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Encyclopedia > Sandalwood
The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii
The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii

Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. Species of this tree are found in Nepal, southern India, Sri Lanka, Hawaii, South Pacific islands and Australia. It is used as fragrance in perfume and incense, and for woodworking. Some temples have been built with sandalwood in India and these retain the aroma for centuries. Jewelry boxes, fans, and ornate carvings continue to be made in many parts of Asia, especially India, using sandalwood. a Sandalwood plant found in Hawaii. ... a Sandalwood plant found in Hawaii. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species see text Santalum is a genus of woody flowering plants, the most well known and commercially valuable of which is the Indian Sandalwood tree, . Members of the genus are trees or shrubs. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Perfume (disambiguation). ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... Artists can use woodworking to create delicate sculptures. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...

Contents

Sources

source: Koehler (1887)
source: Koehler (1887)
Sandal wood leaf
Sandal wood leaf
  • Santalum album, or Nepalese sandalwood, is currently endangered and consequently very expensive. Although all sandalwood trees in Nepal are government-owned and their harvest is strictly controlled, many trees are illegally cut down and smuggled out of the country. Sandalwood essential oil prices have risen up to $1000-1500 per kg in the last 5 years. Some countries regard the sandal oil trade as ecologically harmful because it encourages the overharvesting of sandalwood trees. Sandalwood from Mysore region of southern India is generally considered to be of the highest quality available. New plantations have been set up with international aid in Tamilnadu, in order to facilitate the economic benefits of sandalwood.
  • Santalum ellipticum, known as Hawaiian sandalwood ( ‘iliahi alo‘e ), is also used and deemed of high quality.
  • Santalum spicatum (Australian sandalwood) is used by some aromatherapists and perfumers. The concentration of constituent chemicals in its essential oil - and hence, its aroma - differ considerably from those of other Santalum species.
  • aka Cendana, Chantana, san-ta-ku, hau meni, ai nitu, turd.

West Nepal sandalwood (Amyris balsamifera) is not a member of the sandalwood family; the chemical components of amyris essential oil are different from those of the oil obtained from plants in the Santalum genus. Image File history File links Koeh-128. ... Image File history File links Koeh-128. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 709 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1692 × 1431 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 709 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1692 × 1431 pixels, file size: 1. ... Binomial name Santalum album L. Santalum album, a terrestrial plant species of the Santalaceae family, is commonly known as a source of sandalwood. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... This article is about crop plantations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Development aid. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Binomial name Santalum spicatum A.DC. Western Australian sandalwood, Santalum spicatum, often just called sandalwood, is a tree native to semi-arid areas of southern and western Australia (see this map). ... It has been suggested that Aromatherapy Candles be merged into this article or section. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ...


Production

To produce commercially valuable sandalwood with high levels of fragrance oils, harvested santalum trees have to be at least 40 years of age, but 80 or above is preferred. However, inferior sandalwood produced from trees at 30 years old can still fetch a decent price due to the demand for real sandalwood.


Unlike most trees, sandalwood is harvested by toppling the entire santalum tree instead of sawing them down at the trunk. This way, valuable wood from the stump and root can also be sold or processed for oil.


Use

Fragrance

Sandalwood essential oil provides perfumes with a striking wood base note. Sandalwood smells not unlike other wood scents, except it has a bright and fresh edge with few natural analogues. When used in smaller proportions in a perfume, it is an excellent fixative to enhance the head space of other fragrances. An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... In perfumery, a base note (pronounced like the musical term bass note) is a class of odorants that evaporates very slowly and are typically not perceived until perfume drydown. ... For other uses, see Perfume (disambiguation). ... A fixative is a liquid, similar to varnish, which is usually sprayed over a finished piece of artwork to better preserve it and prevent smudging. ...


Religious use

In Hinduism, sandalwood is often used for rituals or ceremonies. Its use as a embalming paste is used in Lord Shiva temples on Shivlings. A vast majority of hindus wear a small mark of this paste on their forehead right above the middle of the eyes. It is supposed to keep the 'third eye' (pituitary gland) cool. Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... This article is about the Hindu God. ... It has been suggested that Shiva lingham stones be merged into this article or section. ... | Latin = hypophysis, glandula pituitaria | GraySubject = 275 | GrayPage = 1275 | Image = Gray1180. ...


Sandalwood is considered in alternative medicine to bring one closer with the divine. Sandalwood essential oil, which is very expensive in its pure form, is used primarily for Ayurvedic purposes, and treating anxiety. Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... Ayurveda (आयुर्वेद Sanskrit: ayu—life; veda—knowledge of) or ayurvedic medicine is a more than 2,000 year old comprehensive system of medicine based on a holistic approach rooted in Vedic culture. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ...


It is said to have been used for embalming the corpses of princes in Ceylon since the 9th century. As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...


In Buddhism, sandalwood are considered to be of the Padma (lotus) group and attributed to the Bodhisattva Amitabha. Sandalwood scent is believed to transform one's desires and maintain a person's alertness while in meditation. Sandalwood is also one of the more popular scents used for incense used when offering incense to the Buddha. A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Binomial name Gaertn. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Amitabha Buddha pictured in the Ushiku Daibutsu in Japan Amitābha (Sanskrit: अमिताभः, Amitābhaḥ; Chinese: 阿彌陀佛, Ä’mítuó Fó; Japanese: 阿弥陀如来, Amida Nyorai; Vietnamese: 阿彌陀佛, A Di Ðà Phật; Tibetan: འོད་དཔག་མེད་; Lhasa dialect IPA: [; Mongolian: CaÉ£lasi ügei gerel-tü) is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahāyāna school... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ...


Sandalwood, along with agarwood, is the most popular and commonly used incense material by the Chinese and Japanese in worship and various ceremonies. It is also used extensively in Indian incense, religiously or otherwise. Agarwood or eaglewood is the most expensive wood in the world. ... Indian Incense is known as agarbattī in Hindi (अगरबत्ती) (and other Indian languages). ...


Firekeeping priests, who have maintained sacred fires for centuries, accept sandalwood twigs from Zoroastrian worshippers as their contribution for sustaining the fire. Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


Medicine

Sandalwood essential oil was popular in medicine up to 1920-1930, mostly as urogenital (internal) and skin (external) antiseptic. Its main component beta-santalol (~90%) has antimicrobial property. It is used in aromatherapy and sandalwood oil is also used to prepare soaps. Sandalwood is an essential oil and can be used with a carrier oil to clear skin from blackheads and spots. Sandalwood oil should never be applied to the skin without a carrier oil. Sandalwood oil is very nutritious for the skin and this is what causes the spots and blackheads to be eliminated An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes such as bacteria (antibacterial activity), fungi (antifungal activity), viruses (antiviral activity), or parasites (antiparasitic activity). ... It has been suggested that Aromatherapy Candles be merged into this article or section. ... A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. ...


Technology

Due to its low fluorescence and optimal refractive index, sandalwood oil is often employed as an immersion oil within ultraviolet and fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... Microscopy is any technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye. ...


Bibliography

  • Mandy Aftel, Essence and Alchemy: A Natural History of Perfume, Gibbs Smith, 2001, ISBN 1-58685-702-9

External links


 
 

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