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Encyclopedia > Sangam literature

Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years 200 BCE and 300 CE.[1][2] This collection contains 2381 poems written by 473 poets, some 102 of whom are anonymous authors[3]. The period during which these poems were written is commonly referred to as the 'Sangam' age, referring to the prevalent Sangam legends claiming literary academies lasting thousands of years, giving the name to the corpus of literature.[4][5][6] Sangam literature is primarily secular dealing with everyday themes in a South Indian context.[7] Tamil (தமிழ் ) is a classical language and one of the major languages of the Dravidian language family. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... now. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ...


The poems belonging to the Sangam literature was composed by Tamil poets, both men and women, from various professions and classes of society. These poems were later collected into various anthologies, edited and had colophons added by anthologiests and annotators around 1000 CE. Sangam literature fell out of popular memory soon thereafter, until they were rediscovered in the 19th century by scholars such as S. V. Damodaram Pillai and U. V. Swaminatha Iyer. Dr. U.V. Swaminatha Iyer Dr. U. V. Swaminatha Iyer (1855 – 1942 C.E.) was a Tamil scholar and researcher who was instrumental in bringing many long-forgotten works of classical Tamil literature to light. ...

Topics in Tamil literature
Sangam literature
Agattiyam Tolkappiyam
Pathinenmaelkanakku
Ettuthokai
Ainkurnuru Akananuru
Purananuru Kaliththokai
Kuruntokai Natrinai
Paripaatal Pathirruppaththu
Pattupattu
Tirumurugarruppatai Kurincippattu
Malaipatukatam Mathuraikkanci
Mullaippattu Netunalvatai
Pattinappaalai Perumpanarruppatai
Porunaraatruppadai Cirupanarruppatai
Pathinenkilkanakku
Nalatiyar Nanmanikkatigai
Inna Narpathu Iniyavai Narpathu
Kar Narpathu Kalavazhi Narpathu
Ainthinai Aimpathu Thinaimozhi Aimpathu
Ainthinai Ezhupathu Thinaimalai Nurru Aimpathu
Tirukural Thirikatukam
Acharakkovai Pazhamozhi Nanuru
Siruppanchamulam Muthumozhikkanchi
Elathi Kainnilai
Sangam culture
Sangam Sangam landscape
Tamil history from Sangam literature Tamil literature
Ancient Tamil music
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Contents

Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... Agattiyam, according to mentions in Sangam Literature, was the first known book on Tamil grammar. ... The Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம் in Tamil) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language. ... Pathinenmaelkanakku is the collection of the oldest surviving Tamil Poetry. ... Ettuthokai (எட்டுத்தொகை)– The Eight Anthologies - form part of the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology series of the Sangam Literature. ... Ainkurnuru (ஐங்குறுநூறு) is a book containing five hundred short poems and is part of Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. ... Akananuru (அகநானுறு) is the seventh book in the Sangam literature anthology Ettuthokai. ... Pura Nanooru or Pura Nanuru is an ancient Tamil Sangam collection of poems, dating from 900 BCE to 220 CE. It is one of the oldest Tamil anthologies. ... Kaliththokai (கலித்தொகை) is the sixth book of Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. ... Kuruntokai (குறுந்தொகை) is the second book of Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. ... Natrinai (நற்றிணை), is a book of Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. ... Paripaatal (பரிபாடல்), is the fifth book in the Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. ... Pathirruppaththu (பதிற்றுப்பத்து), is the fourth book in the Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. ... Pattupattu (பத்துப்பாட்டு) – The ten Idylls, is an anthology of ten mind length books and is one of the oldest surviving Tamil Poetry. ... Tirumurugarruppatai by Nakkirar is one of the most important works of Sangam Literature. ... Kurincippattu, is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Kurincippattu contains 261 lines of poems in the Achiriyappa meter. ... Malaipatukatam, is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Malaipatukatam contains 583 lines of poetry in the Achiriyappa meter. ... Mathuraikkanci, is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Mathuraikkanci contains 583 lines of poetry in the Achiriyappa meter. ... Mullaippattu, is a Tamil poetic work in the Ettuthokai anthology of Sangam literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Mullaippattu contains 103 lines of poetry in the Akaval meter. ... Netunalvatai, is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Netunalvatai is part of the Pattupattu collection, which is the oldest available collection of long poems in Tamil literature. ... Pattinappaalai, is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Pattinappaalai is part of the Pattupattu collection, which is the oldest available collection of long poems in Tamil literature. ... Perumpanarruppatai, is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Perumpanarruppatai contains 500 lines of poetry in the Achiriyappa meter. ... Porunaraatruppadai, is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Porunaraatruppadai contains 250 lines of poems in the Achiriyappa meter. ... Cirupanarruppatai, is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Cirupanarruppatai contains 269 lines of poetry in the Achiriyappa meter. ... Pathinenkilkanakku is a collection of eighteen poetic works created during the post Sangam period (between 100 - 500 CE). ... Nalatiyar is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Nanmanikkatigai is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Inna Narpathu is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Iniyavai Narpathu is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Kar Narpathu is a Tamil poetic work belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Kalavazhi Narpathu is a Tamil poetic work belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Ainthinai Aimpathu is a Tamil poetic work belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Thinaimozhi Aimpathu is a Tamil poetic work belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Ainthinai Ezhupathu, is a Tamil poetic work belonging to the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the post Sangam period corresponding to between 100 – 500 CE. Ainthinai Ezhupathu contains seventy poems written by the poet Muvathiyaar. ... Thinaimalai Nurru Aimpathu, is a Tamil poetic work belonging to the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the post Sangam period corresponding to between 100 – 500 CE. Thinaimalai Nurru Aimpathu contains 154 poems written by the poet Kanimeythaviyaar. ... Thiruvalluvar statue at Kanyakumari Wikisource has original text related to this article: திருக்குறள் Thirukural (Tamil: திருக்குறள்) is an important work of Tamil literature by Thiruvalluvar written in a poetic form called Kural or couplets expounding various aspects of life. ... Thirikatukam is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Acharakkovai is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Pazhamozhi Nanuru is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Siruppanchamulam is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Muthumozhikkanchi is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Elathi is a Tamil poetic work of didactic nature belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... Kainnilai, and Innilai are Tamil poetic works belonging to the the Pathinenkilkanakku anthology of Tamil literature. ... now. ... The Sangam landscape is categorisation the Tamil landscape into various Thinais depending on the nature, location and the mood of the poem. ... Early Tamil History has few authentic sources. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... The ancient Tamil music was the music of the ancient Tamil people. ...

