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Encyclopedia > Sanskrit numerals

The Sanskrit alphabetic numerals were created in about A.D. 510 by Āryabhaa. The system is also known as Āryabhaa numeration. Events Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius is appointed a consul by Theoderic Births Gildas, Celtic monk Deaths Hashim, great-grandfather of Muhammad and ancestor of the Hashemites Categories: 510 ... Aryabhata (आर्यभट) Ä€ryabhaá¹­a) (476 – 550) is the first of the great mathematician-astronomers of the classical age of India. ...

Numeral systems
Hindu-Arabic numerals
Western Arabic
Eastern Arabic
Indian family
Brahmi
East Asian numerals
Chinese
Japanese
Khmer
Korean
Thai
 
Alphabetic numerals
Abjad
Armenian
Cyrillic
Ge'ez
Hebrew
Ionian
Sanskrit
 
Other systems
Attic
Etruscan
Roman
Babylonian
Egyptian
Mayan
Numeral system topics
 
Positional systems
Decimal base,
Binaries2, 4, 8,16, 32, 64, 128
other:  3, 9, 12, 24, 30, 36, 60, more.   

+/- A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ... The Hindu-Arabic numeral system (also called Algorism) is a positional decimal numeral system documented from the 9th century. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also known as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... India has produced many numeral systems. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Ionian numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly before the 7th century BC. They are also known by the names Milesian numerals or Alexandrian numerals. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... Mayan numerals. ... This is a list of numeral system topics, by Wikipedia page. ... Positional notation is a system in which each position has a value represented by a unique symbol or character. ... The decimal (base ten or occasionally denary) numeral system has ten as its base. ... In mathematics, the base or radix is the number of various unique symbols (digits), including zero, that a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers in a given counting system. ... Computer files can be divided into two broad categories: binary and text. ... The binary numeral system (base 2 numerals) represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0 and 1. ... Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ... The octal numeral system is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... In mathematics and computer science, base-16, hexadecimal, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F or a–f. ... Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... Base 64 is a positional numeral system using a base of 64. ... Uuencode is a form of binary to text encoding that originated as a Unix program for encoding binary data for transmission over the uucp mail system. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ... A duodecimal multiplication table The duodecimal (also known as base-12 or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ... Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ...

Contents


History

Example

 
299, 792 468
Two hundred ninety-nine million, seven hundred ninety-two thousand, four hundred sixty-eight
equals
जल घिनि झुशु झृसृ खॄ
ja-la,  ghi-ni,  jhu-śu,  jh-s,  kh.
 
To understand this example, one have to know that in the traditional Indian notation of numbers and thus also in their denomination, the order of the digits was inversed by comparing to our modern way. So, naturally, also Āryabhaa began with the ones, before the tens; than the hundreds and the thousands; than the myriad and the lakh ( = 105 ), a.s.o. Like it shows this more detailled table just below:
 
Example:  299, 792 468
100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
 85,  42,  97,  99, 2
जल घिनि झुशु झृसृ खॄ
ja-la ghi-ni jhu-śu jhṛ-sṛ khḷ

A lakh (also spelled lac or laksha) is a unit in a traditional number system, still widely used in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, equal to a hundred thousand. ...

Numeral table

Here the complete table:

The   33 × 9  =  297   Sanskrit alphabetic numerical syllables
Nine vowels or syllabics   -a -i -u - - -e -ai -o -au  
         
    ×     10 0   10 2   10 4   10 6   10 8   1010   1012   1014   1016  
Five velar plosives                      
k - 1  
ka
कि
ki
कु
ku
कृ
kṛ
कॄ
kḷ
के
ke
कै
kai
को
ko
कौ
kau
 
kh - 2  
kha
खि
khi
खु
khu
खृ
khṛ
खॄ
khḷ
खे
khe
खै
khai
खो
kho
खौ
khau
 
g - 3  
ga
गि
gi
गु
gu
गृ
gṛ
गॄ
gḷ
गे
ge
गै
gai
गो
go
गौ
gau
 
gh - 4  
gha
घि
ghi
घु
ghu
घृ
ghṛ
घॄ
ghḷ
घे
ghe
घै
ghai
घो
gho
घौ
ghau
 
ŋ - 5  
ŋa
ङि
ŋi
ङु
ŋu
ङृ
ŋṛ
ङॄ
ŋḷ
ङे
ŋe
ङै
ŋai
ङो
ŋo
ङौ
ŋau
 
Five palatal plosives                      
c - 6  
ca
चि
ci
चु
cu
चृ
cṛ
चॄ
cḷ
चे
ce
चै
cai
चो
co
चौ
cau
 
ch - 7  
cha
छि
chi
छु
chu
छृ
chṛ
छॄ
chḷ
छे
che
छै
chai
छो
cho
छौ
chau
 
j - 8  
ja
जि
ji
जु
ju
जृ
jṛ
जॄ
jḷ
जे
je
जै
jai
जो
jo
जौ
jau
 
jh - 9  
jha
झि
jhi
झु
jhu
झृ
jhṛ
झॄ
jhḷ
झे
jhe
झै
jhai
झो
jho
झौ
jhau
 
ñ - 10  
ña
ञि
ñi
ञु
ñu
ञृ
ñṛ
ञॄ
ñḷ
ञे
ñe
ञै
ñai
ञो
ño
ञौ
ñau
 
Five retroflex plosives                      
- 11  
ṭa
टि
ṭi
टु
ṭu
टृ
ṭṛ
टॄ
ṭḷ
टे
ṭe
टै
ṭai
टो
ṭo
टौ
ṭau
 
