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Encyclopedia > Sanitary district

Sanitary Districts were established in England and Wales in 1875 and in Ireland in 1878. The districts were of two types, based on existing structures: Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

  • Urban sanitary districts in towns with existing local government bodies
  • Rural sanitary districts in the remaining rural areas of poor law unions.

Each district was governed by a sanitary authority and was responsible for various public health matters. A Poor Law Union was a unit used for local government in the United Kingdom from the 19th century. ...


In England and Wales, both rural and urban sanitary districts were replaced in 1894 by the Local Government Act 1894 by the more general rural districts and urban districts. A similar reform was carried out in Ireland in 1899 by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898. 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Local Government Act 1894 (57 & 58 Vict. ... In local government on the British Isles, a rural district was a predominantly rural area used for local government. ... In the British Isles an urban district was a type of local government district which covered an urbanised area. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 a piece of legislation passed as an Act of Parliament by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1898, to establish a system of local government in Ireland on lines similar that had been recently created in Great Britain at the time. ...

Contents


England and Wales

Sanitary districts were formed under the terms of the Public Health Acts 1873 and 1875. Instead of creating new divisions, existing authorities were given additional responsibilities.


Urban sanitary districts were formed in any municipal borough governed under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, in any Improvement Commissioners District formed by private act of parliament, and in any Local Government District formed under the Public Health Act 1848 or Local Government Act 1858. A borough is a political division originally used in England. ... The Municipal Reform Act 1835 required members of town councils (municipal corporations) to be elected by ratepayers and councils to publish their financial accounts. ... Local Boards or Local Boards of Health were local authorities in urban areas of England and Wales from 1848 to 1894. ... Local Boards or Local Boards of Health were local authorities in urban areas of England and Wales from 1848 to 1894. ... Local Boards or Local Boards of Health were local authorities in urban areas of England and Wales from 1848 to 1894. ...


The existing governing body of the town (municipal corporation, improvement commissioners or local board of health) was designated as the urban sanitary authority.


When sanitary districts were formed there were approximately 225 boroughs, 575 local government districts and 50 improvement commissioners districts designated as urban sanitary districts. Over the next nineteen years the number changed: more urban sanitary districts were formed as towns adopted legislation forming local boards and as additional boroughs were incorporated; on the other hand numerous urban sanitary districts were absorbed by expanding boroughs.


Rural sanitary districts were formed in all areas without a town government. They followed the boundaries of existing poor law unions formed in 1837, less the areas of urban sanitary districts. Any subsequent change in the area of the union also changed the sanitary district. At the time of abolition in 1894, there were 572 rural sanitary districts. A Poor Law Union was a unit used for local government in the United Kingdom from the 19th century. ... 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The rural sanitary authority consisted of the existing poor law guardians for the rural parishes involved.


The Local Government Act 1894 brought an end to sanitary districts in England and Wales. In boroughs, the sanitary authority was merged into the corporation. All other urban sanitary districts were renamed as urban districts, governed by an urban district council. Rural sanitary districts were replaced by rural districts, for the first time with a directly elected council. It was a requirement that whenever possible a rural district should be within a single administrative county, which led to many districts being split into smaller areas along county lines. A few rural districts with parishes in two or three different counties persisted until the 1930s. The Local Government Act 1894 (57 & 58 Vict. ... In the British Isles an urban district was a type of local government district which covered an urbanised area. ... In local government on the British Isles, a rural district was a predominantly rural area used for local government. ... An administrative county is an administrative area in the British Isles. ...


The Local Government Act 1972 made district councils, London borough councils, the Corporation of London, and Inner Temple and Middle Temple be the sanitary authorities. The Local Government Act 1972 was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom, that reformed local government in England and Wales, on April 1, 1974. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains 32 London Boroughs, of which 12 (plus the City of London) make up Inner London and 20 Outer London. ... Arms of the City of London as shown on Blackfriars station. ... The Inner Temple is one of the four Inns of Court around the Royal Courts of Justice in London, England, to which barristers belong and where they are called to the bar. ... Part of Middle Temple c. ...


Ireland

A system of sanitary districts was established in Ireland by the Public Health (Ireland) Act 1878, modelled on that in England and Wales.


Urban sanitary districts were established in the following categories of towns:

The existing corporation or commissioners became the urban sanitary authority. The Local Government Board of Ireland, created by the same act, could designate other towns with commissioners as urban sanitary districts. Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin Region. ... The Municipal Corporations Act (Ireland) 1840, (3 & 4 Vict. ... Town Commissioners were elected local government bodies established in urban areas in the island of Ireland in the nineteenth century. ...


Rural sanitary districts were formed in the same way as those in England and Wales, and with similar rural sanitary authorities.


The sanitary districts were abolished in 1899, under the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, being merged in boroughs, or forming urban and rural districts. A large number of the rural sanitary districts were broken up into smaller rural districts along county lines, often taking the name of the sanitary district followed by a number - for instance, Ballyshannon rural sanitary district was split into Ballyshannon No. 1, Ballyshannon No. 2 and Ballyshannon No. 3 rural districts in Counties Donegal, Fermanagh and Leitrim respectively. The Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 a piece of legislation passed as an Act of Parliament by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1898, to establish a system of local government in Ireland on lines similar that had been recently created in Great Britain at the time. ...


Scotland

Sanitary districts were not formed in Scotland. By the Public Health (Scotland) Act 1867 public health duties were given to the town councils, commissioners or trustees of burghs, and to parochial boards. In 1890 the public health duties of parochial boards were allocated to the newly created county councils, administered by district committees. A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ...


See also

List of sanitary districts in Dorset


Sources

  • Local Government Areas 1834 - 1945, V D Lipman, Oxford, 1949
  • Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England (2 vols.) F A Youngs, London, 1991
  • Public Health Act 1873 (35 & 36 Vict. c.79)
  • Public Health Act 1875 (38 & 39 Vict. c.55)
  • Public Health (Ireland) Act 1878 (41 & 42 Vict. c.52)

References

  • http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/types/status_page.jsp?unit_status=RSD

 
 

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