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Chandragupta Maurya
Image:Chandramaurya.jpg
Modern depiction of the imprisonment of Chandragupta Maurya by the king of Nanda.
Allegiance: Magadhan Empire
Rank: Emperor
Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya
Reign: 322 BC-298 BC
Place of birth: India

Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Greek: Sandrakottos) (born c. 340 BCE, ruled c. 320 BCE[1] to 293 BCE[2]) was the founder of the Mauryan Empire. Image File history File links Chandramaurya. ... Magadha was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of Buddha, having risen to power during the reigns of Bimbisara (c. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (297 - c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC - 322 BC - 321 BC 320 BC 319... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC Years: 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC - 298 BC - 297 BC 296 BC... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ...


Chandragupta succeeded in bringing together almost all of the Indian subcontinent. As a result, Chandragupta is considered the first unifier of India and the first genuine emperor of India.[3] Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


Prior to Chandragupta's consolidation of power, small regional kingdoms dominated Northern and Eastern India.


In Chandragupta's time, the Mauryan Empire spanned from Afghanistan and Balochistan in the West, Bengal in the East, the Deccan plateau in the South, and Kashmir in the North [2]. The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Major ethnic groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, in 1980. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in the Bengali language, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ...


There are different theories regarding Chandragupta Maurya’s origins. Most regard Chandragupta to have originated from Magadha, possibly as the son of a Nanda prince.[4] A kshatriya people known as the "Mauryas" who had received the relics of the Buddha are also mentioned in the Mahaparinibbana Sutta of the Digha Nikaya. Then the Moriyas of Pipphalivana came to know that at Kusinara the Blessed One had passed away. And they sent a message to the Mallas of Kusinara, saying: "The Blessed One was of the warrior caste, and we are too. We are worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the Blessed One. We will erect a stupa over the relics of the Blessed One and hold a festival in their honor." Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Nanda dynasty is said to be established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Media:Example. ... For the Mahāparinirvāṇa SÅ«tra, a text of East Asian Mahayana Buddhism, see Nirvana Sutra. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ...


There is however an alternative school including noted Buddhist scholar B.M. Barua and others like Dr J.W. McCrindle, Dr D.B. Spooner, Dr H. C. Seth, Dr Hari Ram Gupta, Dr Ranajit Pal who connect Chandragupta to Gandhara (in modern day Pakistan).[5] Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra, Chandahara, and Persian Gandara) is the name of an ancient Mahajanapada in eastern Afghanistan and the north-western province of Pakistan. ...


Claims that the Mauryas were the Muras or rather Mors and were jatt kshatriyas of Indo-Scythian origin have been proposed.[6] [7] [8] [9]Based on Plutarch's evidence, other historians state that Chandragupta Maurya belonged to the Ashvaka (q.v.) or Assakenoi clan of Swat/Kunar valley ( modern Mer-coh or Koh-I-Mor — the Meros of the classical writings).[10] Ashvakas were a section of the Kambojas who were exclusively engaged in horse-culture and were noted for renting out their cavalry services.[11] Jats are now preeminently a farming community. ... Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is the title of the princely military order in the Vedic society. ... The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. ... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46- 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was an Hellenistic historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... The Ashvakas are very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. ... A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ...


Regardless, his achievements, which ranged from defeating Macedonian armies to establishing centralized rule throughout Northern India, remain some of the most celebrated in Indian history. Two thousand years later, the accomplishments of Chandragupta and his successors are objects of great study in the annals of South Asian and world history.

Contents

Uprising

Very little is known about Chandragupta's youth, but Plutarch reports that he met with Alexander the Great, probably around Taxila in the northwest, and that he viewed the ruling Nanda dynasty in a very negative light: Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46- 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was an Hellenistic historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The city of Taxila ()[1] was an important early Hindu[2][3] and Buddhist[4] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE[5] to the 2nd century CE[6]. UNESCO has listed 18 locations at Taxila as World Heritage Sites. ... Nanda dynasty is said to be established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ...

