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Encyclopedia > Sanskrit
Sanskrit
संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam 
Pronunciation: [sə̃skɹ̩t̪əm]
Spoken in: India, Nepal
Total speakers: 49,736 fluent speakers (1991 Indian census)
Language family: Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Indo-Aryan
   Sanskrit 
Writing system: Devanāgarī and several other Brāhmī-based scripts 
Official status
Official language in: Flag of India India (one of the scheduled languages)
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: sa
ISO 639-2: san
ISO 639-3: san
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Sanskrit (संस्कृता वाक् saṃskṛtā vāk, for short संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Map showing the sex ratio of each district in India Chart showing the percentage of... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... () is an abugida script used to write several Indo-Aryan languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Gujarati,Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Pahari (Garhwali and Kumaoni), Santhali, Nepali, Newari, Tharu and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... Variation of BrāhmÄ« with dates. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Indian constitution recognizes 22 languages as National languages 1. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the BrāhmÄ« script of Mauryan India. ... Vāk or Vāc (stem , nominative ) is the Sanskrit word for speech, voice, talk, or language. Personified, Vāk is a goddess, most frequently she is identified with Bharati or Sarasvati, the goddess of speech. ... A classical language, is a language with a literature that is classical—ie, it should be ancient, it should be an independent tradition that arose mostly on its own, not as an offshoot of another tradition, and it must have a large and extremely rich body of ancient literature. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... As a large and linguistically diverse country, India does not have a single official language. ...


Its position in the cultures of South and Southeast Asia is akin to that of Latin and Greek in Europe and it has evolved into as well as influenced many modern-day languages of the world. It appears in pre-Classical form as Vedic Sanskrit, with the language of the Rigveda being the oldest and most archaic stage preserved. Dating back to as early as 1500 BC, Vedic Sanskrit is the earliest attested Indo-Aryan language, and one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A proto-language is a language which was the common ancestor of related languages that form a language family. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ...


The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and religious texts. Today, Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals in the forms of hymns and mantras. Spoken Sanskrit is still in use in a few traditional institutions in India, and there are some attempts at revival. Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... Kalidasa and Asvaghosa were the main pioneers of Sanskrit drama. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Hindu scriptures Hindu scripture is overwhelmingly written in Sanskrit. ... Stotras are Hindu prayers that praise aspects of God, such as Devi, Siva, or Vishnu. ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... Attempts at reviving the Sanskrit language have been undertaken in the Republic of India since its foundation in 1947 (when Sanskrit was declared one of 21 official languages). ...


The scope of this article is the Classical Sanskrit language as laid out in the grammar of Panini, around the 4th century BCE. Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (IPA ) was an ancient Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th century BC, but estimates range from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who is most famous for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology known as the . ... (5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Invasion of the Celts into Ireland Kingdom of Macedon conquers Persian empire Romans build first aqueduct Chinese use bellows The Scythians are beginning to be absorbed into the Sarmatian...

Contents

History

Devimahatmya manuscript on palm-leaf, in an early Bhujimol script, Bihar or Nepal, 11th century.
Devimahatmya manuscript on palm-leaf, in an early Bhujimol script, Bihar or Nepal, 11th century.

Dating back nearly 3500 years, Sanskrit is one of the oldest spoken languages in existence and the root of most Indian languages, and also heavily influencing the southern Indian languages, except Tamil. It was evolved for the most part by the inhabitants of the Indic civilization (post Indus-valley civilization) in northern and north-western India. Its primary manifestation was in the composition of the sacred Hindu Vedic texts, the Vedas, which were essentially reflective of the lives and culture of those peoples. Download high resolution version (920x312, 125 KB)Devimahatmya MS in Sanskrit on palm-leaf, Bihar or Nepal, 11th c. ... Download high resolution version (920x312, 125 KB)Devimahatmya MS in Sanskrit on palm-leaf, Bihar or Nepal, 11th c. ... The oldest surviving manuscript of the text, on palm-leaf, in an early Bhujimol script, Bihar or Nepal, 11th century. ... Bhujimol script, palm_leaf MS of the Devimahatmya, Bihar or Nepal, 11th century. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


Sanskrit is the root of the modern Indo-Aryan languages. It belongs to the Indo-Iranian sub-family of the Indo-European family of languages. As such, it is part of the Satem group of Indo-European languages, which also includes the Balto-Slavic branch and Armenian. The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Satem division of the Indo-European family includes the following branches: Indo-Iranian, Baltic and Slavic, Armenian, Albanian, perhaps also a number of barely documented extinct languages, such as Phrygian, Thracian, and Dacian (see: Indo-European languages). ... The hypothetical Balto-Slavic language group consists of the Baltic and Slavic language subgroups of the Indo-European family. ...


The language name saṃskṛtam is derived from the past participle saṃskṛtaḥ 'together-made' of the verb saṃ(s)kar- 'to make together, join, form well', [1] where saṃ- 'together' and (s)kar- 'do, make'. In modern usage, the verbal adjective saṃskṛta- has come to mean "cultured". The language referred to as saṃskṛtā vāk "the language of cultured" has by definition always been a "high" language, used for religious and learned discourse and contrasted with the languages spoken by the people. It is also called deva-bhāā meaning "language of the gods". The oldest surviving Sanskrit grammar is Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī ("Eight-Chapter Grammar") dating to circa the 4th century BC. It is essentially a prescriptive grammar, i.e., an authority that defines (rather than describes) correct Sanskrit, although it contains descriptive parts, mostly to account for some Vedic forms that had already passed out of use in Panini's time. Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... The Ashtadhyayi (Ạṣtādhyāyī, meaning eight chapters) is the earliest known grammar of Sanskrit, and one of the first works on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics, or linguistics altogether. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ...


The term "Sanskrit" was not thought of as a specific language set apart from other languages, but rather as a particularly refined or perfected manner of speaking. Knowledge of Sanskrit was a marker of social class and educational attainment and the language was taught mainly to members of the higher castes, through close analysis of Sanskrit grammarians such as Pāṇini. Sanskrit, as the learned language of Ancient India, thus existed alongside the Prakrits (vernaculars), which evolved into the modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi, Romany, Panjabi, Kashmiri, Nepali, Maithili, Bengali,Assamese, Oriya, Rajasthan languages, Gujarati,Marathi, Konkani, Sinhala and Divehi. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Romany (or Romani) relates to: The Roma: a people sometimes pejoratively called Gypsies. Their language Romany was the pseudonym of a broadcaster and writer of Roma descent, George Bramwell Evens. ... Punjabi (sometimes spelled Panjabi) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation) Kashmiri is a Dardic language spoken primarily in Kashmir, an Asian region now split between India, Pakistan and China. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... Maithili is of the family of Indo-Aryan languages, which are part of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Oriya is the official language of the Indian state of Orissa. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Sinhala language Sinhala alphabet Sinhala people Sinhala place-names Sinhala Place Names, see Sinhala place-names Category: ...


Vedic Sanskrit

Main article: Vedic Sanskrit

Sanskrit, as defined by Pāṇini, had evolved out of the earlier "Vedic" form. Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or "Paninian" Sanskrit as separate 'dialects'. Though they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology, vocabulary, and grammar and syntax that make the understanding of Vedic difficult. Classical Sanskrit is considered to have descended from Vedic Sanskrit. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, a large collection of hymns, incantations (Samhitas),'theological' discussions, and religio-philosophical discussions (Brahmanas, Upanishads) which are the earliest religious texts of the original Indian religion i.e. the precursor of Hindu religion. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the Rigveda Samhita to be the earliest, composed by many authors over centuries of oral tradition. The end of the Vedic period is marked by the composition of the Upanishads, which form the concluding part of the Vedic corpus in the traditional compilations. The current hypothesis holds that the Vedic form of Sanskrit survived until the middle of the first millennium BCE.[citation needed] It is around this time that Sanskrit began the transition from a first language to a second language of religion and learning, marking the beginning of the Classical period. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Veda redirects here. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ...


Classical Sanskrit

A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit of the Hindu Epics—the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The deviations from Pāṇini in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits, or "innovations"[2]. and not because they are pre-Paninean." Traditional Sanskrit scholars call such deviations aarsha (आर्ष), or "of the rishis", the traditional title for the ancient authors. In some contexts there are also more "prakritisms" (borrowings from common speech) than in Classical Sanskrit proper. Finally, there is also a language called "Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit" by scholars, which starts out from Buddhist prakrit texts and gradually evolved to various forms of Sanskrit, some more prakritized than the others [3], (see also termination of spoken Sanskrit). According to Tiwari ([1955] 2004), there were four principal dialects of classical Sanskrit, viz., paścimottarī (Northwestern, also called Northern or Western), madhyadeśī (lit., middle country), pūrvi (Eastern) and dakṣiṇī (Southern, arose in the Classical period). The predecessors of the first three are even attested in Vedic Brāhmaṇas, of which the first one was regarded as the purest (Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, 7.6). The great Hindu Epics are also occasionally termed Mahakavya (Great Compositions); the terms refer to a canon of Hindu religious scripture. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... A rishi (Sanskrit ऋषि: ) is a Hindu saint or sage and in its most strict canonical sense denotes a Vedic sage to whom Vedic hymns were originally revealed. // A Rishi is a person who can hold and transmit knowledge in the form of Light. ... Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (BHS) is a modern linguistic category applied to some of the Mahāyāna Buddhist Sutras, such as the Perfection of Wisdom. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Many of the Sanskrit dramas suggest that it coexisted along with prakrits, spoken by those with better education. ... The s (Devanagari ) are part of the Hindu Shruti; They are composed in Vedic Sanskrit, and the period of their composition is sometimes referred to as the Brahmanic period or age (approximately between 900 BC and 500 BC). ...


European Scholarship

European scholarship in Sanskrit, begun by Heinrich Roth (1620–1668) and Johann Ernst Hanxleden (1681–1731), is regarded as responsible for the discovery of the Indo-European language family by Sir William Jones, and played an important role in the development of Western linguistics. Heinrich Roth (Augsburg, December 18, 1620 – June 20, 1668 at Agra) was a pioneering Sanskrit scholar. ... Johann Ernst Hanxleden (b. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Sir William Jones Sir William Jones (September 28, 1746 – April 27, 1794) was an English philologist and student of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among Indo-European languages. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ...


