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Encyclopedia > Sandakan Death Marches
October 24, 1945. Sandakan POW camp. A few months after it was vacated and demolished by retreating Japanese troops, little remains of the burnt-out camp. In an area of No. 1 compound (pictured) graves containing the bodies of 300 Australian and British prisoners were discovered. They are believed to have been the men left in the camp after the second series of marches to Ranau. Each grave contained several bodies, in some cases as many as 10. (Photographer: Frank Burke.)
October 24, 1945. Sandakan POW camp. A few months after it was vacated and demolished by retreating Japanese troops, little remains of the burnt-out camp. In an area of No. 1 compound (pictured) graves containing the bodies of 300 Australian and British prisoners were discovered. They are believed to have been the men left in the camp after the second series of marches to Ranau. Each grave contained several bodies, in some cases as many as 10. (Photographer: Frank Burke.)

The Sandakan Death Marches are the most infamous incident in series of events which resulted in the deaths of more than 6,000 Indonesian civilian slave labourers and Allied prisoners of war, held by the Empire of Japan during the Pacific campaign of World War II, at prison camps in North Borneo. Of all the prisoners held at the camps at the time of the marches, only about 6 survived the war. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Combatants China (from 1937) United States (1941) U.K. (1941) Australia (from 1941) Free France (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) British India (1941) Soviet Union (1945) Mongolia (1945) Empire of Japan (from 1937) Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Fumimaro Konoe Hideki... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Prisoner of War camps Contents // Categories: Substubs | Prisons and detention centres ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1...


In 1942, Indonesian civilians, imported from Java, along with Australian and British POWs, who had been captured at the fall of Singapore, were shipped to North Borneo, to build a military airstrip at Sandakan. As on the Burma Railway, the prisoners were worked hard at gunpoint, were often beaten and received little food or medical treatment. They were held in the area once construction was completed. Most had died as a result of their treatment by early 1945. When Allied landings in the area appeared increasingly likely, the camp commandant, Captain Susumi Hoshijima decided to move the remaining prisoners inland to Ranau, a distance of approximately 250 kilometres (160 miles). 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... The Battle of Singapore was a battle of the South-East Asian theatre of World War II, from January 30, 1942 – February 15, 1942. ... Location in Sabah and Malaysia Country Malaysia State Sabah Establishment Government  - Council President Yeo Boon Hai Area  - City 2,266 km²  (875 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 427,200  - Density 184/km² (488/sq mi) Time zone MST (UTC+8)  - Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC) Website: http://www. ... The Bridge over the River Kwai Map of the Burma Railway The Burma Railway, also known also as the Death Railway, the Thailand-Burma Railway and similar names, is a 415 km (258 mi) railway between Bangkok, Thailand and Rangoon, Burma (now Myanmar), built by the Empire of Japan during... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Ranau is a town located in West Coast Division, in the center of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ...

Contents

The first marches

A first phase of marches — through swamps, jungle and mountainous areas — occurred between January and March, 1945. In several groups, 455 POWs, all of whom were malnourished and/or suffering serious illness, started the journey. Although the route took nine days, they were given and made to carry four days' rations. As on the Bataan Death March, POWs who were not fit enough to complete the journey were either killed or left to die en route. The worst was yet to come for the roughly 140 men who completed the journey. In the words of one historian: "Those who survived to reach Ranau were herded into insanitary and crowded huts and many died from dysentery. By 26 June, only five Australians and one British soldier were still alive." [1] 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Bataan Death March (aka The Death March of Bataan) was a war crime involving the forcible transfer of prisoners of war, with wide-ranging abuse and high fatalities, by Japanese forces in the Philippines in 1942. ... Dysentery (formerly known as the bloody flux or simply flux) is the term for severe diarrhea that is associated with blood in the feces. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


The second marches

Meanwhile, at the Sandakan camp, some 885 POWs died of hunger and illness between February and May. A second wave of forced marches to Ranau began on May 29, when the camp was closed and destroyed by the Japanese [2]. A group of 536 POWs were sent towards Ranau[3]; almost 300 prisoners who were not well enough to move were either killed, or left to die in the ruins of the Sandakan camp. The marchers were even less fit than those in the first phase, were provided with fewer rations and were forced to forage for food along the way. Only 183 POWs remained when the group reached Ranau on 27 June. May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ...