"Androcottus, when he was a stripling, saw Alexander himself, and we are told that he often said in later times that Alexander narrowly missed making himself master of the country, since its king was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low birth." Plutarch 62-3 [12]

According to this tradition, the encounter would have happened around 326 BCE, suggesting a birth date for Chandragupta around 340 BCE.


Junianus Justinus describes the humble origins of Chandragupta, and explains how he later led a popular uprising against the Nanda king: Justin or Marcus Junianus Justinus or Justinus Frontinus, 3rd century Roman historian. ...

"He was of humble origin, but was pushing to acquiring the throne by the superior power of the mind. When after having offended the king of Nanda by his insolence, he was condemned to death by the king, he was saved by the speed of his own feet... He gathered bandits and invited Indians to a change of rule." Justin XV.4.15 [13]

Foundation of the Empire

Main article: Magadha
Silver punch mark coin of the Mauryan empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BCE.
Silver punch mark coin of the Mauryan empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BCE.

Chandragupta Maurya , with the help of Chanakya, started to lay the foundation of the Mauryan empire. Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Coin of the Mauryan empire, c. ... Coin of the Mauryan empire, c. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Prime Minister Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Chanakya (c. ...


In all the forms of the Chanakya legend,[14] he is thrown out of the Nanda court by the king, whereupon he swears revenge.


Chanakya by chance met Chandragupta in whom he spotted great military and executive abilities. Chanakya was impressed by the prince's personality and intelligence, and immediately took the young boy under his wing to fulfill his silent vow.


Depending upon the interpretation of Justin's accounts, the second version of the above story is that Chandragupta had also accompanied Chanakya to Pataliputra and himself was insulted by Dhanna Nanda (Nandrum of Justin). If this version of Justin's accounts is accepted, then the view that Chanakya had purchased Chandragupta from Bihar, on his way to Taxila, becomes irrelevant.


The shrewd Chanakya had trained Chandragupta under his expert guidance and together they planned the destruction of Dhana Nanda. The Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutta as well as the Jaina work Parisishtaparvan talk of Chandragupta's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka, sometimes identified with Porus.[15] This Himalayan alliance gave Chandragupta a composite and powerful army made up of Yavanas (Greeks), Kambojas, Shakas (Scythians), Kiratas (Nepalese), Parasikas (Persians) and Bahlikas (Bactrians): Nanda dynasty was established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... The Mudrarakshasa (lit. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Alexander and Porus by Charles Le Brun, 1673 King Porus, the Greek version of the Indian names Puru, Pururava, Purushotthama or Parvata, was the ruler of a Kingdom in Punjab located between the Jhelum and the Chenab (in Greek, the Hydaspes and the Acesines) rivers in the Punjab. ... Perspective view of the Himalayas and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Kambojas are a very ancient people of north-western parts of ancient India and Afghanistan , frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... The Sakas are a peoples that lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia, in the centuries before 300 AD. They are considered to be a branch of Scythians by most scholars. ... The Kiratas are one of the earliest inahbitants of Nepal. ... The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ...

"Kusumapura was besieged from every direction by the forces of Parvata and Chandragupta: Shakas, Yavanas, Kiratas, Kambojas, Parasikas, Bahlikas and others, assembled on the advice of Canakya" Mudrarakshasa 2 [16]

With the help of these frontier martial tribes from the Himalayas and Central Asia, Chandragupta was apparently able to defeat the Nanda/Nandin rulers of Magadha, and founded the powerful Maurya Empire in Eastern India as a result. ... Alexander and Porus by Charles Le Brun, 1673 King Porus, the Greek version of the Indian names Puru, Pururava, Purushotthama or Parvata, was the ruler of a Kingdom in Punjab located between the Jhelum and the Chenab (in Greek, the Hydaspes and the Acesines) rivers in the Punjab. ... The Mudrarakshasa (lit. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... http://www. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Nanda dynasty is said to be established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India. ...


Expansion

When he took over Magadha, Chandragupta Maurya inherited a powerful army from the Nanda Empire which he continued to build upon as he conquered more territories in Southern Asia.