Sir William Jones, speaking to the Asiatic Society in Calcutta (now Kolkata) on February 2, 1786, said: Sir William Jones Sir William Jones (September 28, 1746 – April 27, 1794) was an English philologist and student of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among Indo-European languages. ... The Asiatic Society was founded by Sir William Jones (1746-1794) on 15 January 1784 in Calcutta, the capital of British India, to enhance and further the cause of Oriental research. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong, indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists.

For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ...

Phonology

Further information: Śikṣā

Classical Sanskrit distinguishes about 36 phonemes. There is, however, some allophony and the writing systems used for Sanskrit generally indicate this, thus distinguishing 48 sounds In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... For other uses, see Phone (disambiguation). ...


The sounds are traditionally listed in the order vowels (Ach), diphthongs (Hal), anusvara and visarga, plosives (Sparśa) and nasals (starting in the back of the mouth and moving forward), and finally the liquids and fricatives, written in IAST as follows (see the tables below for details): Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Anusvaara (or anusvaaram) appears in the alphabet of Indian languages like Sanskrit which use the Devanagari script, and in the Dravidian languages. ... Visarga () is a Sanskrit word meaning sending forth, discharge. In Sanskrit phonology (), (also called, equivalently, by earlier grammarians) is the name of a phone, , written as IAST <>, Harvard-Kyoto <H>, Devanagari <>. Visarga is an allophone of and in pausa (at the end of an utterance). ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are speech sounds; more specifically, they are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial [j] in English yes corresponds to [i]). The class of liquids can be... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ...

a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ ; e ai o au
ṃ ḥ
k kh g gh ṅ; c ch j jh ñ; ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ; t th d dh n; p ph b bh m
y r l v; ś ṣ s h

An alternate traditional ordering is that of the Shiva Sutra of Pāṇini. The Shiva Sutras (also Maheshvara Sutras) are the 14 sutras that form the basis of the AṣṭādhyāyÄ«, the Sanskrit grammar by Pāṇini. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ...


Vowels

See also: R-colored vowel#Vocalic R in Sanskrit

The vowels of Classical Sanskrit with their word-initial Devanagari symbol, diacritical mark with the consonant प् (/p/), pronunciation (of the vowel alone and of /p/+vowel) in IPA, equivalent in IAST and ITRANS and (approximate) equivalents in English are listed below:   In phonetics, an r-colored vowel or rhotacized vowel is a vowel either with the tip or blade of the tongue turned up during at least part of the articulation of the vowel (a retroflex articulation) or with the tip of the tongue down and the back of the tongue... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ...

Letter Diacritical mark with “प् Pronunciation Pronunciation with /p/ IAST equiv. ITRANS equiv. English equivalent (GA unless stated otherwise)
/ɐ/ or /ə/ /pɐ/ or /pə/ a a short near-open central vowel or schwa: u in bunny or a in about
पा /aː/ /paː/ ā A long open back unrounded vowel: a in father (RP
िप /i/ /pi/ i i short close front unrounded vowel: i in fin
पी /iː/ /piː/ ī I long close front unrounded vowel: ee in feet
पु /u/ /pu/ u u short close back rounded vowel: oo in foot
पू /uː/ /puː/ ū U long close back rounded vowel: oo in cool
पृ /ɻ/ /pɻ/ R short retroflex approximant: r in burl
पॄ /ɻː/ /pɻː/ RR long retroflex approximant r in burl
पॢ /ɭ/ /pɭ/ LR short retroflex lateral approximant (no English equivalent)
पॣ /ɭː/ /pɭː/ LRR long retroflex lateral approximant
पे /eː/ /peː/ e e long close-mid front unrounded vowel: a in bane (some speakers)
पै /əi/ /pəi/ ai ai a long diphthong: i in ice, i in kite (Canadian English)
पो /oː/ /poː/ o o long close-mid back rounded vowel: o in bone (some speakers)
पौ /əu/ /pəu/ au au a long diphthong: Similar to the ou in house (Canadian English)

The long vowels are pronounced twice as long as their short counterparts. Also, there exists a third, extra-long length for most vowels, called pluti, which is used in various cases, but particularly in the vocative. The pluti is not accepted by all grammarians. IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... The Indian languages TRANSliteration (ITRANS) is an ASCII transliteration scheme for Indic scripts, particularly, but not exclusively, for Devanāgarī (used for the Hindi, Marathi, Sanskrit, Nepali, Sindhi and other languages). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... The retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The retroflex lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Canadian English (CanE) is the variety of North American English used in Canada. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... Pluti is the term for overlong vowels in Sanskrit. ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person being addressed, found in Latin among other languages. ...


The vowels /e/ and /o/ continue as allophonic variants of Proto-Indo-Iranian /ai/, /au/ and are categorized as diphthongs by Sanskrit grammarians even though they are realized phonetically as simple long vowels. (See above). The term Indo-Iranian includes all speakers of Indo-Iranian languages, i. ...


Additional points:

  • There are some additional signs traditionally listed in tables of the Devanagari script:
    • The diacritic called anusvāra, (IAST: ). It is used both to indicate the nasalization of the vowel in the syllable ([◌̃] and to represent the sound of a syllabic /n/ or /m/; e.g. पं /pəŋ/.
    • The diacritic called visarga, represents /əh/ (IAST: ); e.g. पः /pəh/.
    • The diacritic called chandrabindu, not traditionally included in Devanagari charts for Sanskrit, is used interchangeably with the anusvāra to indicate nasalization of the vowel, primarily in Vedic notation; e.g. पँ /pə̃/.
  • If a lone consonant needs to be written without any following vowel, it is given a halanta/virāma diacritic below (प्).
  • The vowel /aː/ in Sanskrit is realized as being more central and less back than the closest English approximation, which is /ɑː/. But the grammarians have classified it as a back vowel. (Tiwari, [1955] 2004).
  • The ancient Sanskrit grammarians classified the vowel system as velars, retroflexes, palatals and plosives rather than as back, central and front vowels. Hence and are classified respectively as palato-velar (a+i) and labio-velar (a+u) vowels respectively. But the grammarians have classified them as diphthongs and in prosody, each is given two mātrās. This does not necessarily mean that they are proper diphthongs, but neither excludes the possibility that they could have been proper diphthongs at a very ancient stage (see above). These vowels are pronounced as long /eː/ and /oː/ respectively by learned Sanskrit Brahmans and priests of today. Other than the "four" diphthongs, Sanskrit usually disallows any other diphthong—vowels in succession, where they occur, are converted to semivowels according to sandhi rules.
  • In the Devanagari script used for Sanskrit, whenever a consonant in a word-ending position is without any virāma (freely standing in the orthography: as opposed to प्), the neutral vowel schwa (/ə/) is automatically associated with it—this is of course true for the consonant to be in any position in the word. Word-ending schwa is always short. But the IAST a appended to the end of masculine noun words rather confuses the foreigners to pronounce it as /ɑː/—this makes the masculine Sanskrit words sound like feminine! e.g., shiva must be pronounced as /ɕivə/ and not as /ɕivɑː/. Tiwari ([1955] 2004) argues that in Vedic Sanskrit, अ indicated short /ɑ/, and became centralized and raised in the era of the Prakrits.

IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ... Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ...

Consonants

IAST and Devanagari notations are given, with approximate IPA values in square brackets. IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) Devanāgarī (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Labial
Ōshtya
Labiodental
Dantōshtya
Dental
Dantya
Retroflex
Mūrdhanya
Palatal
Tālavya
Velar
Kanthya
Glottal
Stop
Sparśa
Unaspirated
Alpaprāna
p [p] b [b] t [t̪] d [d̪] [ʈ] [ɖ] c [c͡ç] j [ɟ͡ʝ] k [k] g [g]
Aspirated
Mahāprāna
ph [pʰ] bh [bʱ] th [t̪ʰ] dh [d̪ʱ] ṭh [ʈʰ] ḍh [ɖʱ] ch [c͡çʰ] jh [ɟ͡ʝʱ] kh [kʰ] gh [gʱ]
Nasal
Anunāsika
m [m] n [n̪] [ɳ] ñ [ɲ] [ŋ]
Semivowel
Antastha
v [ʋ] y [j]
Liquid
Drava
l [l] r [r]
Fricative
Ūshman
s [s̪] [ʂ] ś [ɕ] [h] h [ɦ]

The table below shows the traditional listing of the Sanskrit consonants with the (nearest) equivalents in English (as pronounced in General American and Received Pronunciation) and Spanish. Each consonant shown below is deemed to be followed by the neutral vowel schwa (/ə/), and is named in the table as such. Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ...

Plosives – Sprshta
Unaspirated
Voiceless
Alpaprāna Śvāsa
Aspirated
Voiceless
Mahāprāna Śvāsa
Unaspirated
Voiced
Alpaprāna Nāda
Aspirated
Voiced
Mahāprāna Nāda
Nasal
Anunāsika Nāda
Velar
Kantya

/kə/; English: skip

/kʰə/; English: cat

/gə/; English: game

/gʱə/; somewhat similar to English: doghouse

/ŋə/; English: ring
Palatal
Tālavya

/cə/; English: exchange

/cʰə/; English: church

/ɟə/; ≈English: jam

/ɟʱə/; somewhat similar to English: hedgehog

/ɲə/; English: bench
Retroflex
Mūrdhanya

/ʈə/; No English equivalent

/ʈʰə/; No English equivalent

/ɖə/; No English equivalent

/ɖʱə/; No English equivalent

/ɳə/; No English equivalent
Apico-Dental
Dantya

/t̪ə/; Spanish: tomate

/t̪ʰə/; Aspirated /t̪/

/d̪ə/; Spanish: donde

/d̪ʱə/; Aspirated /d̪/

/n̪ə/; English: name
Labial
Ōshtya

/pə/; English: spin

/pʰə/; English: pit

/bə/; English: bone

/bʱə/; somewhat similar to English: clubhouse

/mə/; English: mine
Non-Plosives/Sonorants
Palatal
Tālavya
Retroflex
Mūrdhanya
Dental
Dantya
Labial/
Glottal
Ōshtya
Approximant
Antastha

/jə/; English: you

/rə/; English: trip (Scottish English)

/l̪ə/; English: love
व (labio-dental)
/ʋə/; English: vase
Sibilant/
Fricative
Ūshman

/ɕə/; English: ship

/ʂə/; Retroflex form of /ʃ/

/s̪ə/; English: same
(glottal)
/ɦə/; English behind

A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Retroflex consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue curled up and back so the bottom of the tip touches the roof of the mouth. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Retroflex consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue curled up and back so the bottom of the tip touches the roof of the mouth. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... A sibilant is a type of fricative, made by speeding up air through a narrow channel and directing it over the sharp edge of the teeth. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...