Sangam literature

Sangam literature deals with emotional and material topics such as love, war, governance, trade, and bereavement. Much of the Tamil literature believed to have been written in the Sangam period is lost to us, though detailed lists of works known to the 10th century compilers have survived.


Compilation of literature

The available literature from this period was categorized and compiled in the 10th century into two categories based roughly on chronology. The categories are: The Major Eighteen Anthology Series (பதினெண்மேல்கணக்கு) comprising The Eight Anthologies (எட்டுத்தொகை) and the Ten Idylls (பத்துப்பாட்டு) and The Minor Eighteen Anthology Series (பதினெண்கீழ்கணக்கு)


Classification

Sangam Poems falls into two categories: the 'inner field' (Agam — அகம்), and the 'outer field'(Puram — புறம்) as described even in the first available Tamil grammar, the Tolkappiyam. Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... The Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம் in Tamil) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language. ...


The 'inner field' topics refer to personal or human aspects, such as love and sexual relationships, and are dealt with in a metaphorical and abstract manner. The 'outer field' topics discuss all other aspects of human experience such as heroism, valour, ethics, benevolence, philanthropy, social life, and customs. An intimate relationship is a interpersonal relationship where there is a great deal of physical or emotional intimacy. ... This article is about the type of character. ... Courage is the ability to confront fear in the face of pain, danger, uncertainty or intimidation. ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek ethikos, meaning arising from habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of value or quality. ... Definition Benevolence characterizes the true goodness of the mind, the unbiased kindness to do good. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The division into akam and puram is not rigid, but depends upon the interpretation used in a specific context.


Environmental classifications

Main article: Sangam landscape

Sangam literature illustrates the thematic classification scheme first described in the Tolkappiyam. The classification ties the emotions involved in agam poetry to a specific landscape. These landscapes are called thinai (திணை). These are: kurinji (குறிஞ்சி), mountainous regions; mullai (முல்லை), forests; marutham (மருதம்), agricultural land; neithal (நெய்தல்) coastal regions; paalai (பாலை) deserts. In addition to the landscape based thinais, kaikkiLai and perunthinai are used for unsolicited love and unsuited love respectively. The Sangam landscape is categorisation the Tamil landscape into various Thinais depending on the nature, location and the mood of the poem. ... The Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம் in Tamil) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language. ...


Similar thinais pertain to puram poems as well, though these categories are based on activity rather than landscape: vetchi, 'karanthai, vanchi, kanchi, umignai, nochchi, thumbai, 'vaagai, paataan, and pothuviyal.


