day (Trading) Act 2004 • Related holidays • List of winter festivals
Christmas controversy refers to publicized controversy surrounding the public acknowledgement or celebration of the Christmas holiday in media, advertising, government, and various secular environments. ... Christmas Creep is the commercial phenomenon of merchants advertising for Holiday Specials earlier and earlier every year. ... A cross, left near Ypres in Belgium in 1999, to commemorate the site of the Christmas Truce in 1914. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... White Christmas A white Christmas, to most people in the Northern Hemisphere, refers to snowy weather at Christmas, a phenomenon which is far more common in some countries than in others. ... The Christmas Day (Trading) Act 2004 is an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that prevents shops over 280 sq m/3,000 sq ft from opening on Christmas Day. ... List of winter festivals: This is an incomplete list of festivals and holidays that take place during the winter in the northern hemisphere, especially those commemorating the season. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Urban Legends Reference Pages: Coca-Cola Invents Santa (1311 words)
Santa Claus is perhaps the most remarkable of all the figures associated with Christmas.
Although Nast never settled on one size for his Santa figures (they ranged from elf-like to man-sized), his 1881 "Merry Old Santa Claus" drawing is quite close to the modern-day image.
Santa was portrayed as both large and small; he was usually round but sometimes of normal or slight build; and he dressed in furs (like Belsnickle) or cloth suits of red, blue, green, or purple.
Santa Claus Story – History & Sayings of Santa Claus (823 words)
For the rest of the year Santa Claus is believed to be living on the North Pole along with his wife and his elves where he manufactures toys.
Another tradition concerned with the letters to Santa Claus is that of burning down the letters written to Santa Claus in Britain, as it is believed that with the wind these letters would be automatically transported to the North Pole.
No description of Santa Claus can be complete without the mention of Santa's reindeers, which have been given the names of Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donder, who is also called by the name of Donner as some people find it difficult to pronounce Donder, Blitzen and Rudolph.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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