Reconquest of the Northwest

Chandragupta turned his attention to Northwestern India (modern Pakistan), where he fought the satrapies (described as "prefects" in classical Western sources) left in place by Alexander (Justin), and assassinated two of his governors, Nicanor and Philip.[3][17] The satrapies he fought may have included Eudemus, ruler in western Punjab until his departure in 317 BCE; Peithon, son of Agenor, ruler of the Greek colonies along the Indus until his departure for Babylon in 316 BCE; and possibly Sophytes, who may have ruled in the Punjab until around 294 BCE (although it is also conjectured he may have ruled in Bactria instead). The Roman historian Justin described how Sandrocottus (Greek version of Chandragupta's name) conquered the northwest: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Assassin and Targeted killing redirect here. ... Nicanor was the name of several ancient Greeks: Nicanor of Macedon, father of Balacrus, who lived under Philip II of Macedonia Nicanor (Egyptian general), a trusted general of Ptolemy I Soter, king of Egypt Nicanor (general), a key general of Cassander Nicanor of Macedonia, brother of Philotas and comander of... Look up Philip in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Eudemus (in Greek Eυδημoς; died 316 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals, who was appointed by him to the command of the troops left in India. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 322 BC 321 BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314... Peithon, son of Agenor (?-312 BCE) was an officer in the expedition of Alexander the Great to India, who became satrap of the Indus from 325 to 316 BCE, and then satrap of Babylon, from 316 to 312 BCE, until he died at the Battle of Gaza in 312 BCE... Babylon was a city in Mesopotamia, the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, Iraq, about 50 miles south of Baghdad. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 321 BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313... Coin of the young King Sophytes (305-294 BC) Coin of the elderly King Sophytes (305-294 BC) Sophytes seems to have been a Greek prince that ruled a kingdom in northwestern India, extending over the Salt Range, around Saubhuta and Phegelas (in todays Punjab in Pakistan), from 305... (Redirected from 294 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC 296 BC 295 BC 294 BC 293... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... Justin may refer to: Justin (name), a common given name Junianus Justinus, a 3rd century Roman historian Justin I (c. ...

"India, after the death of Alexander, had assassinated his prefects, as if shaking the burden of servitude. The author of this liberation was Sandracottos, but he had transformed liberation in servitude after victory, since, after taking the throne, he himself oppressed the very people he has liberated from foreign domination" Justin XV.4.12-13 [18]
"He was of humble origin, but was pushing to acquiring the throne by the superior power of the mind. When after having offensed the king of Nanda by his insolence, he was comdemned to death by the king, he was saved by the speed of his own feet" Justin XV.4.15[19]
"Later, as he was preparing war against the prefects of Alexander, a huge wild elephant went to him and took him on his back as if tame, and he became a remarkable fighter and war leader. Having thus acquired royal power, Sandracottos possessed India at the time Seleucos was preparing future glory." Justin XV.4.19[20]

Conquest of Northern and Central India

Following the conquest of the northwest, Chandragupta moved onto the lands east of the Indus River, then moving south, taking over much of what is now Central India. Chandragupta soon overran all of Northern India, establishing an empire from the Bay of Bengal to the Arabian Sea. The position of the Sindhu River in Iron Age Vedic India. ... A map showing the location of the Bay of Bengal. ... Map of the Arabian Sea. ...


Conflict and alliance with Seleucus

Silver coin of Seleucus I Nicator, who fought Chandragupta Maurya, and later made an alliance with him.
Silver coin of Seleucus I Nicator, who fought Chandragupta Maurya, and later made an alliance with him.

Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian satrap of the Asian portion of Alexander's former empire, conquered and put under his own authority eastern territories as far as Bactria and the Indus (Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55), until in 305 BCE he entered in a confrontation with Chandragupta: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Appian (c. ...

"Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he [Seleucus] acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia, 'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Persis, Parthia, Bactria, Arabia, Tapouria, Sogdia, Arachosia, Hyrcania, and other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus." Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55 [21]

The exact details of engagement are not known. As noted by scholars such as R.C. Majumdar and D.D. Kosambi, Seleucus appears to have fared poorly, having ceded large tracts of lands west of the Indus to Chandragupta. Appian (c. ...

