FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Sanhuangwudi" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sanhuangwudi
History of China
series
The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors
Xia Dynasty
Shang Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
Spring and Autumn Period
Warring States Period
Qin Dynasty
Western Han Dynasty
Xin Dynasty
Eastern Han Dynasty
Three Kingdoms
Jin Dynasty
Sixteen Kingdoms
Southern and Northern Dynasties
Sui Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty (AD 690)
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
Song Dynasty
Liao Dynasty
Western Xia
Jin Empire
Yuan Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
Republic of China
People's Republic of China (1, 2, 3, 4)
edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:History_of_China&action=edit)


The Three August Ones and Five Emperors (Chinese: 三皇五帝; pinyin: sānhung wǔd, Wade-Giles: san-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period preceding the Xia dynasty from 2500 BC to 2205 BC.


The Three August Ones

The Three August Ones, sometimes known as the Three Sovereigns, were said to be god-kings or demigods who used their magical powers to improve the lives of their people. Because of their lofty virtue they lived to a great age and ruled over a period of great peace.


The Three August Ones are ascribed various identities in different Chinese historical texts. The Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian states that they were:

  • The Heavenly King (天皇), who ruled for 18,000 years
  • The Earthly King (地皇), who ruled for 11,000 years
  • The Human King (泰皇 or 人皇), who ruled for 45,600 years

The Yundou shu (運斗樞) and Yuanming bao (元命苞) identify them as:

Fuxi and Nwa are the god and goddess husband and wife credited with being the ancestors of humankind after a devastating flood and Shennong is the god who invented farming and is the first to use herb for medical use.


The Shangshu dazhuan (尚書大傳) and Baihu tongyi (白虎通義) replace Nwa with Suiren (燧人), the inventor of fire. The Diwang shiji (帝王世紀) replaces Nwa with the Yellow Emperor (黄帝), the supposed ancestor of all Chinese people.


The Five Emperors

The Five Emperors were legendary, morally perfect sage-kings. According to the Records of the Grand Historian they were:

Yao and Shun are also known as the Two Emperors, and, along with Yu (禹), founder of the Xia dynasty, were considered to be model rulers and moral examplars by Neo-Confucians in later Chinese history. The Shangshu xu (尚書序) and Diwang shiji include Shaohao (少昊) instead of the Yellow Emperor.


The Song of Chu (楚辭) identifies the Five Emperors as directional gods:

  • Shaohao (east)
  • Zhuanxu (north)
  • Yellow Emperor (centre)
  • Shennong (west)
  • Fuxi (south)

The Book of Rites (禮記) equates the Five Emperors with the Five Lineages (五氏), which comprise:

  • Youchao-shi (有巢氏)
  • Suiren-shi (燧人氏)
  • Fuxi (伏羲氏)
  • Nwa (女媧氏)
  • Shennong (神農氏)

The first historical emperor of China was Qin Shi Huang, who coined a new term for "emperor" (huangdi) by combining the titles of "august one" (huang) and "sage-king" (di).


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m