October 26, 1945 Sergeant Hosotani Naoji (left, seated) of the Kempeitai (Japanese secret police), at Sandakan is interrogated by Squadron Leader F. G. Birchall (second right), Missing Servicemen Section, Royal Australian Air Force, and Sergeant Mamo (right), a member of the U.S. Army/Allied Translator and Interpreter Service. Naoji confessed to shooting two Australian POWs and five ethnic Chinese civilians. (Photographer: Frank Burke.)

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Law Soldier Regiment) were the military police of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Location in Sabah and Malaysia Country Malaysia State Sabah Establishment Government  - Council President Yeo Boon Hai Area  - City 2,266 km²  (875 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 427,200  - Density 184/km² (488/sq mi) Time zone MST (UTC+8)  - Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC) Website: http://www. ... A Squadron Leaders sleeve/shoulder insignia Squadron Leader is a commissioned rank in some air forces. ...

Aftermath

By the end of July, when four prisoners escaped, the last to do so, there were only 40 POWs still alive at Ranau and none of these 40 survived the war. They were killed by the guards in August, possibly up to 12 days after the war ended on August 14.[4] August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ...


Of the six Allied survivors, all of whom were Australian soldiers, only three survived the lingering effects of their ordeal to give evidence at war crimes trials in Tokyo and Rabaul. Hokijima was found guilty and hanged on April 6, 1946.[5] The Australian Army is Australias military land force. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A view from Rabaul Volcano Observatory across the relatively undamaged western half of Rabaul and towards Tavurur Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, was the headquarters of German New Guinea and then the Australian mandatory territory of New Guinea from 1910 until 1937, the base of Japanese activities in the South Pacific... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


It is believed that almost 4,000 Indonesians, 1,381 Australians, and 641 British prisoners died at, or between, Sandakan and Ranau.

This article is part of
the History of Malaysia series.