The Mauryan empire at its zenith around 230 BCE.  It should be possible to replace this fair use image with a freely licensed one. If you can, please do so as soon as is practical.
The Mauryan empire at its zenith around 230 BCEIt should be possible to replace this fair use image with a freely licensed one. If you can, please do so as soon as is practical.

Seleucus and Chandragupta ultimately reached a settlement, and through a treaty sealed in 303 BC, Seleucus ceded the country around the river Indus, according to Strabo: Download high resolution version (388x623, 38 KB)Boundary of the Mauryan empire at its greatest extent, ca. ... Download high resolution version (388x623, 38 KB)Boundary of the Mauryan empire at its greatest extent, ca. ... (Redirected from 230 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 235 BC 234 BC 233 BC 232 BC 231 BC - 230 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC Years: 308 BC 306 BC305 BC 304 BC - 303 BC - 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 298 BC Events The Seleucids lose the western...

"The Indians occupy [in part] some of the countries situated along the Indus, which formerly belonged to the Persians: Alexander deprived the Ariani of them, and established there settlements of his own. But Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, and received in return five hundred elephants." Strabo 15.2.1(9)

Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received territory west of the Indus including southern Afghanistan and parts of Persia. Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as Kandhahar, in today's southern Afghanistan. Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, in Greek:Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ) (c. ... This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ... Motto: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ«  (Persian) Independence, freedom, (the) Islamic Republic Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Capital (largest city) Tehran Persian Government Islamic Republic  - Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei  - President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Establishment 550 BCE Cyrus the Great overthrows Median overlords and... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... Kandahār (or Qandahār, قندهار) is a city in southern Afghanistan, the capital of Kandahar province. ...


In exchange for this territory, Seleucus obtained five hundred war elephants, a military asset which would play a decisive role at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. A matrimonial alliance was also agreed upon (called Epigamia in ancient sources, meaning either the recognition of marriage between Indians and Greeks, or a dynastic alliance): Combatants Antigonids Macedonians Seleucids Commanders Antigonus I† Demetrius I of Macedon Prepelaus Lysimachus Seleucus I Nicator Pleistarchus Strength 45,000 heavy infantry 25,000 light infantry 10,000 cavalry 75 elephants 40,000 heavy infantry 20,000 light infantry 12,000 Iranian cavalry 3,000 heavy cavalry 400 elephants 100... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC Battle of Ipsus: King... In ancient Greece Epigamia (Greek language: Επιγαμια), designated the legal right to contract a marriage. ...

"He (Seleucus) crossed the Indus and waged war with Sandrocottus [Maurya], king of the Indians, who dwelt on the banks of that stream, until they came to an understanding with each other and contracted a marriage relationship." Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55 [22]
"After having made a treaty with him (Sandrakotos) and put in order the Orient situation, Seleucos went to war against Antigonus." Justin XV.4.15[23]

In addition to this treaty, Seleucus dispatched an ambassador, Megasthenes, to Chandragupta, and later Deimakos to his son Bindusara, at the Mauryan court at Pataliputra (Modern Patna in Bihar state). Later Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt and contemporary of Ashoka, is also recorded by Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the Mauryan court.[24] Appian (c. ... Antigonus may refer to: Three Macedonian kings of the Antigonid dynasty that succeeded Alexander the Great in Asia: Antigonus I Monophthalmus (382–301 BC) Antigonus II Gonatas (319–239 BC) Antigonus III Doson (263–221 BC) Antigonus of Sokho, Jewish scholar of the third century BC. Antigonus the Hasmonean (died... Megasthenes (c. ... Deimakos (3rd century BCE), also Deimachus, was a Greek of the Seleucid Empire. ... Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (297 - c. ... ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), was the ruler of Egypt (he was not technically the pharaoh because he was not ethnically Egyptian) from 281 BC to 246 BC. He was of a delicate constitution, no Macedonian warrior-chief... Ptolemaic Egypt refers to the time period of hellenistic rule in Egypt. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19c portrait. ... Dionysius was a Greek of the 3rd century BCE, who was sent as ambassador to the court of the Indian emperor Ashoka, by Ptolemy Philadelphus. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ...