Phonology and Sandhi

The Sanskrit vowels are as discussed in the section above. The long syllabic l () is not attested, and is only discussed by grammarians for systematic reasons. Its short counterpart occurs in a single root only, kḷp "to order, array". Long syllabic r () is also quite marginal, occurring in the genitive plural of r-stems (e.g. mātṛ "mother" and pitṛ "father" have gen.pl. mātṝṇām and pitṝṇām). i, u, ṛ, ḷ are vocalic allophones of consonantal y, v, r, l. There are thus only 5 invariably vocalic phonemes, In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...

a, ā, ī, ū, ṝ.

Visarga is an allophone of r and s, and anusvara , Devanagari of any nasal, both in pausa (ie, the nasalized vowel). The exact pronunciation of the three sibilants may vary, but they are distinct phonemes. An aspirated voiced sibilant /zʱ/ was inherited by Indo-Aryan from Proto-Indo-Iranian but lost shortly before the time of the Rigveda (aspirated fricatives are exceedingly rare in any language). The retroflex consonants are somewhat marginal phonemes, often being conditioned by their phonetic environment; they do not continue a PIE series and are often ascribed by some linguists to the substratal influence of Dravidian[citation needed] or other substrate languages. The nasal [ɲ] is a conditioned allophone of /n/ (/n/ and /ɳ/ are distinct phonemes—aṇu 'minute', 'atomic' [nom. sg. neutr. of an adjective] is distinctive from anu 'after', 'along'; phonologically independent /ŋ/ occurs only marginally, e.g. in prāṅ 'directed forwards/towards' [nom. sg. masc. of an adjective]). There are thus 31 consonantal or semi-vocalic phonemes, consisting of four/five kinds of stops realized both with or without aspiration and both voiced and voiceless, three nasals, four semi-vowels or liquids, and four fricatives, written in IAST transliteration as follows: Visarga () is a Sanskrit word meaning sending forth, discharge. In Sanskrit phonology (), (also called, equivalently, by earlier grammarians) is the name of a phone, , written as IAST <>, Harvard-Kyoto <H>, Devanagari <>. Visarga is an allophone of and in pausa (at the end of an utterance). ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... Anusvaara (or anusvaaram) appears in the alphabet of Indian languages like Sanskrit which use the Devanagari script, and in the Dravidian languages. ... See Pausha for the Hindu month Pausa (Latin for break) in linguistics refers to the end of an utterance. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ...

k, kh, g, gh; c, ch, j, jh; ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh; t, th, d, dh; p, ph, b, bh; m, n, ṇ; y, r, l, v; ś, ṣ, s, h

or a total of 36 unique Sanskrit phonemes altogether.


The phonological rules to be applied when combining morphemes to a word, and when combining words to a sentence are collectively called sandhi "composition". Texts are written phonetically, with sandhi applied (except for the so-called padapāha). Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries. ...


Writing system

Kashmiri Shaivaite manuscript in the Sharada script (c. 17th century)

Historically, Sanskrit was not associated with any particular script. The emphasis on orality, not textuality, in the Vedic Sanskrit tradition was maintained through the development of early classical Sanskrit literature. When Sanskrit was written, the choice of writing system was influenced by the regional scripts of the scribes. As such, virtually all of the major writing systems of South Asia have been used for the production of Sanskrit manuscripts. Since the late 19th century, Devanagari has been considered as the de facto writing system for Sanskrit,[4] quite possibly because of the European practice of printing Sanskrit texts in the script. Birch-bark manuscript. ... Birch-bark manuscript. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Saivite: of Saivism; belonging to Saivism, the Hindu denomination that worships God Siva as the Supreme God. ... Kashmiri Shaivaite manuscript (17th or 18th century) The Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts, developed from ca. ... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) Devanāgarī (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ...


Writing came relatively late to India, introduced from the Middle East by traders around the 5th century BC, according to a hypothesis by Rhys Davids and favored by the Persian administration of Gandhara and Sindh. Even after the introduction of writing, oral tradition and memorization of texts remained a prominent feature of Sanskrit literature. In northern India, there are Brahmi inscriptions dating from the 3rd century BCE onwards, the oldest appearing on the famous Prakrit pillar inscriptions of king Ashoka. The earliest South Indian inscriptions in Tamil Brahmi, written in early Tamil, belong to the same period. ([5] Roughly contemporary with the Brahmi, the Kharosthi script was used in the northwest of the subcontinet. Later (ca. 4th to 8th centuries AD) the Gupta script, derived from Brahmi, became prevalent. From ca. the 8th century, the Sharada script evolved out of the Gupta script. The latter was displaced in its turn by Devanagari from ca. the 11/12th century, with intermediary stages such as the Siddham script. In Eastern India, the Bengali script and, later, the Oriya script, were used. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Thomas William Rhys Davids (May 12, 1843 - December 27, 1922) was an British scholar of the Pāli language and founder of the Pali Text Society. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... The Kharos&#803;t&#803;h&#299; script, also known as the G&#257;ndh&#257;r&#299; script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border... The Gupta script was used for writing Sanskrit and is associated with the Gupta Empire of India which was a period of material prosperity and great religious and scientific developments. ... Kashmiri Shaivaite manuscript (17th or 18th century) The Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts, developed from ca. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Siddham (Sanskrit, accomplished or perfected) — referred to in Japanese as bonji (梵字) — is the name of a North Indian script used for writing Sanskrit. ... Bangla redirects here. ... The Oriya script is used to write the Oriya language. ...


In the south where Dravidian languages predominate, scripts used for Sanskrit include Kannada in Kannada and Telugu speaking regions, Telugu in Telugu and Tamil speaking regions, Malayalam and Grantha in Tamil speaking regions. For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... Telugu script, an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write Telugu, a Dravidian Language found in the Southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh as well as several other neighboring states. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Grantha (Punjabi , Tamil , from Sanskrit ग्रन्थ grantha meaning book or manuscript) is an ancient script that was prevalent in South India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...

Image:Phrase sanskrit.png
Sanskrit in modern Indian scripts. May Śiva bless those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kalidasa)

Image File history File links Phrase_sanskrit. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Romanization

Since the late 18th century, Sanskrit has been transliterated using the Latin alphabet. The system most commonly used today is the IAST (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration), which has been the academic standard since 1888/1912. ASCII-based transliteration schemes have evolved due to difficulties representing Sanskrit characters in computer systems. These include Harvard-Kyoto and ITRANS, a transliteration scheme that is used widely on the Internet, especially in Usenet and in email, for considerations of speed of entry as well as rendering issues. With the wide availability of Unicode aware web browsers, IAST has become common online. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Devanagari. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... The Harvard-Kyoto Convention is a system for transliterating the Sanskrit language in ASCII. It is predominantly used informally in e-mail, and for electronic texts. ... The Indian languages TRANSliteration (ITRANS) is an ASCII transliteration scheme for Indic scripts, particularly, but not exclusively, for Devanāgarī (used for the Hindi, Marathi, Sanskrit, Nepali, Sindhi and other languages). ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...


European scholars in the 19th century generally preferred Devanagari for the transcription and reproduction of whole texts and lengthy excerpts. However, references to individual words and names in texts composed in European languages were usually represented with Roman transliteration. From the 20th century onwards, due to production costs, textual editions edited by Western scholars have mostly been in Romanized transliteration.


Grammar

Main article: Sanskrit grammar

Sanskrit grammatical tradition (, one of the six Vedanga disciplines) begins in late Vedic India, and culminates in the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini (ca. ...

Grammatical tradition

Main article: Sanskrit grammarians

Sanskrit grammatical tradition (vyākaraṇa, one of the six Vedanga disciplines) began in late Vedic India and culminated in the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini, which consists of 3990 sutras (ca. 5th century BC). After a century Pāṇini (around 400 BC) Kātyāyana composed Vārtikas on Pāninian sũtras. Patañjali, who lived three centuries after Pānini, wrote the Mahābhāṣya, the "Great Commentary" on the Aṣṭādhyāyī and Vārtikas. Because of these three ancient Sanskrit grammarians this grammar is called Trimuni Vyākarana. To understand the meaning of sutras Jayaditya and Vāmana wrote the commentry named Kāsikā 600 AD. Paninian grammar is based on 14 Shiva sutras (aforism). Here whole Mātrika (alphabet) is abbreviated. This abbreviation is called Pratyāhara.[6] Sanskrit grammatical tradition (, one of the six Vedanga disciplines) begins in late Vedic India, and culminates in the AṣṭādhyāyÄ« of Pāṇini (ca. ... The Vedanga (IAST , member of the Veda) are six auxiliary disciplines for the understanding and tradition of the Vedas. ... The Vedic civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas, the earliest known records of Indian history. ... The Ashtadhyayi (AṣṭādhyāyÄ«, meaning eight chapters) is the earliest known grammar of Sanskrit, and one of the first works on descriptive linguistics, generative linguistics, or linguistics altogether. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... The Celtics claim Vienna, Austria. ... Patañjali as an incarnation of Adi Sesha Patañjali (DevanāgarÄ« पतञ्जलि) is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the philosophical aspects of mind and consciousness, and also the author of a major commentary on Paninis Ashtadhyayi, although many scholars do not consider... The Mahābhāṣya (great commentary), attributed to Patañjali, is a commentary on the celebrated Ashtadhyayi of Panini is one of the three most famous works in Sanskrit grammar. ... Sanskrit grammatical tradition (, one of the six Vedanga disciplines) begins in late Vedic India, and culminates in the AṣṭādhyāyÄ« of Pāṇini (ca. ... For other uses, see number 600. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ...