ṭh - 12  
ṭha
ठि
ṭhi
ठु
ṭhu
ठृ
ṭhṛ
ठॄ
ṭhḷ
ठे
ṭhe
ठै
ṭhai
ठो
ṭho
ठौ
ṭhau
 
- 13  
ḍa
डि
ḍi
डु
ḍu
डृ
ḍṛ
डॄ
ḍḷ
डे
ḍe
डै
ḍai
डो
ḍo
डौ
ḍau
 
ḍh - 14  
ḍha
ढि
ḍhi
ढु
ḍhu
ढृ
ḍhṛ
ढॄ
ḍhḷ
ढे
ḍhe
ढै
ḍhai
ढो
ḍho
ढौ
ḍhau
 
- 15  
ṇa
णि
ṇi
णु
ṇu
णृ
ṇṛ
णॄ
ṇḷ
णे
ṇe
णै
ṇai
णो
ṇo
णौ
ṇau
 
Five dental plosives                      
t - 16  
ta
ति
ti
तु
tu
तृ
tṛ
तॄ
tḷ
ते
te
तै
tai
तो
to
तौ
tau
 
th - 17  
tha
थि
thi
थु
thu
थृ
thṛ
थॄ
thḷ
थे
the
थै
thai
थो
tho
थौ
thau
 
d - 18  
da
दि
di
दु
du
दृ
dṛ
दॄ
dḷ
दे
de
दै
dai
दो
do
दौ
dau
 
dh - 19  
dha
धि
dhi
धु
dhu
धृ
dhṛ
धॄ
dhḷ
धे
dhe
धै
dhai
धो
dho
धौ
dhau
 
n - 20  
na
नि
ni
नु
nu
नृ
nṛ
नॄ
nḷ
ने
ne
नै
nai
नो
no
नौ
nau
 
Five labial plosives                      
p - 21  
pa
पि
pi
पु
pu
पृ
pṛ
पॄ
pḷ
पे
pe
पै
pai
पो
po
पौ
pau
 
ph - 22  
pha
फि
phi
फु
phu
फृ
phṛ
फॄ
phḷ
फे
phe
फै
phai
फो
pho
फौ
phau
 
b - 23  
ba
बि
bi
बु
bu
बृ
bṛ
बॄ
bḷ
बे
be
बै
bai
बो
bo
बौ
bau
 
bh - 24  
bha
भि
bhi
भु
bhu
भृ
bhṛ
भॄ
bhḷ
भे
bhe
भै
bhai
भो
bho
भौ
bhau
 
m - 25  
ma
मि
mi
मु
mu
मृ
mṛ
मॄ
mḷ
मे
me
मै
mai
मो
mo
मौ
mau
 
Four approximants or trill                      
y - 30  
ya
यि
yi
यु
yu
यृ
yṛ
यॄ
yḷ
ये
ye
यै
yai
यो
yo
यौ
yau
 
r - 40  
ra
रि
ri
रु
ru
रृ
rṛ
रॄ
rḷ
रे
re
रै
rai
रो
ro
रौ
rau
 
l - 50  
la
लि
li
लु
lu
लृ
lṛ
लॄ
lḷ
ले
le
लै
lai
लो
lo
लौ
lau
 
v - 60  
va
वि
vi
वु
vu
वृ
vṛ
वॄ
vḷ
वे
ve
वै
vai
वो
vo
वौ
vau
 
Three coronal fricatives                      
ś - 70  
śa
शि
śi
शु
śu
शृ
śṛ
शॄ
śḷ
शे
śe
शै
śai
शो
śo
शौ
śau
 
- 80  
ṣa
षि
ṣi
षु
ṣu
षृ
ṣṛ
षॄ
ṣḷ
षे
ṣe
षै
ṣai
षो
ṣo
षौ
ṣau
 
s - 90  
sa
सि
si
सु
su
सृ
sṛ
सॄ
sḷ
से
se
सै
sai
सो
so
सौ
sau
 
One glottal fricative                      
h - 100  
ha
हि
hi
हु
hu
हृ
hṛ
हॄ
hḷ
हे
he
है
hai
हो
ho
हौ
hau
 
                           
Note: Transliteration according to IAST. Exception: The velar nasal , officially Ṅṅ, here Ŋŋ, because ŋa seems to be clearer than a.

Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This article discusses the unit of speech. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Coronal consonants are articulated with the flexible front part of the tongue. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

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