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Encyclopedia > Sandstone
Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years
Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years

Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, gray and white. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (821x1231, 254 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Red Sandstone Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates User:Moondigger Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Lower Antelope Canyon 2... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (821x1231, 254 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Red Sandstone Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates User:Moondigger Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Lower Antelope Canyon 2... A photographer in Upper Antelope Canyon Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Antelope Canyon Antelope Canyon is the most-visited and most-photographed slot canyon in the American Southwest. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Lower Antelope Canyon was carved out of sandstone by flash floods A Flash Flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas (washes), rivers and streams, caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunderstorm, or multiple training thunderstorms. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlain by limestone. ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Geologic provinces of the world (USGS) In geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ...


Some sandstones are resistant to weathering, yet are easy to work. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. Because of the hardness of the individual grains, uniformity of grain size and friability of its structure, sandstone is an excellent material from which to make grindstones, for sharpening blades and other implements. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain, e.g., gritstone. Weathering is the decomposition of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the Earths atmosphere. ... Concrete and metal rebar used to build a floor Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. ... For a pedestrian path situated alongside a road, see sidewalk. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... Sandstone grinding wheel A grindstone is a tool used for grinding or sharpening tools. ... The Salt Cellar, a gritstone tor on Derwent Edge in the Peak District Gritstone is a sedimentary rock composed of coarse sand grains with inclusions of small stones. ...


Rock formations that are primarily sandstone usually allow percolation of water and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestones or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. In chemistry and other physical sciences, percolation is a type of filtering. ... Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term porosity is used in multiple fields including manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ...

Contents

Origins of Sandstone

Sandstone near Stadtroda, Germany
Sandstone near Stadtroda, Germany
Millet-Seed Sandstone Macro (~ 4 cm in size)
Millet-Seed Sandstone Macro (~ 4 cm in size)

Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to organic, like chalk and coal, or chemical, like gypsum and jasper). They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a pre-existing rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, clays and silica. Grain sizes in sands are in the range of 0.1 mm to 2 mm (clays and rocks with smaller grain sizes including siltstones and shales are typically called argillaceous sediments; rocks with larger grain sizes including breccias and conglomerates are termed rudaceous sediments). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Stadtroda is a city of 6. ... The walls of Lower Antelope Canyon are composed of sandstone, a common sedimentary rock Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing rock. ... For other uses, see Chalk (disambiguation). ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation). ... Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... In geology, cementation is the process of deposition of dissolved mineral components in the interstices of sediments. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Siltstone Siltstone is a geological term for a sedimentary rock whose composition is intermediate in grain size between the coarser sandstone and the finer mudstone. ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Argillaceous minerals are minerals containing substantial amounts of clay-like components (Greek: ἄργιλλος = clay). ... Breccia, derived from the Latin word for broken, is a sedimentary rock composed of angular fragments in a matrix that may be of a similar or a different material. ... A conglomerate with iron oxide cementing material Conglomerate, Submarine Landslide located at Point Reyes, Marin County California. ...


The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. First, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water (as in a river, lake, or sea) or from air (as in a desert). Typically, sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension, i.e., ceasing to be rolled or bounced along the bottom of a body of water (e.g., seas or rivers) or ground surface (e.g., in a desert or sand dune region). Finally, once it has accumulated, the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains. The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are often derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Colors will usually be tan or yellow (from a blend of the clear quartz with the dark amber feldspar content of the sand). A predominant additional colorant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red (terra cotta), with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are also seen in the Southwest and West of England and Wales, as well as central Europe and Mongolia. Deposition from sand dunes can be recognized by irregular and fluidly shaped weathering patterns and wavy coloration lines when sectioned, while water deposition will form more regular blocks when weathered. The regularity of the latter favors use as a source for masonry, either as a primary building material or as a facing stone, over other construction. Sedimentation describes the motion of particles in solutions or suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity, centrifugal force or electric force. ... For compaction near the surface, see Soil compaction; for consolidation near the surface, see Consolidation (soil) Compaction (geology) refers to the process by which a newly deposited sediment progressively loses its original water content due to the effects of loading, this forms part of the process of lithification. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the building structure component; for the fraternal organization, see Freemasonry. ...