Tamil Sangams

Main article: Sangam

According to the compilers of the Sangam works such as Nakkeeran, the Tamil Sangams were academies, where Tamil poets and authors are said to have gathered periodically to publish their works. The legends claim that the Pandya rulers of the mythical cities of 'South' Madurai, Kapatapuram and Madurai to have patronized the three Sangams. The word "Sangam" is probably of Indo-Aryan origin, coming from "Sangha", the Buddhist and Jain term for an assembly of monks. now. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Pandyas were fierce warriors who took part in the Kurukshetra War. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...


While these claims of the Sangams and the description of sunken land masses have not been largely accepted by the historian and scientific community[8] "Sangam literature" is still the preferred term for referring to the collection of Tamil works from the period 200 BCE to 200CE. Noted historians like Kamil Zvelebil have stressed that the use of 'Sangam literature' to describe this corupus of literature is a misnomer and Classical literature should be used instead.[9]


Rediscovery

The works of Sangam literature were lost and forgotten for several centuries before they were brought to light by several Tamil Scholars such as S. V. Damodaram Pillai and U. V. Swaminatha Iyer. They painstakingly collected and catalogued numerous manuscripts in various stages of deterioration. They printed and published Tholkappiyam, Nachinarkiniyar urai (1895), Tholkappiyam Senavariyar urai, (1868), Manimekalai (1898), Cilappatikaram (1889), Pattupattu (1889), and Purananuru (1894), all with scholarly commentaries. Damodaram Pillai and Swaminatha Iyer published more 100 works in all, including minor poems. Dr. U.V. Swaminatha Iyer Dr. U. V. Swaminatha Iyer (1855 – 1942 C.E.) was a Tamil scholar and researcher who was instrumental in bringing many long-forgotten works of classical Tamil literature to light. ... It has been suggested that Tolkaappiyar be merged into this article or section. ... Manimekalai is one of the masterpieces of Tamil literature and belongs to The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature. ... Cilappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம் IPA tʃɪlʌppʌθɪkɑːɹʌm),[1] is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature. ... Pattupattu (பத்துப்பாட்டு) – The ten Idylls, is an anthology of ten mind length books and is one of the oldest surviving Tamil Poetry. ... Pura Nanooru or Pura Nanuru is an ancient Tamil Sangam collection of poems, dating from 900 BCE to 220 CE. It is one of the oldest Tamil anthologies. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Kamil Veith Zvelebil, Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature, pp12
  2. ^ See K.A. Nilakanta Sastry, A History of South India, OUP (1955) pp 105
  3. ^ George L. Hart III, The Poems of Ancient Tamil, University of California Press, 1975
  4. ^ Irayanaar Agapporul dated to c 750CE first mentioned the Sangam legends. An inscription of the early tenth century CE mentions the achievements of the early Pandya kings of establishing a Sangam in Madurai. See K.A. Nilakanta Sastry, A History of South India, OUP (1955) pp 105
  5. ^ 'The latest limit of Ettutokai and Pattupattu may be placed around 700 AD...' - Vaiyapuri Pillai, History of Tamil language and literature pp 38.
  6. ^ '...the Tamil language of these brief records achieved a flowering during the first centuries of the Common Era, culminating in the emergence of a poetic corpus of very high quality [...] To this corpus the name sangam poetry was added soon afterwards...' Burton Stein, A History of India (1998), Blackwell Publishing pp90.
  7. ^ The only religious poems among the shorter poems occur in paripatal. The rest of the corpus of Sangam literature deals with human relationship and emotions. See K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, OUP (1955) pp 330 - 335
  8. ^ http://www.hindu.com/br/2005/08/16/stories/2005081600681500.htm
  9. ^ Kamil Zvelebil., The Smile of Murugan

The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Madurai   (மதுரை in Tamil ; IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation situated on the banks of River Vaigai in Madurai district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Pattupattu (பத்துப்பாட்டு) – The ten Idylls, is an anthology of ten mind length books and is one of the oldest surviving Tamil Poetry. ...

References

  • http://www.tamilnation.org/
  • Minatchisuntharan, T.P. History of Tamil Literature. Annamalai University Publications in linguistics, 3. Annamalai University, 1965
  • Krishnamurti , C.R., Thamizh Literature Through the Ages, Vancouver, B.C. Canada http://www.tamilnation.org/literature/krishnamurti/02sangam.htm

See also


 
 

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