Prehistoric Malaysia (60,000–2,000 BCE)
Gangga Negara (2nd–11th century CE)
Langkasuka (2nd–14th century)
Pan Pan (3rd–5th century)
Srivijaya (3rd century–1400)
Kedah Sultanate (1136–present)
Malacca Sultanate (1402–1511)
Sulu Sultanate (1450–1899)
Johor Sultanate (1528–current)
Jementah Civil War (1879)
White Rajahs (1841–1946)
British Malaya (1874–1946)
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
Burney Treaty (1826)
Straits Settlements (1826–1946)
Larut War (1861–1874)
Klang War (1867–1874)
Pangkor Treaty of 1874
Federated Malay States (1895–1946)
Unfederated Malay States (19th century–1946)
Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
Battle of Penang (1914)
North Borneo (1882–1963)
Mat Salleh Rebellion (1896–1900)
World War II (1941–1945)
Battle of Malaya (1941–42)
Parit Sulong Massacre (1942)
Battle of Singapore (1942)
Syburi (1942–1945)
Battle of North Borneo (1945)
Sandakan Death Marches (1945)
Malayan Union (1946–1948)
Federation of Malaya (1948–1963)
Malayan Emergency (1948–1960)
Bukit Kepong Incident (1950)
Independence Day (1957)
Federation of Malaysia (1963–present)
Operation Coldstore (1963)
Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (1962–1966)
Brunei Revolt (1962–1966)
Singapore in Malaysia (1963–1965)
1964 Race Riots (1964)
Communist Insurgency War (1967-1989)
May 13 Incident (1969)
New Economic Policy (1971–1990)
Operation Lalang (1987)
1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis (1987–88)
Asian financial crisis (1997–98)
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The Sandakan Death Marches have been dramatised in the 2004 play Sandakan Threnody — a threnody being a hymn of mourning, composed as a memorial to a dead person. The play was written by Australian composer Jonathan Mills, whose father survived a term of imprisonment at Sandakan, in 1942-43. The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... Image File history File links History_merdeka. ... Caves paintings of Tambun, dated 3000 BC, in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. ... The Common Era is the period beginning with a year near the birth of Jesus, coinciding with the period from AD 1 onwards. ... Gangga Negara was believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom somewhere in the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... Era Vulgaris redirects here. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... A call of pan-pan is a very urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or persons on board who require immediate assistance. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... now. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the province, see Sulu Location of Sulu in the Philippines Capital Jolo Language(s) Arabic (official), Tausug, Malay, Banguingui, Bajau languages Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan  - 1450-1480 Shariful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr  - 1884-1899 Jamal ul-Kiram I History  - Established 1450  - Annexed by USA 1899 The Sultanate... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jementah Civil War happened in 1879 in Jementah, Sultanate of Johor when Tengku Alam, the heir of Sultan Ali of Muar refused to give the district of Muar under temporary administration of Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor. ... The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... The Burney Treaty was a treaty signed between Siam and the British in 1826. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... Larut War was a series of four wars started in July 1861 and ended with the signing of the Pangkor Treaty of 1874. ... The Klang War or Selangor Civil War took placed in the Malay state of Selangor and was fought between Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator of Klang and Raja Mahdi bin Raja Sulaiman from 1867 to 1874. ... The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the Sir Andrew Clarke on behalf of the British and Raja Abdullah of Perak. ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... The Unfederated Malay States were five Malay states, namely Johore Terengganu Kelantan Kedah Perlis Together the states were not a single entity but merely a category to describe those states which were not Federated Malay States or Straits Settlements. ... The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1906 (in which the Malays were not represented) effectively dissected the northern Malay states into two parts: Pattani, Narathiwat, Songkhla, Satun and Yala remained under Siam, but Siam relinquished its claims to sovereignty over Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu to Great Britain. ... The Battle of Penang occured in 1914, during World War I. It was a naval action. ... Motto: Pergo et Perago (Latin: I undertake and I achieve”) British North Borneo Capital Jesselton Language(s) Malay, English Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1882 - 1901 Victoria  - 1952 - 1963 Elizabeth II Governor  - 1896 - 1901 Robert Scott Historical era New Imperialism  - North Borneo Company May, 1882  - British protectorate 1888  - Japanese invasion January 1... Mat Salleh Rebellion was a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, now Malaysian state of Sabah, from 1894 to 1900. ... Throughout much of the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... Combatants British Army, Indian Army, Australian Army, Federated Malay States Volunteer Forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 140,000 70,000 Casualties 5,000 killed, 50,000 prisoners of war no more than 34,000 The Battle of Malaya was a conflict between a Commonwealth army... Parit Sulong is a small village in Johor, Malaysia on the Simpang Kiri River, 30 km east of Muar. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... During the Japanese Occupation of Malaya, control of the State of Kedah was given to Thailand by the Japanese. ... The Battle of North Borneo was fought from June 17 to August 15 of 1945 between Australia and Japan. ... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... The Malayan Emergency was an insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malay Races Liberation Army against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... Combatants Malayan Races Liberation Army or Malayan Communist Party Malayan Police Commanders Muhammad Indera Sgt Jamil Mohd Shah Strength 200 25 Casualties about 40 dead 25 dead including non-combatants Bukit Kepong Incident was a historic armed encounter which took place on the February 23, 1950 between the police and... Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule. ... Motto Anthem Negaraku Capital (and largest city) Kuala Lumpur2 Official languages Malay Government Federal constitutional monarchy  -  Paramount Ruler Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin  -  Prime Minister Datuk Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi Independence  -  from the United Kingdom (Malaya only) August 31, 1957   -  Federation (with Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore3) September 16, 1963... In February 1963, the government of Singapore conducted a security operation, named Operation Coldstore (sometimes spelled Operation Cold Store), and arrested at least 107 left-wing politicians and trade unionists. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Malaya Brunei Parti Rakyat Brunei Indonesia Commanders General Sir Nigel Poett Yassin Affandi Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Brunei Revolt broke out on December 8, 1962 and was led by Yassin Affandi and his armed rebels. ... On 16 September 1963, Singapore joined the Federation of Malaya together with Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia. ... The start of the July riot on Prophet Muhammads birthday, that would later injure hundreds and kill 23 people. ... Combatants Malaysian Federal Government Malaysian Army Royal Malay Regiment Royal Ranger Regiment Royal Malaysian Air Force Royal Malaysian Police Malayan Communist Party Commanders Abdullah CD (Che Anjang Abdullah) - CPM leader Chin Peng - Secretary general Ah Sek (Ah Sze) Casualties Civilian casualties: The Communist Insurgency War or Second Malayan Emergency was... Combatants Malaysian Malay Malaysian Chinese Casualties Around 200 killed The May 13 Incident is a term for the Sino-Malay race riots in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on May 13, 1969. ... Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputra are given discounts on real estate. ... Operation Lalang (or in English, Weeding Operation; also referred to as Ops Lallang) was carried out on 27 October 1987 by the Malaysian police to crackdown on opposition leaders and social activists. ... The Sultan Abdul Samad Building housed the Supreme Court at the time of the 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... A threnody is a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person (synonyms include dirge, coronach, lament, elegy, and requiem). ...