The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which, in finer detail, include its grain size, sorting and composition and, in more general detail, include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine, as illustrated by the following broad groupings:

  • Terrestrial environments
  1. Rivers (levees, point bars, channel sands)
  2. Alluvial fans
  3. Glacial outwash
  4. Lakes
  5. Deserts (sand dunes and ergs)
  • Marine environments
  1. Deltas
  2. Beach and shoreface sands
  3. Tidal flats
  4. Offshore bars and sand waves
  5. Storm deposits (tempestites)
  6. Turbidites (submarine channels and fans)

For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... A levee, levée (from the feminine past participle of the French verb lever, to raise), floodbank or stopbank is a natural or artificial slope or wall, usually earthen and often parallels the course of a river. ... A vast alluvial fan blossoms across the desolate landscape between the Kunlun and Altun mountain ranges that form the southern border of the Taklimakan Desert in China’s XinJiang Province. ... A satellite image of the Skeiðarársandur in Iceland In geology, a sandur (plural sandar) is a plain formed by meltwater from glaciers, also known as glacial outwash or merely outwash. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sand formations, for other meanings see Dune (disambiguation) Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian (wind-related) processes. ... Issaouane Erg, Algeria. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... Mudflats are relatively flat, muddy regions found in intertidal areas. ... USGS image Turbidite geological formations have their origins in turbidity current deposits, deposits from a form of underwater avalanche that are responsible for distributing vast amounts of clastic sediment into the deep ocean. ...

Types of sandstone

Sandstone composed mainly of quartz grains
Sandstone composed mainly of quartz grains

Once the geological characteristics of a sandstone have been established, it can then be assigned to one of three broad groups: Sandstone with a high quartz content Source: US Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sandstone with a high quartz content Source: US Government File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

  • arkose or arkosic sandstones, which have a high (>25%) feldspar content and a composition similar to granite.
  • quartzose sandstones, also known as "beach sand", which have a high (>90%) quartz content. Sometimes these sandstones are termed "orthoquartzites", e.g., the Tuscarora Quartzite of the Ridge-and-valley Appalachians.
  • argillaceous sandstones, such as greywacke or bluestone, which have a significant clay or silt content.

According to the USGS, U.S. sandstone production in 2005 was 192,000 metric tons worth $24.3 million, the largest component of which was the 121,000 metric tons worth $9.75 million of flagstone or dimension stone. Arkose is a kind of sandstone combining of quartz and with large amounts of feldspar. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Quartzite Quartzite (from German Quarzit[1]) is a hard, metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone. ... The Ridge-and-valley Appalachians are a belt within the Appalachian Mountains extending from northern New Jersey westward into Pennsylvania and southward into Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia. ... Argillaceous minerals are minerals containing substantial amounts of clay-like components (Greek: ἄργιλλος = clay). ... Greywacke (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly-sorted, angular grains of quartz, feldspar, and small rock fragments set in a compact, clay-fine matrix. ... Bluestone is the name given to a form of dolerite which appears blue when wet or freshly broken. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... Marble on a house Dimension stone is natural stone or rock that has been selected and fabricated (i. ...


References

  • Boggs, J.R., 2000, Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy, 3rd ed. Toronto: Merril Publishing Company. ISBN 0-13-099696-3
  • Folk, R.L., 1965, Petrology of sedimentary rocks PDF version. Austin: Hemphill’s Bookstore. 2nd ed. 1981, ISBN 0-914696-14-9
  • Pettijohn, F.J., P.E. Potter and R. Siever, 1987, Sand and sandstone, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-96350-2
  • Scholle, P.A., 1978, A Color illustrated guide to constituents, textures, cements, and porosities of sandstones and associated rocks, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir no. 28. ISBN 0-89181-304-7
  • Scholle, P.A., and D. Spearing, 1982, Sandstone depositional environments: clastic terrigenous sediments , American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir no. 31. ISBN 0-89181-307-1
  • USGS Minerals Yearbook: Stone, Dimension

Gallery

See also

Bargate stone is a highly durable form of sandstone, which was quarried for centuries in south west Surrey, United Kingdom _ particularly around Guildford and Godalming. ... This article is about the building material and the dwelling. ... Marble on a house Dimension stone is natural stone or rock that has been selected and fabricated (i. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Hummelstown brownstone is a medium-grain, dense sandstone quarried near Hummelstown in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, USA. It is a dark brownstone with reddish to purplish hues and was once widely used as a building stone in the United States. ... Gem animals. ... This is intended as a list of, or links to, stone currently or historically produced in various countries (not generic types of stone). ... The Old Red Sandstone is a rock formation of considerable importance to early paleontology. ... Sarsen stones are sandstone blocks found on Salisbury Plain and elsewhere. ... The term sedimentary basin is used to refer to any geographical feature exhibiting subsidence and consequent infilling by sedimentation. ... Yorkstone is a local variety of sandstone quarried in the county of Yorkshire in the United Kingdom. ... Dells of the Wisconsin River The Dells of the Wisconsin River (used in the singular, and also called the Wisconsin Dells) is a 5 mi (8 km) gorge on the Wisconsin River in southern Wisconsin in the United States noted for its particular scenic beauty, in particular for its unique...

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Sandstone - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (851 words)
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains.
Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the earth's crust.
Sandstones are clastic in origin (as opposed to organic, like chalk and coal, or chemical, like gypsum and jasper).
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