Verbs

Main article: Sanskrit verbs

The Sanskrit verbal system is very complex, with verbs inflecting for different combinations of tense, aspect, mood, number, and person. ...

Classification of verbs

Sanskrit has ten classes of verbs divided into in two broad groups: athematic and thematic. The thematic verbs are so called because an a, called the theme vowel, is inserted between the stem and the ending. This serves to make the thematic verbs generally more regular. Exponents used in verb conjugation include prefixes, suffixes, infixes, and reduplication. Every root has (not necessarily all distinct) zero, gua, and vddhi grades. If V is the vowel of the zero grade, the gua-grade vowel is traditionally thought of as a + V, and the vddhi-grade vowel as ā + V. It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses of athematic see Thematic. ... Vowel stems, in Indo-European linguistics, are the stems of nouns or verbs that are thematic. ... Vowel stems, in Indo-European linguistics, are the stems of nouns or verbs that are thematic. ... An exponent is a phonological manifestation of a morphosyntactic property. ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An infix is an affix inserted inside an existing word. ... Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ... The Sanskrit word guna () has the basic meaning of string or a single thread or strand of a cord or twine. In more abstract uses, it may mean a subdivision, species, kind, and generally quality. // In Classical literature (e. ... Vrddhi is a Sanskrit word meaning growth (cognate to English weird, Old English wyrd). ...


Tense systems

The verbs tenses (a very inexact application of the word, since more distinctions than simply tense are expressed) are organized into four 'systems' (as well as gerunds and infinitives, and such creatures as intensives/frequentatives, desideratives, causatives, and benedictives derived from more basic forms) based on the different stem forms (derived from verbal roots) used in conjugation. There are four tense systems: Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, “gerund” is a term used to refer to various non-finite verb forms in various languages: As applied to English, it refers to what might be called a verbs action noun, which is one of the uses of the -ing form. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... intensive refers to an act that is done repetitively or with much force. ... In grammar, a frequentative form of a word is one which indicates repeated action. ... In linguistics, a desiderative form is one that has the meaning of wanting to X. Desiderative forms are often verbs, derived from a more basic verb through a process of morphological derivation. ... The benedictive mood is found in Sanskrit, although extremely rarely. ...

For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The imperfect tense, in the classical grammar of several Indo-European languages, denotes a past tense with an imperfective aspect. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... The optative mood is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. ... The perfect tenses are verb tenses showing actions completed at or before a specific time. ... The aorist aspect was one of the three original aspects that defined the Indo_European verbal paradigm. ... For other uses, see Future (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ... Look up conditional in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Present system

The present system includes the present and imperfect tenses, the optative and imperative moods, as well as some of the remnant forms of the old subjunctive. The tense stem of the present system is formed in various ways. The numbers are the native grammarians' numbers for these classes. For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The imperfect tense, in the classical grammar of several Indo-European languages, denotes a past tense with an imperfective aspect. ... The optative mood is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ...


For athematic verbs, the present tense stem may be formed through

  • 2) No modification at all, for example ad from ad 'eat'.
  • 3) Reduplication prefixed to the root, for example juhu from hu 'sacrifice'.
  • 7) Infixion of na or n before the final root consonant (with appropriate sandhi changes), for example rundh or ruadh from rudh 'obstruct'.
  • 5) Suffixation of nu (gua form no), for example sunu from su 'press out'.
  • 8) Suffixation of u (gua form o), for example tanu from tan 'stretch'. For modern linguistic purposes it is better treated as a subclass of the 5th. tanu derives from tnnu, which is zero-grade for *tannu, because in the Proto-Indo-European language [m] and [n] could be vowels, which in Sanskrit (and Greek) change to [a]. Most members of the 8th class arose this way; kar = "make", "do" was 5th class in Vedic (krnoti = "he makes"), but shifted to the 8th class in Classical Sanskrit (karoti = "he makes")
  • 9) Suffixation of (zero-grade or n), for example krīa or krīī from krī 'buy'.

For thematic verbs, the present tense stem may be formed through The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, the earliest sacred texts of India. ...

  • 1) Suffixation of the thematic vowel a with gua strengthening, for example, bháva from bhū 'be'.
  • 6) Suffixation of the thematic vowel a with a shift of accent to this vowel, for example tudá from tud 'thrust'.
  • 4) Suffixation of ya, for example dī́vya from div 'play'.

The tenth class described by native grammarians refers to a process which is derivational in nature, and thus not a true tense-stem formation. It is formed by suffixation of ya with gua strengthening and lengthening of the root's last vowel, for example bhāvaya from bhū 'be'.


Perfect system

The perfect system includes only the perfect tense. The stem is formed with reduplication as with the present system. The perfect tenses are verb tenses showing actions completed at or before a specific time. ...


The perfect system also produces separate "strong" and "weak" forms of the verb — the strong form is used with the singular active, and the weak form with the rest.


Aorist system

The aorist system includes aorist proper (with past indicative meaning, e.g. abhū "you were") and some of the forms of the ancient injunctive (used almost exclusively with in prohibitions, e.g. mā bhū "don't be"). The principal distinction of the two is presence/absence of an augment – a- prefixed to the stem. Aorist (from Greek αοριστος, indefinite) is a term used in certain Indo-European languages to refer to a particular grammatical tense and/or aspect. ...


The aorist system stem actually has three different formations: the simple aorist, the reduplicating aorist (semantically related to the causative verb), and the sibilant aorist. The simple aorist is taken directly from the root stem (e.g. bhū-: a-bhū-t "he was"). The reduplicating aorist involves reduplication as well as vowel reduction of the stem. The sibilant aorist is formed with the suffixation of s to the stem. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Future system

The future system is formed with the suffixation of sya or iya and gua.


Verbs: Conjugation

Each verb has a grammatical voice, whether active, passive or middle. There is also an impersonal voice, which can be described as the passive voice of intransitive verbs. Sanskrit verbs have an indicative, an optative and an imperative mood. Older forms of the language had a subjunctive, though this had fallen out of use by the time of Classical Sanskrit. In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... The optative mood is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ...


Basic conjugational endings

Conjugational endings in Sanskrit convey person, number, and voice. Different forms of the endings are used depending on what tense stem and mood they are attached to. Verb stems or the endings themselves may be changed or obscured by sandhi. For other uses, see Point of view (literature). ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ...

Active Middle
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Primary First Person mi vás más é váhe máhe
Second Person si thás thá ā́the dhvé
Third Person ti tás ánti, áti ā́te ánte, áte
Secondary First Person am í, á váhi máhi
Second Person s tám thā́s ā́thām dhvám
Third Person t tā́m án, ús ā́tām ánta, áta, rán
Perfect First Person a é váhe máhe
Second Person tha áthus á ā́the dhvé
Third Person a átus ús é ā́te
Imperative First Person āni āva āma āi āvahāi āmahāi
Second Person dhí, hí, — tám svá ā́thām dhvám
Third Person tu tā́m ántu, átu tā́m ā́tām ántām, átām

Primary endings are used with present indicative and future forms. Secondary endings are used with the imperfect, conditional, aorist, and optative. Perfect and imperative endings are used with the perfect and imperative respectively.


Present system conjugation

Conjugation of the present system deals with all forms of the verb utilizing the present tense stem (explained under Tense Stems above). This includes the present tense of all moods, as well as the imperfect indicative.


Athematic inflection

The present system differentiates strong and weak forms of the verb. The strong/weak opposition manifests itself differently depending on the class:

  • The root and reduplicating classes (2 & 3) are not modified in the weak forms, and receive guṇa in the strong forms.
  • The nasal class (7) is not modified in the weak form, extends the nasal to in the strong form.
  • The nu-class (5) has nu in the weak form and in the strong form.
  • The nā-class (9) has in the weak form and nā́ in the strong form. disappears before vocalic endings.

The present indicative takes primary endings, and the imperfect indicative takes secondary endings. Singular active forms have the accent on the stem and take strong forms, while the other forms have the accent on the endings and take weak forms.

Indicative
Active Middle
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Present First Person dvémi dvivás dvimás dvié dviváhe dvimáhe
Second Person dvéki dviṣṭhás dviṣṭ dviké dviā́the dviḍḍhvé
Third Person dvéṣṭi dviṣṭás dviánti dviṣṭé dviā́te dviáte
Imperfect First Person ádveam ádviva ádvima ádvii ádvivahi ádvimahi
Second Person ádve ádviṣṭam ádvisa ádviṣṭhās ádviāthām ádviḍḍhvam
Third Person ádve ádviṣṭām ádvian ádviṣṭa ádviātām ádviata

The optative takes secondary endings. is added to the stem in the active, and ī in the passive.

Optative
Active Middle
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
First Person dviyā́m dviyā́va dviyā́ma dviīyá dviīvahi dviīmahi
Second Person dviyā́s dviyā́tam dviyā́ta dviīthās dviīyāthām dviīdhvam
Third Person dviyā́t dviyā́tām dviyus dviīta dviīyātām dviīran

The imperative takes imperative endings. Accent is variable and affects vowel quality. Forms which are end-accented trigger gua strengthening, and those with stem accent do not have the vowel affected.

Imperative
Active Middle
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
First Person dvéṣāṇi dvéāva dvéāma dvéāi dvéāvahāi dvéāmahāi
Second Person dviḍḍ dviṣṭám dviṣṭá dvik dviāthām dviḍḍhvám
Third Person dvéṣṭu dviṣṭā́m dviántu dviṣṭā́m dviā́tām dviátām

Nominal inflection

Sanskrit is a highly inflected language with three grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) and three numbers (singular, plural, dual). It has eight cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive, and locative. Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Dual is the grammatical number used for two referents. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ... In linguistics, ablative case (also called the sixth case) (abbreviated ABL) is a name given to cases in various languages whose common thread is that they mark motion away from something, though the details in each language may differ. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ...