Classical sources have also recorded that following their treaty, Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents, such as when Chandragupta sent various aphrodisiacs to Seleucus: An aphrodisiac is an agent which acts on the mind and causes the arousal of the mood of sexual desire. ...

"And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in such matters [as to make people more amorous]. And Phylarchus confirms him, by reference to some of the presents which Sandrakottus, the king of the Indians, sent to Seleucus; which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection, while some, on the contrary, were to banish love" Athenaeus of Naucratis, "The deipnosophists" Book I, chapter 32 [25]

Athenaeus (Αθηναιος Athenaios; fl. ... The Deipnosophistae (deipnon “dinner” and sophistai, “professors”: original Greek title Deipnosophistai, English Deipnosophists) may be translated as The Banquet of the Learned or Philosophers at Dinner or The Gastronomers. ...

Acquired army

After 303 BC, when Megasthenes recorded the size of the acquired army of Chandragupta, his army grew to 400,000 men according to Strabo: The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...

"Megasthenes was in the camp of Sandrocottus, which consisted of 400,000 men" Strabo 15-1-53.[26]

Pliny quotes Megasthenes giving even larger figures of 600,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 9,000 war elephants: Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19c portrait. ...

"But the Prasii [the inhabitants of Magadha, of whom Sandracottos was king [27]] surpass in power and glory every other people, not only in this quarter, but one may say in all India, their capital Palibothra, a very large and wealthy city, after which some call the people itself the Palibothri,--nay even the whole tract along the Ganges. Their king has in his pay a standing army of 600,000 foot-soldiers, 30,000 cavalry, and 9,000 elephants: whence may be formed some conjecture as to the vastness of his resources." Megasthenes, quoted in Pliny.[28]

Megasthenes (c. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19c portrait. ...

Jainism & death

Towards the end of his life, it is belived that Chandragupta gave up his throne and became an ascetic under the Jain saint Bhadrabahu Swami, ending his days in self-starvation at Shravanabelagola, in present day Karnataka. A small temple marks the cave (called Bhadrabahu Cave) where he died [3]. Jaina redirects here. ... Bhadrabahu was a Jain saint. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The statue of Gomatheswara dates from 978-993 AD. Shravanabelagola is a city located in the Hassan district, in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ...

The court of Chandragupta Maurya, especially Chanakya, played an important part in the foundation and governance of the Maurya dynasty
The court of Chandragupta Maurya, especially Chanakya, played an important part in the foundation and governance of the Maurya dynasty

Image File history File links India_CG3. ... Image File history File links India_CG3. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Prime Minister Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Chanakya (c. ... The Mauryan dynasty ruled the Mauryan empire, the first unified empire of India, from 322 BCE to 183 BCE. The rulers of the Mauryan dynasty were: Chandragupta Maurya (322 - 298 BCE) - founder of the Mauryan empire. ...

Chanakya

Main article: Chanakya

Chandragupta's adviser[29] Chanakya was the architect of Chandragupta's rise to power. Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Prime Minister Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Chanakya (c. ...


Family

Chandragupta Maurya renounced his throne to his son, Bindusara, who became the new Mauryan Emperor. Bindusara would later become the father of Asoka the Great, who was one of the most influential kings of all time due to his patronage of the Buddhist religion. Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (297 - c. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in...


Origin or ancestry

The ancestry of Chandragupta is still shrouded in mystery and not known for certain [30]. There are divergent views regarding the origin, and each view has its own set of adherents. The ancestry of Chandragupta is still shrouded in mystery and not known for certain [1]. There are divergent views regarding the origin, and each view has its own set of adherents. ...