See also

Commander of all POW and civilian internee camps in Borneo, Lt. ... Batu Lintang camp at Kuching, Sarawak on the island of Borneo was a Japanese internment camp during the Second World War. ... The Borneo campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area, during World War II. In a series of amphibious assaults between May 1 and July 21, the Australian I Corps, under General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ The Marches Australia's War, 1939-1945
  2. ^ Laden, Fevered, StarvedSandakan POW Camp, 1942-1944
  3. ^ Sandakan Death March The Japanese commander of Sandakan, Captain Takakura, forced 536 prisoners on a second death march on 29 May 1945. They marched toward Ranau in groups of about fifty with Japanese guards on all sides. The guards had been ordered to kill instantly any prisoner who collapsed from exhaustion or tried to escape. The main camp was razed to destroy any evidence of its existence. Those left behind were left out in the open. Only 183 survived the second Sandakan Death March to Ranau which lasted for twenty-six days. The other 353 prisoners on the march had died on from a combination of starvation, sickness and exhaustion, or were killed by the Japanese guards because they were too weak to continue the trek. When the marchers reached Ranau on 24 June 1945, they only six prisoners from the 470 who had left Sandakan in January were still alive. The survivors were then put to hard labour and the death toll soared.
  4. ^ Remembering Sandakan: 1945-1999 "Captain Hoshijima Susumi, was able to reveal from his knowledge of the war crimes interrogation documents that the last POWs had been killed at Ranau on 27 August 1945, well after the Japanese surrender. They had undoubtedly died, in Moffitt’s view, to stop them being able to testify to the atrocities committed by the guards."
  5. ^ Stolen Years: The War Crimes Trials

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sandakan: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1411 words)
Sandakan is the second-largest town in the state of Sabah, East Malaysia, on the north-eastern of island of Borneo.
Sandakan is known as the gateway for ecotourism destinations in Sabah, such as the Sepilok Orang Utan Sanctuary, Turtle Islands Park, Kinabatangan River and Gomantong Caves.
In January 2003, the Sandakan Harbour Square, an urban renewal project, was launched in an attempt to revive the town centre as the commercial hub in Sandakan.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Sandakan Death Marches (633 words)
The Sandakan Death Marches are the most infamous incident in series of events which resulted in the deaths of more than 6,000 Indonesian civilian slave labourers and Allied prisoners of war, held by the Empire of Japan during the Pacific campaign of World War II, at prison camps in North Borneo.
Meanwhile, at the Sandakan camp, some 885 POWs died of hunger and illness between February and May. A second wave of forced marches to Ranau began on May 29, when the camp was closed and destroyed by the Japanese.
The Sandakan Death Marches have been dramatised in the 2004 play Sandakan Threnody — a threnody being a hymn of mourning, composed as a memorial to a dead person.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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