The number of actual declensions is debatable. Panini identifies six karakas corresponding to the nominative, accusative, dative, instrumental, locative, and ablative cases [1]. Panini defines them as follows (Ashtadhyayi, I.4.24-54): In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (IPA ) was an ancient Gandharan grammarian (approximately 5th century BC, but estimates range from the 7th to the 3rd centuries) who is most famous for formulating the 3,959 rules of Sanskrit morphology known as the . ...

  1. Apadana (lit. 'take off'): "(that which is) firm when departure (takes place)." This is the equivalent of the ablative case, which signifies a stationary object from which movement proceeds.
  2. Sampradana ('bestowal'): "he whom one aims at with the object". This is equivalent to the dative case, which signifies a recipient in an act of giving or similar acts.
  3. Karana ("instrument") "that which effects most." This is equivalent to the instrumental case.
  4. Adhikarana ('location'): or "substratum." This is equivalent to the locative case.
  5. Karman ('deed'/'object'): "what the agent seeks most to attain". This is equivalent to the accusative case.
  6. Karta ('agent'): "he/that which is independent in action". This is equivalent to the nominative case. (On the basis of Scharfe, 1977: 94)

Possessive (Sambandha) and vocative are absent in Panini's grammar.


In this article they are divided into five declensions. The declension to which a noun belongs to is determined largely by form.


Basic noun and adjective declension

The basic scheme of suffixation is given in the table below—valid for almost all nouns and adjectives. However, according to the gender and the ending consonant/vowel of the uninflected word-stem, there are predetermined rules of compulsory sandhi which would then give the final inflected word. The parentheses give the case-terminations for the neuter gender, the rest are for masculine and feminine gender. Both devanagari script and IAST transliterations are given.

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative
(Karta)
-स् -s
(-म् -m)
-औ -au
(-ई -ī)
-अस् -as
(-इ -i)
Accusative
(Karma)
-अम् -am
(-म् -m)
-औ -au
(-ई -ī)
-अस् -as
(-इ -i)
Instrumental
(Karana)
-आ -ā -भ्याम् -bhyām -भिस् -bhis
Dative
(Sampradana)
-ए -e -भ्याम् -bhyām -भ्यस् -bhyas
Ablative
(Apadana)
-अस् -as -भ्याम् -bhyām -भ्यस् -bhyas
Genitive
(Sambandha)
-अस् -as -ओस् -os -आम् -ām
Locative
(Adhikarana)
-इ -i -ओस् -os -सु -su
Vocative -स् -s
(- -)
-औ -au
(-ई -ī)
-अस् -as
(-इ -i)

a-stems

A-stems (/ə/ or /aː/) comprise the largest class of nouns. As a rule, nouns belonging to this class, with the uninflected stem ending in short-a (/ə/), are either masculine or neuter. Nouns ending in long-A (/aː/) are almost always feminine. A-stem adjectives take the masculine and neuter in short-a (/ə/), and feminine in long-A (/aː/) in their stems. This class is so big because it also comprises the Proto-Indo-European o-stems.

Masculine (kāma-) Neuter (āsya- 'mouth') Feminine (kānta- 'beloved')
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative kā́mas kā́māu kā́mās āsyàm āsyè āsyā̀ni kāntā kānte kāntās
Accusative kā́mam kā́māu kā́mān āsyàm āsyè āsyā̀ni kāntām kānte kāntās
Instrumental kā́mena kā́mābhyām kā́māis āsyèna āsyā̀bhyām āsyāìs kāntayā kāntābhyām kāntābhis
Dative kā́māya kā́mābhyām kā́mebhyas āsyā̀ya āsyā̀bhyām āsyèbhyas kāntāyai kāntābhyām kāntābhyās
Ablative kā́māt kā́mābhyām kā́mebhyas āsyā̀t āsyā̀bhyām āsyèbhyas kāntāyās kāntābhyām kāntābhyās
Genitive kā́masya kā́mayos kā́mānām āsyàsya āsyàyos āsyā̀nām kāntāyās kāntayos kāntānām
Locative kā́me kā́mayos kā́meu āsyè āsyàyos āsyèu kāntāyām kāntayos kāntāsu
Vocative kā́ma kā́mau kā́mās ā́sya āsyè āsyā̀ni kānte kānte kāntās

i- and u-stems

i-stems
Masc. and Fem. (gáti- 'gait') Neuter (vā́ri- 'water')
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative gátis gátī gátayas vā́ri vā́riī vā́rīi
Accusative gátim gátī gátīs vā́ri vā́riī vā́rīi
Instrumental gátyā gátibhyām gátibhis vā́riā vā́ribhyām vā́ribhis
Dative gátaye, gátyāi gátibhyām gátibhyas vā́rie vā́ribhyām vā́ribhyas
Ablative gátes, gátyās gátibhyām gátibhyas vā́rias vā́ribhyām vā́ribhyas
Genitive gátes, gátyās gátyos gátīnām vā́rias vā́rios vā́riām
Locative gátāu, gátyām gátyos gátiu vā́rii vā́rios vā́riu
Vocative gáte gátī gátayas vā́ri, vā́re vā́riī vā́rīi
u-stems
Masc. and Fem. (śátru- 'enemy') Neuter (mádhu- 'honey')
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative śátrus śátrū śátravas mádhu mádhunī mádhūni
Accusative śátrum śátrū śátrūn mádhu mádhunī mádhūni
Instrumental śátruā śátrubhyām śátrubhis mádhunā mádhubhyām mádhubhis
Dative śátrave śátrubhyām śátrubhyas mádhune mádhubhyām mádhubhyas
Ablative śátros śátrubhyām śátrubhyas mádhunas mádhubhyām mádhubhyas
Genitive śátros śátrvos śátrūām mádhunas mádhunos mádhūnām
Locative śátrāu śátrvos śátruu mádhuni mádhunos mádhuṣu
Vocative śátro śátrū śátravas mádhu mádhunī mádhūni

Long Vowel-stems

ā-stems (jā- 'progeny') ī-stems (dhī- 'thought') ū-stems (bhū- 'earth')
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative jā́s jāú jā́s dhī́s dhíyāu dhíyas bhū́s bhúvāu bhúvas
Accusative jā́m jāú jā́s, jás dhíyam dhíyāu dhíyas bhúvam bhúvāu bhúvas
Instrumental jā́ jā́bhyām jā́bhis dhiyā́ dhībhyā́m dhībhís bhuvā́ bhūbhyā́m bhūbhís
Dative jā́bhyām jā́bhyas dhiyé, dhiyāí dhībhyā́m dhībhyás bhuvé, bhuvāí bhūbhyā́m bhūbhyás
Ablative jás jā́bhyām jā́bhyas dhiyás, dhiyā́s dhībhyā́m dhībhyás bhuvás, bhuvā́s bhūbhyā́m bhūbhyás
Genitive jás jós jā́nām, jā́m dhiyás, dhiyā́s dhiyós dhiyā́m, dhīnā́m bhuvás, bhuvā́s bhuvós bhuvā́m, bhūnā́m
Locative jós jā́su dhiyí, dhiyā́m dhiyós dhīṣú bhuví, bhuvā́m bhuvós bhūṣú
Vocative jā́s jāú jā́s dhī́s dhiyāu dhíyas bhū́s bhuvāu bhúvas

-stems

-stems are predominantly agental derivatives like dāt 'giver', though also include kinship terms like pit́ 'father', māt́ 'mother', and svás 'sister'. In linguistics, a grammatical agent is an entity that carries out an action. ...

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative pitā́ pitárāu pitáras
Accusative pitáram pitárāu pit́n
Instrumental pitrā́ pit́bhyām pit́bhis
Dative pitré pit́bhyām pit́bhyas
Ablative pitúr pit́bhyām pit́bhyas
Genitive pitúr pitrós pitṝṇā́m
Locative pitári pitrós pitṛ́ṣu
Vocative pítar pitárāu pitáras

See also Devi inflection, Vrkis inflection. In Vedic Sanskrit, the Devi inflection is one of the two types of inflection of &#299;-stems. ... In Vedic Sanskrit, the Vrkis inflection is one of the two types of inflection of &#299;-stems. ...


Personal Pronouns and Determiners

The first and second person pronouns are declined for the most part alike, having by analogy assimilated themselves with one another. The first and second person pronouns are declined for the most part alike, having by analogy assimilated themselves with one another. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ...


Note: Where two forms are given, the second is enclitic and an alternative form. Ablatives in singular and plural may be extended by the syllable -tas; thus mat or mattas, asmat or asmattas. In linguistics, a clitic is a morpheme that functions syntactically like a word, but does not appear as an independent phonological word; instead it is always attached to a following or preceding word. ...

First Person Second Person
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative aham āvām vayam tvam yuvām yūyam
Accusative mām, mā āvām, nau asmān, nas tvām, tvā yuvām, vām yuṣmān, vas
Instrumental mayā āvābhyām asmābhis tvayā yuvābhyām yuṣmābhis
Dative mahyam, me āvābhyām, nau asmabhyam, nas tubhyam, te yuvābhyām, vām yuṣmabhyam, vas
Ablative mat āvābhyām asmat tvat yuvābhyām yuṣmat
Genitive mama, me āvayos, nau asmākam, nas tava, te yuvayos, vām yuṣmākam, vas
Locative mayi āvayos asmāsu tvayi yuvayos yuṣmāsu

The demonstrative ta, declined below, also functions as the third person pronoun.

Masculine Neuter Feminine
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
Nominative sás tāú tát tā́ni sā́ tā́s
Accusative tám tāú tā́n tát tā́ni tā́m tā́s
Instrumental téna tā́bhyām tāís téna tā́bhyām tāís táyā tā́bhyām tā́bhis
Dative tásmāi tā́bhyām tébhyas tásmāi tā́bhyām tébhyas tásyāi tā́bhyām tā́bhyas
Ablative tásmāt tā́bhyām tébhyam tásmāt tā́bhyām tébhyam tásyās tā́bhyām tā́bhyas
Genitive tásya táyos téṣām tásya táyos téṣām tásyās táyos tā́sām
Locative tásmin táyos téṣu tásmin táyos téṣu tásyām táyos tā́su

Compounds

Main article: Sanskrit compounds

One other notable feature of the nominal system is the very common use of nominal compounds, which may be huge (10+ words) as in some modern languages such as German. Nominal compounds occur with various structures, however morphologically speaking they are essentially the same. Each noun (or adjective) is in its (weak) stem form, with only the final element receiving case inflection. Some examples of nominal compounds include: One notable feature of the nominal system of Sanskrit is the very common use of nominal compounds, which may be huge (10+ words) as in some modern languages such as German. ...