While some Indian historians hold the view that Chandragupta was from the Nanda dynasty of Magadha, other later literary traditions imply that Chandragupta was raised by peacock-tamers (Sanskrit: Mayura-Poshakha), which earned him the Maurya epithet. Both the Buddhist as well as Jaina traditions testify to the supposed connection between the Moriya (Maurya) and Mora or Mayura (Peacock).[31] Yet there are other literary traditions according to which Chandragupta belonged to Moriyas, a Kshatriya (warrior) clan of a little ancient republic of Pippalivana located between Rummindei in the Nepalese Tarai and Kasia in the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh. // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Peacock re-directs here; for alternate uses see Peacock (disambiguation). ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ... Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322–298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ... An epithet (Greek - επιθετον and Latin - epitheton; literally meaning imposed) is a descriptive word or phrase. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Kshatriya (Hindi: , from Sanskrit: , ) is the title of the princely military order in the Vedic society. ... A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... Gorakhpur(DevanāgarÄ«:गोरखपुर) is a city in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P. It is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Union of India. ...


Trivia

  • In the 9th century AD, Sanskrit author Vishakhadatta penned a seven-act play on Chandragupta's life called, Mudrarakshasa (Sanskrit: Signet Ring of the Rakshasa,the chief minister of the last Nanda king).
  • In 2001, the Indian Postal Department issued a Rs. 4 stamp commemorating the rule of Chandragupta.
  • A myth says, that after not being able to seize control in his first attempt, Chandragupta roamed the wilderness of India. Here, he watched through a window, a mother and a child. The child kept burning his hand while trying to eat a roti. The mother scolded the child and told him to eat from the edges, not the centre, because the centre will always be hotter. Chandragupta realized that the Nanda Empire could be considered as that roti. This caused him to change his tactics for seizing power. There is a similar myth in which the roti is replaced by khichdi.

In Legends of the Hidden Temple, one of the artifacts was the "Lion-Headed Bracelet of Chandragupta." The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ... The Mudrarakshasa (lit. ... This article is about the year 2001. ... Indian Rupee Collection The Rupee (₨ or Rs. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...

Preceded by:
Nanda dynasty
Mauryan Emperor
322-298 BC
Succeeded by:
Bindusara

Nanda dynasty is said to be established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... The Mauryan dynasty ruled the Mauryan empire, the first unified empire of India, from 322 BCE to 183 BCE. The rulers of the Mauryan dynasty were: Chandragupta Maurya (322 - 298 BCE) - founder of the Mauryan empire. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC - 322 BC - 321 BC 320 BC 319... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC Years: 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC - 298 BC - 297 BC 296 BC... Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (297 - c. ...

See also

Magadha was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of Buddha, having risen to power during the reigns of Bimbisara (c. ... The Mauryan dynasty ruled the Mauryan empire, the first unified empire of India, from 322 BCE to 183 BCE. The rulers of the Mauryan dynasty were: Chandragupta Maurya (322 - 298 BCE) - founder of the Mauryan empire. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (297 - c. ... Dasaratha Maurya was a king of the Mauryan empire, ruling 232 - 224 BC. He was the successor of Ashoka the Great. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Prime Minister Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Chanakya (c. ... The contribution of the Maurya and the Gupta Empire to the Indian culture and philosophy was enormous. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kauá¹­ilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... The history of India begins with the archaeological record of Homo sapiens ca. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. ... // The following people normally have the words the Great appended to their names. ... Map of the Mauryan Empire in 230 BC It should be possible to replace this fair use image with a freely licensed one. ...