Dvandva (co-ordinative)
These consist of two or more noun stems, connected in sense with 'and'. There are mainly two kinds of dvandva constructions in Sanskrit. The first is called itaretara dvandva, an enumerative compound word, the meaning of which refers to all its constituent members. The resultant compound word is in the dual or plural number and takes the gender of the final member in the compound construction. e.g. rāma-lakşmaņau – Rama and Lakshmana, or rāma-lakşmaņa-bharata-śatrughnāh – Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata and Satrughna. The second kind is called samāhāra dvandva, a collective compound word, the meaning of which refers to the collection of its constituent members. The resultant compound word is in the singular number and is always neuter in gender. e.g. pāņipādam – limbs, literally hands and feet, from pāņi = hand and pāda = foot. According to some grammarians, there is a third kind of dvandva, called ekaśeşa dvandva or residual compound, which takes the dual (or plural) form of only its final constituent member, e.g. pitarau for mātā + pitā, mother + father, i.e. parents. According to other grammarians, however, the ekaśeşa is not properly a compound at all.
Bahuvrīhi (possessive)
Bahuvrīhi, or "much-rice", denotes a rich person—one who has much rice. Bahuvrīhi compounds refer (by example) to a compound noun with no head -- a compound noun that refers to a thing which is itself not part of the compound. For example, "low-life" and "block-head" are bahuvrihi compounds, since a low-life is not a kind of life, and a block-head is not a kind of head. (And a much-rice is not a kind of rice.) Compare with more common, headed, compound nouns like "fly-ball" (a kind of ball) or "alley cat" (a kind of cat). Bahurvrīhis can often be translated by "possessing..." or "-ed"; for example, "possessing much rice", or "much riced".
Tatpuruṣa (determinative)
There are many tatpuruas (one for each of the nominal cases, and a few others besides); in a tatpurua, the first component is in a case relationship with another. For example, a doghouse is a dative compound, a house for a dog. It would be called a "caturtitatpurua" (caturti refers to the fourth case—that is, the dative). Incidentally, "tatpurua" is a tatpurua ("this man"—meaning someone's agent), while "caturtitatpurua" is a karmadhārya, being both dative, and a tatpurua. An easy way to understand it is to look at English examples of tatpuruas: "battlefield", where there is a genitive relationship between "field" and "battle", "a field of battle"; other examples include instrumental relationships ("thunderstruck") and locative relationships ("towndwelling").
Karmadhāraya (descriptive)
The relation of the first member to the last is appositional, attributive or adverbial, e. g. uluka-yatu (owl+demon) is a demon in the shape of an owl.
Amreḍita (iterative)
Repetition of a word expresses repetitiveness, e. g. dive-dive 'day by day', 'daily'.
Dvigu

A dvandva or copulative or coordinative compound refers to two or more objects that could be connected in sense by the conjunction and. Dvandvas are common in some languages such as Sanskrit, where the term originates, and Japanese, but less common in English (The term is not often found in... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... A bahuvrihi is a compound that refers to something that is not specified by any of its parts by themselves, especially a compound that refers to a possessor of an object specified. ... A Tatpurusha is a type of compound in Sanskrit grammar. ... A Karmadharaya is a type of compound in Sanskrit grammar, a subtype of the tatpurusha type (nominative-tatpurushas). The relation of the first member to the last is appositional, attributive or adverbial; this entails that if the members are dissolved, they will stand in the same case (meaning that there... An Amredita is a type of compound in Sanskrit grammar. ... A Dvigu is a type of compound in Sanskrit grammar. ...

Syntax

Because of Sanskrit's complex declension system the word order is free (with a strong tendency toward SOV, which was the original system in place in Vedic prose). In linguistic typology, word order, or more precisely constituent order refers to the permitted combinations of words or larger constituents. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ...


Numerals

The numbers from one to ten:

  1. éka-
  2. dva-
  3. tri-
  4. catúr-
  5. páñcan-
  6. ṣáṣ-
  7. saptán-
  8. aṣṭá-
  9. návan-
  10. dáśan-

The numbers one through four are declined. Éka is declined like a pronominal adjective, though the dual form does not occur. Dvá appears only in the dual. Trí and catúr are declined irregularly:

Three Four
Masculine Neuter Feminine Masculine Neuter Feminine
Nominative tráyas trī́ṇi tisrás catvā́ras catvā́ri cátasras
Accusative trīn trī́ṇi tisrás catúras catvā́ri cátasras
Instrumental tribhís tisṛ́bhis catúrbhis catasṛ́bhis
Dative tribhyás tisṛ́bhyas catúrbhyas catasṛ́bhyas
Ablative tribhyás tisṛ́bhyas catúrbhyas catasṛ́bhyas
Genitive triyāṇā́m tisṛṇā́m caturṇā́m catasṛṇā́m
Locative triṣú tisṛ́ṣu catúrṣu catasṛ́ṣu

Influence

Modern-day India

Influence on vernaculars

Sanskrit's greatest influence, presumably, is that which it exerted on languages that grew from its vocabulary and grammatical base. Especially among élite circles in India, Sanskrit is prized as a storehouse of scripture and the language of prayers in Hinduism. Like Latin's influence on European languages and Classical Chinese's influence on East Asian languages, Sanskrit has influenced most Indian languages. While vernacular prayer is common, Sanskrit mantras are recited by millions of Hindus and most temple functions are conducted entirely in Sanskrit, often Vedic in form. Of modern day Indian languages, while Hindi and Urdu tend to be more heavily weighted with Arabic and Persian influence, Nepali, Bengali, Assamese, Konkani and Marathi still retain a largely Sanskrit and Prakrit vocabulary base. The Indian national anthem, Jana Gana Mana, is written in a literary form of Bengali (known as shuddha bhasha), Sanskritized so as to be recognizable, but still archaic to the modern ear. The national song of India Vande Mataram was originally a poem composed by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and taken from his book called 'Anandamath', is in a similarly highly Sanskritized Bengali. Malayalam, Telugu and Kannada also combine a great deal of Sanskrit vocabulary. Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantras into rocks as a form of devotion. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Konkani is a term used to refer both to a language and to an Indian ethnic group. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Jana Gana Mana (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People) is the national anthem of India. ... Typical depiction of Bharat Mata by Abanindranath Tagore Vande Mataram (Sanskrit: वन्दे मातरम् Vande Mātaram, Bengali: বন্দে মাতরম Bônde Matorom) is the national song of India, distinct from the national anthem of India Jana Gana Mana. The song was composed by Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay in a mixture of Bengali and Sanskrit. ... Anandamatha (Bangla: আনন্দমঠ) is a famous Bengali novel, written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and published in 1882. ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ...


Revival attempts

Main article: Sanskrit revival

The 1991 Indian census reported 49,736 fluent speakers of Sanskrit. Since the 1990s, efforts to revive spoken Sanskrit have been increasing. Many organizations like the Samskrta Bharati are conducting Speak Sanskrit workshops to popularize the language. The CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) in India has made Sanskrit a third language (though it is an option for the school to adopt it or not, the other choice being the state's own official language) in the schools it governs. In such schools, learning Sanskrit is an option for grades 5 to 8 (Classes V to VIII). This is true of most schools, including but not limited to Christian missionary schools, affiliated to the ICSE board too, especially in those states where the official language is Hindi. Sudharma, the only daily newspaper in Sanskrit has been published out of Mysore in India since the year 1970. Since 1974, there has been a short daily news broadcast on All India Radio. Attempts at reviving the Sanskrit language have been undertaken in the Republic of India since its foundation in 1947 (when Sanskrit was declared one of 21 official languages). ... ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The Central Board of Secondary Education is a board of school education in India. ... The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) examination is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations for class 10, i. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Sudharma is the only daily newspaper published in Sanskrit, a liturgical language for many Indian religions. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ...


Sanskrit is reported to be spoken natively by the population in Mattur village in central Karnataka. Allegedly, Inhabitants of all castes learn Sanskrit starting in childhood and converse in the language. [2] Mattur ( also spelled mathur, matthur) is a small village near the city of shimoga, in karnataka, india. ... , Karnataka (Kannada: , IPA:  ) is a state in the southern part of India. ...


Symbolic Usage

In the Republic of India, in Nepal and Indonesia, Sanskrit phrases are widely used as mottoes for various educational and social organizations (much as Latin is used by some institutions in the West). The motto of the Republic is also in Sanskrit. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ...

Republic of India 
Satyameva Jayate
Nepal 
Janani Janmabhūmis ca Svargād api garīyasi "Mother and motherland are greater than heaven"
Goa 
Sarve Bhadrāni Paśyantu Mā Kaścid Duhkhabhāg bhavet
Life Insurance Corporation of India 
Yogakshemam Vahāmyaham
Indian Navy 
Shanno Varuna
Indian Air Force 
Nābha Sparsham Dīptam
Indian Police 
sadd rakshanay khalah nighranayah
Indian Coast Guard 
Vayam Rakshāmaha
All India Radio 
Bahujana-hitāya bahujana-sukhāya
Indonesian Navy 
Jalesveva Jayamahe
Aceh Province 
Pancacita

Many of the post–Independence educational institutions of national importance in India and Sri Lanka have Sanskrit mottoes. For a fuller list of such educational institutions, see List of educational institutions which have Sanskrit phrases as their mottoes. Satyameva Jayate (सत्यमेव जयते) is Indias national motto which is Sanskrit for truth alone triumphs. It is inscribed at the base of the national emblem, which is an adaptation of the Buddhist Lion Capital of Asoka at Sarnath, near Banaras in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... The Life Insurance Corporation of India (LICI) is the largest life insurance company in India; it is fully owned by the Government of India. ... The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ... The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting aerial warfare and securing the Indian airspace. ... The Indian Police Service (IPS) is one of three All India Services of the Government of India; others being the Indian Administrative Service and Indian Forest Service. ... Indian Coast Guards coat of Arms. ... For the electronica band, see All India Radio (band). ... Jalaseva Jayamahe On the Sea We Are Glorious The Indonesian Navy (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Laut, TNI-AL) is the territorial force responsible for the patrol of Indonesias immense coastline. ... Aceh (IPA pronunciation: , pronounced approximately Ah-Cèh, but with [e], not [ei] at the end) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... The following is a list of educational institutions that use Sanskrit phrases as their official mottos. ...


Interactions with Eastern and Southeastern Asiatic languages

Sanskrit and related languages have also influenced their Sino-Tibetan-speaking neighbors to the north through the spread of Buddhist texts in translation.[7] Buddhism was spread to China by Mahayanist missionaries mostly through translations of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit and Classical Sanskrit texts, and many terms were transliterated directly and added to the Chinese vocabulary. (Although Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit is not Sanskrit, properly speaking, its vocabulary is substantially the same, both because of genetic relationship, and because of conscious imitation on the part of composers. Buddhist texts composed in Sanskrit proper were primarily found in philosophical schools like the Madhyamaka.) The situation in Tibet is similar; many Sanskrit texts survive only in Tibetan translation (in the Tanjur). A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (BHS) is a modern linguistic category applied to some of the Mah&#257;y&#257;na Buddhist Sutras, such as the Perfection of Wisdom. ... Madhyamaka (Also known as Śunyavada) is a Buddhist Mahayāna tradition popularized by Nāgārjuna and Aśvaghoṣa. ...


The Thai language contains many loan words from Sanskrit. For example, in Thai, the Rāvana – the emperor of Sri Lanka is called 'Thoskanth' which is a derivation of his Sanskrit name 'Dashakanth' ("of ten necks"). The influence extends as far as the Philippines, e.g., Tagalog 'gurò' from 'Guru', or 'teacher', with Indian seafarers who traded there. Many Sanskrit loanwords are also found in traditional Malay and Modern Indonesian[8], Old Javanese language (close to 50%[9]) and Vietnamese. Thai (, transcription: phasa thai, transliteration: ; IPA: ), is the national and official language of Thailand and the mother tongue of the Thai people, Thailands dominant ethnic group. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... Ravana, Indian Demon King of Lanka In Hindu mythology, Ravana (Devanagari script: रावन, sometimes transliterated Raavana) is the principal antagonist of the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Sanskrit's usage in modern times

Many of India's and Nepal's scientific and administrative terms are named in Sanskrit, as a counterpart of the western practice of naming scientific developments in Latin or Greek. The Indian guided missile program that was commenced in 1983 by DRDO has named the five missiles (ballistic and others) that it has developed as Prithvi, Agni, Akash, Nag and Trishul. India's first modern fighter aircraft is named Tejas. For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is Indias premier research organisation for defence related matters. ... Prithvi (pṛthivī) is the Hindu earth-god. ... Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Bön New Zealand Agni is a Hindu and Vedic deity. ... Akash or Aakash or Aakaash or Akaash is a first name in India, derived from the Hindi/Sanskrit term Akasha, meaning upper sky or aether. ... Nãg is the Spirit, god, and/or god-like animal representative of power, inteligens, strength, speed, war, and death in the Reptianity religon, In the discription they give Nag is an amphibious theropod with powerful arms, armed hid, a cobra hud, wings, four tenicals, a dorsal fin, a shark... Trishul or trishul refers to: A trishul is a type of traditional trident in some parts of India, seen as part of traditional religion, but which can also be used as a lethal weapon. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Tejas may refer to: Tejas and Jayhawk, the code name for a microprocessor developed by Intel. ...


Recital of Sanskrit shlokas as background chorus in films, television advertisements and as slogans for corporate organizations has become a trend. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about motion pictures. ...


Recently, Sanskrit has also made an appearance in Western pop music in recent years, in two recordings by Madonna. One, "Shanti/Ashtangi," from the 1998 album "Ray of Light," is the traditional Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga chant referenced above set to music. The second, "Cyber-raga," released in 2000 as a B-side to Madonna's single "Music," is a Sanskrit-language ode of devotion to a higher power and a wish for peace on earth. The climactic battle theme of The Matrix Revolutions features a choir singing Sanskrit prayer in the closing titles of the movie. Composer John Williams also featured a choir singing in Sanskrit for Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. This article is about the American entertainer. ... Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga is a system of yoga that has its origins in the ancient Yoga Korunta manuscript, compiled by the sage Vamana Rishi. ... The Matrix Revolutions is the third film in the Matrix trilogy. ... For other persons named John Williams, see John Williams (disambiguation). ... Film poster for Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace is a 1999 film by George Lucas starring Liam Neeson, Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, and Jake Lloyd. ...


The Sky One version of the title sequence in season one of Battlestar Galactica 2004 features the Gayatri Mantra, taken from the Rig Veda (3.62.10). The composition was written by miniseries composer Richard Gibbs. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... This article is about the 2004 television series. ... Gayatri (g&#257;yatr&#299;) is the feminine form of g&#257;yatra, a Sanskrit word for a song or a hymn. ... The Rig Veda &#2315;&#2327;&#2381;&#2357;&#2375;&#2342; (Sanskrit &#7771;c praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Richard Ribbs Gibbs was the keyboard player for the New Wave band Oingo Boingo from 1980 to 1984. ...

See also: Sanskrit in the West

At the end of the introduction to the World as Will and Representation, Arthur Schopenhauer claimed that the rediscovery of the ancient Indian tradition would be one of the great events in the history of the West. ...

Computational linguistics

There have been suggestions to use Sanskrit as a metalanguage for knowledge representation in e.g. machine translation, and other areas of natural language processing because of its relatively high regular structure.[10] This is due to Classical Sanskrit being a regularized, prescriptivist form abstracted from the much more complex and richer Vedic Sanskrit. This leveling of the grammar of Classical Sanskrit began during the Brahmana phase, and had not yet completed by the time of Panini, when the language had fallen out of popular use. In logic and linguistics, a metalanguage is a language used to make statements about other languages (object languages). ... Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the acronym MT, is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech from one natural language to another. ... Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ...


See also

Yasna 28. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) Devanāgarī (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Literature in Sanskrit, one of Indias two oldest languages, and the basis of several modern languages in India. ... The Sanskrit alphabetic numerals were created in about A.D. 510 by Āryabhaa. ... Grantha (from Sanskrit ग्रन्थ grantha meaning book or manuscript) is an ancient script that was prevalent in South India. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Indian languages redirects here. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Monier Williams, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary, p. 1120
  2. ^ Oberlies, "A Grammar of Epic Sanskrit", p.XXIX
  3. ^ F. Edgerton,Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit grammar and dictionary. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1953
  4. ^ Sanskrit Grammar, William Dwight Whitney, 1889
  5. ^ I. Mahadevan, Early Tamil epigraphy from the earliest times to the sixth century A.D. Chennai/Cambridge 2003
  6. ^ Kashinath V. Abhyankar, A dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar, Gaekwad's Oriental Series, No. 134, Oriental Institute, Baroda, 1986
  7. ^ "Siddham; an essay on the history of Sanskrit studies in China and Japan", Robert van Gulik, Nagpur, International Academy of Indian Culture, 1956.
  8. ^ See also this page or this for a list
  9. ^ According to P.J. Zoetmulder in the introduction of his Old Javanese - English dictionary (1982); "Of the more than 25,500 entries in this dictionary, over 12,600, that is almost half of the total number, go back, directly or indirectly, to a Sanskrit original." (page IX)
  10. ^ first suggested by Rick Briggs of the NASA Ames Research Center (Spring 1985). "Knowledge Representation in Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence". AI Magazine 6 (1). Retrieved on 2006-09-26. 

Robert van Gulik (August 9, 1910 - September 24, 1967) was a highly educated orientalist, diplomat and writer, best known for the Judge Dee mysteries. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

Introductions
  • The Sanskrit Language – T. Burrow – ISBN 81-208-1767-2
  • Sanskrit Pronunciation – Bruce Cameron – ISBN 1-55700-021-2
  • Teach Yourself Sanskrit – Prof. M. Coulson – ISBN 0-340-85990-3
  • Devavāṇīpraveśikā: An Introduction to the Sanskrit Language – Robert P. Goldman – ISBN 0-944613-40-3
  • A Higher Sanskrit Grammar – M. R. Kale – ISBN 81-208-0178-4
  • A Sanskrit Grammar for Students – A. A. Macdonell – ISBN 81-246-0094-5
  • The Sanskrit Language: An Introductory Grammar and Reader – Walter Harding Maurer – ISBN 0-7007-1382-4
  • Conversational Sanskrit – Dr. Vagish Shastri – ISBN 81-85570-12-4
  • भाषा विज्ञान (Bhasha Vigyan) — Bholanath Tiwari — [1955] 2004 — ISBN 81-225-0007-2
  • A Practical Grammar Of The Sanskrit Language Arranged With Reference To The Classical Languages Of Europe For The Use Of English Students - Monier Monier-Williams (1846) [3]
Grammars
  • W. D. Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar: Including both the Classical Language and the Older Dialects
  • W. D. Whitney, The Roots, Verb-Forms and Primary Derivatives of the Sanskrit Language: (A Supplement to His Sanskrit Grammar)
  • Wackernagel, Debrunner, Altindische Grammatik, Göttingen.
    • vol. I. phonology [4] Jacob Wackernagel (1896)
    • vol. II.1. introduction to morphology, nominal composition, Wackernagel (1905) [5]
    • vol. II.2. nominal suffixes, J. Wackernagel and Albert Debrunner (1954)
    • vol. III. nominal inflection, numerals, pronouns, Wackernagel and Debrunner (1930)
  • B. Delbrück, Altindische Tempuslehre (1876) [6]
Dictionaries
  • Otto Böhtlingk, Rudolph Roth, Petersburger Wörterbuch, 7 vols., 1855-75
  • Otto Böhtlingk, Sanskrit Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung 1883–86 (1998 reprint, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi)
  • Monier Monier-Williams, Sanskrit-English Dictionary (1898, 1899)
  • Manfred Mayrhofer, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindischen, 1956-76
  • Manfred Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, 3 vols., 2742 pages, 2001, ISBN 3-8253-1477-4

Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819–1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ... The Altindische Grammatik is the monumental Sanskrit grammar by Jacob Wackernagel (1853-1938), after his death continued by Albert Debrunner, published in Göttingen between 1896 and 1957. ... Jacob Wackernagel (also Jakob, 1853–1938) was an Indo-Europeanist and scholar of Sanskrit. ... Otto von Böhtlingk (May 30, 1815 - April 1, 1904) was a German Indologist and Sanskrit scholar, born in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... Photo of Monier Monier-Williams by Lewis Carroll Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1819–1899) studied, documented and taught Asian languages in England, and compiled one of the most widely-used Sanskrit-English dictionaries. ... Manfred Mayrhofer (born 26 September 1926 in Linz, Austria) is an Indo-Europeanist specialized on Indo-Iranian languages. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Sanskrit edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Sanskrit

Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...