References

  1. ^ Kulke, Hermann, Rothermund, Dietmar [1986] (1998). A History of India, Third Edition, London: Routledge, 59. ISBN 0-415-15481-2.
  2. ^ Kulke and Rothermund 1998:62
  3. ^ a b Boesche, Roger (January 2003). "Kautilya's Arthaśāstra on War and Diplomacy in Ancient India". The Journal of Military History 67 (1): 9–37. ISSN 0899-3718.
  4. ^ Biographies: Chandragupta Maurya
  5. ^ Indian Culture, vol. X, p. 34, B. M. Barua.
  6. ^ Jats the Ancient rulers, Dahinam Publishers, Sonipat, Haryana, by B. S. Dahiya I.R.S
  7. ^ Ram Swarup Joon, History of the Jats, Rohtak, India (1938, 1967)
  8. ^ Mahavamsa :Geiger Trans p 27, Mahavamsa describes Chandragupta as coming of Kshatriya clan of Maurya: "Mauryanam Khattyanam vamsha jata". (Geiger Trans p 27). It means "Mauryas are Kshatriyas of Jat clan".
  9. ^ Dehiya on the Jat Iranic identity of Mauryas:History of Iran
  10. ^ Was Chandragupta Maurya a Punjabi? Article in Punjab History Conference, Second Session, Oct 28-30, 1966, Punjabi University Patiala, p 32-35; Invasion of India by Alexander the great, p. 405; See also: The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, pp 150-51, Kirpal Singh.
  11. ^ [1] Also see Sandrokottas-Chandragupta Maurya Identity : Sheet anchor of Indian history
  12. ^ Plutarch 62-3
  13. ^ Justin XV.4.15
  14. ^ Trautmann, Thomas R. (1971). “The Cāṇakya-Candragupta-Kathā”, Kauṭilya and the Arthaśāstra: A Statistical Investigation of the Authorship and Evolution of the Text. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
  15. ^ John Marshall Taxila, p. 18, and al.
  16. ^ From the French translation, in "Le Ministre et la marque de l'anneau", ISBN 2-7475-5135-0
  17. ^ Radha Kumud Mookerji, Chandragupta Maurya and His Times, 4th ed. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1988 [1966]), 31, 28–33.
  18. ^ Justin XV.4.12-13
  19. ^ Justin XV.4.15
  20. ^ Justin XV.4.19
  21. ^ Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55
  22. ^ Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55
  23. ^ Justin XV.4.15
  24. ^ Pliny the Elder, "The Natural History", Chap. 21
  25. ^ Ath. Deip. I.32
  26. ^ Strabo 15-1-53
  27. ^ Strab. XV. i. 35-36,--p. 702. Text
  28. ^ FRAGM. LVI. Plin. Hist. Nat. VI. 21. 8-23. 11.
  29. ^ Boesche, Roger (January 2003). "Kautilya's Arthaśāstra on War and Diplomacy in Ancient India". The Journal of Military History 67 (1): 9–37. ISSN 0899-3718. "Kautilya [is] sometimes called a chancellor or prime minister to Chandragupta, something like a Bismarck…"
  30. ^ Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 236, Dr H. C. raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukherjee; Ancient India, 2003, p 284, Dr V. D. Mahajan
  31. ^ Parisishtaparvan, p 56, VIII239f

Thomas R. Trautmann is an American Historian. ...

Additional reading

  • Kosambi,D.D. An Introduction to the Study of Indian History, Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1985
  • Bhargava, P.L. Chandragupta Maurya, New Delhi:D.K. Printworld, 160 pp., 2002.
  • Habib, Irfan. and Jha, Vivekanand. Mauryan India: A People's History of India,New Delhi:Tulika Books, 2004; 189pp
  • Vishakadatta, R.S. Pandit.Mudraraksasa (The Signet Ring of Rakshasa), New Delhi:Global Vision Publishing House, 2004, ISBN 81-8220-009-1, edited by Ramesh Chandra
  • Swearer, Donald. Buddhism and Society in Southeast Asia (Chambersburg, Pennsylvania : Anima Books, 1981) ISBN 0-89012-023-4
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K. A. Age of the Nandas and Mauryas (Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass, [1967] c1952) ISBN 0-89684-167-7
  • Bongard-Levin, G. M. Mauryan India (Stosius Inc/Advent Books Division May 1986) ISBN 0-86590-826-5
  • Chand Chauhan, Gian. Origin and Growth of Feudalism in Early India: From the Mauryas to AD 650 (Munshiram Manoharlal January 2004) ISBN 81-215-1028-7
  • Keay, John. India: A History (Grove Press; 1 Grove Pr edition May 10, 2001) ISBN 0-8021-3797-0

External link

  • 1911encyclopedia.org article on Chandragupta Maurya

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