Sanskrit Documents

  • Sanskrit Documents: Documents in ITX format of Upanishads, Stotras etc. and a metasite with links to translations, dictionaries, tutorials, tools and other Sanskrit resources.
  • Gaudiya Grantha Mandira - A Sanskrit Text Repository. This site also provides encoding converter.
  • Sanskrit texts at Sacred Text Archive
  • Clay Sanskrit Library publishes Sanskrit literature with facing-page text and translation. Also offers searchable corpus and numerous downloadable materials.

Dictionaries

  • Monier-Williams Dictionary, searchable
  • Monier-Williams Dictionary, printable
  • Monier-Williams: DICT & HTML, downloadable
  • Online Hypertext Dictionary
  • The Sanskrit Heritage Dictionary
  • Sanskrit Dictionary
  • Glossary of Sanskrit Terms
  • A Brief Sanskrit Glossary with the meanings of common Sanskrit spiritual terms. Recently updated.

Primers

  • Sanskrit Self Study An introduction to Sanskrit Language in 64 self study lessons by Chitrapur Math
  • Discover Sanskrit A concise study of the Sanskrit language
  • Harivenu Dâsa: An Introductory Course based on S'rîla Jîva Gosvâmî's Grammar, a vaishnava version of Pânini's grammar (pdf-file)
  • A Sanskrit Tutor
  • Sanskrit Audio Lessons from NCERT
  • Ancient Sanskrit Online from the University of Texas at Austin

Grammars

  • An Analytical Cross Referenced Sanskrit Grammar By Lennart Warnemyr. Phonology, morphology and syntax, written in a semiformal style with full paradigms.

Sanskrit Tools and Softwares

  • Diacritic Conversion - diCrunch - transliteration among Balaram / CSX / (X)HK / ITRANS / Shakti Mac / Unicode / Velthuis / X-Sanskrit / Bengali Unicode / Devanagari Unicode / Oriya Unicode.
  • Transliterator from romanized to Unicode Sanskrit
  • Sanskrit transliterator with font conversion to Latin and other Indian Languages

A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Maharashtri is a language of medieval India, descended from Sanskrit, and spoken in what is now Maharashtra and other parts of India. ... The Magadhi language (also known as मगही Magahi) is a language spoken by 11,362,000 people in India. ... Bangla redirects here. ... The dialects of the Bengali language are part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan language group of the Indo-European language family. ... Chittagonian is an Indo-European language spoken by the people of Chittagong in Bangladesh and the much of the southeast of the country. ... Sylheti (native name সিলটী Silôţi; Bengali name সিলেটী SileÅ£i) is the language of Sylhet proper, the north-eastern region of Bangladesh and southern districts of Assam around Silchar. ... Hindustani redirects here. ... In linguistics, a register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Angika (Dev. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Bhojpuri is a popular regional language spoken in northeastern India in the western part of state of Bihar, the northwestern part of Jharkhand, and the Purvanchal region of Uttar Pradesh, as well as an adjoining area of southern plains of Nepal. ... The Bishnupriya Manipuri language (BPM) (ইমার ঠার/বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী) is an Indo-Aryan language. ... Dhivehi or Divehi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 300,000 people in the Republic of Maldives where it is the official language of the country and in the island of Minicoy (Maliku) in neighbouring India where it is known as Mahl. ... Areas in India and Pakistan where Dogri and related dialects are spoken Dogri (डोगरी or ڈوگرى) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about two million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir, but also in northern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir, and... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Konkani language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Konkani (DevanāgarÄ«: कोंकणी, Roman: Konknni, Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ, Malayalam: കൊംകണീ, IAST: ) is a language of India, and belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Maithili (मैथिली MaithilÄ«) is a language of the family of Indo-Aryan languages, which are part of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... This article is about the language spoken by Roma people. ... SindhÄ« (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , pronounced ], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ... The Pamir languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries in the southern Gorno-Badakhshan region of Tajikistan around the administrative center Khorog ( ), and the neighboring Badakhshan province and is in Pamir Area Afghanistan. ... Shughni is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group. ... The Sarikoli language (also Sarikul, Sariqul, Sariköli) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Southeastern Iranian languages spoken by Tajiks in China. ... The Wakhi Tajiki language is an Iranian language in the subbranch of Southeastern Iranian languages (see Pamir languages). ... Pashto (‎, IPA: also known as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu or Pushtoo) is a language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and western Pakistan. ... The Scythian languages form a North Eastern branch of the Iranian language family and comprise the distinctive languages[1] spoken by the Scythian (Sarmatian and Saka) tribes of nomadic pastoralists in Scythia (Central Asia, Pontic-Caspian steppe) between the 8th century BC and the 5th century AD. Up to the... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... The Yaghnobi language [1] is a living Northeastern Iranian language (the only other living member being the Ossetic), and is spoken in high valley of the Yaghnob River in the Zarafshan area of Tajikistan by Yaghnobi people. ... Persian is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Iranian family. ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Dari (Persian: ) is the official name for the Persian language in Afghanistan, popularly and locally known as Farsi. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Bukhori, also known as Bukharic or Bukharan, is an Indo-Iranian language. ... Balochi (also Baluchi, Baloci or Baluci) is a Northwestern Iranian language. ... The main Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd, Iran. ... Gileki or Giliki (Gilaki in Persian) is a northwestern Iranian language and is spoken in Irans Gilan province. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is the language spoken by Kurds. ... Luri is a dialect of Persian language. ... Mazandarani or Tabari (Also known as: Mazeniki, Taperki) is an Iranian language of the northwestern branch. ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... The Tat language or Tati is a Western Iranian language spoken by the Tat ethnic group in The Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia. ... Tat language or Tati (Persian: ) is a group of northwestern Iranian dialects which are closely related to Talysh language. ... Zazaki (Zazaish) is a language spoken by Zazas in eastern Anatolia (Turkey). ... The Dardic languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages. ... Dameli is a language spoken by less than 5,000 people in the remote valley of Damil-Nisar, in the Chitral District of the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Domaaki - also known as Dumaki or Doma - is a language spoken in parts of northern Pakistan. ... Gawar-Bati is known in Chitral as Aranduyiwar, because it is spoken in Village Arandu, which is the last village in the bottom of Chitral and is across the Kunar River from Berkot in Afghanistan. ... Kalash or Kalasha (also known as Kalasha-mun) is an Indo-European language in the Indo-Iranian branch, further classified as a Dardic language in the Chitral Group. ... Kashmiri (कॉशुर, کٲشُر Koshur) is a northwestern Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the valley of Kashmir, a region situated mostly in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Khowar is classified as a Dardic Language. ... Kohistani is a Dardic language spoken in Kohistan District (Pakistan). ... Nangalami is a Dardic language and is a branch of the Indo-Iranian language group, which in turn is branch of the Indo-European language. ... Pashayi - also known as Pashai - is a language (or a group of languages) spoken in parts of southwestern Afghanistan. ... Palula, also known as Phalura and as Ashretiwar, is spoken by 7,000 to 15,000 people in Ashret and Biori Valleys, in the Chitral District of the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Tshina is a Dardic Language and is spoken by majority of people in Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Shumashti - also known as Shumasht - is a language spoken in parts of western Afghanistan. ... Nuristani languages form a language sub-family of the Indo-Iranian languages localized between the Iranian languages and the Indo-Aryan languages Ashkun language Kamviri language Kati language (Bashgali) Prasuni language (Wasi-Weri) Tregami language Waigali language (Kalasha-Ala) Categories: Language stubs | Indo-Iranian languages ... Askunu is a language of Afghanistan spoken by the Askunu people in the region of Pech Valley around Wama, northwest of Asadabad in Kunar province. ... Kamkata-viri contains the two main dialects Kata-vari and Kamviri. ... Tregami or Trigami is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the villages of Gambir and Katar in the Nurestan Province of Afghanistan. ... Vasi-vari is a language spoken by the Vasi in a few villages in the Prasun Valley in Afghanistan. ... Waigali or Waigeli is a language spoken in a few villages in the central part of the Kunar Province of Afghanistan. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sanskrit alphabet, pronunciation and language (454 words)
Sanskrit is the classical language of Indian and the liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
Vedic Sanskrit, the pre-Classical form of the language and the liturgical langauge of the Vedic religion, is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family.
Today Sanskrit is used mainly in Hindu religious rituals as a ceremonial language for hymns and mantras.
Sanskrit Language - MSN Encarta (533 words)
Sanskrit Language (from Sanskrit samskrta, “adorned, cultivated, perfected”), the classical sacred and literary language of the Hindus of India, belonging to the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is distinguishable from the oldest preserved forms of Indian speech, in the Vedic religious scriptures, the Brahmanas, Vedas, and Upanishads.
The discovery by Western scholars of the existence of Sanskrit, and of Indian methods of teaching it, led both to the identification of the Indo-European language family and, under the stimulation of Panini's methodology, to the establishment of the science of comparative linguistics or comparative philology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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