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Encyclopedia > Sand Creek Massacre
Sand Creek massacre
Part of the Colorado War (during the Civil War)
Orlando took over the world and gave free fried kicken to everyone
Battle at Sand Creek by O. Y. Rookstool
Date November 29, 1864
Location Kiowa County, Colorado
Result Massacre of friendly Native Americans by the Union forces
Combatants
United States of America Cheyenne, Arapaho
Commanders
John M. Chivington Black Kettle
Strength
800 soldiers 500, mostly elderly, women and children
Casualties
15 killed, 50 wounded 150-184 killed
Colorado War
Sand Creek

The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864, when Colorado Territory militia attacked a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped on the eastern plains. The Colorado War (1863–1865) was an armed conflict between the United States and a loose alliance among the Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Cheyenne tribes of Native Americans (the last two were particularly closely allied). ... This article is becoming very long. ... Image File history File links X-33805. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Kiowa County is a county located in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Native Americans can refer to Native Americans in the United States, natives of the United States only; equivalent to American Indians in some contexts. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... Colonel John Chivington (1821-1894), born in Lebanon, Ohio, was the hero of Glorietta Pass and the man responsible for the Sand Creek Massacre. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Colorado War (1863–1865) was an armed conflict between the United States and a loose alliance among the Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Cheyenne tribes of Native Americans (the last two were particularly closely allied). ... Combatants United States of America Cheyenne, Arapaho Commanders John M. Chivington Black Kettle Strength 800 soldiers 500, mostly elderly, women and children Casualties 10 dead, 36 wounded 150-200 dead The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in... Combatants Indian Nationss Colonial America/United States of America Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the Americans and the Indian Nations. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Kansas, Nebraska, Utah, and New Mexico territories in 1860 The Colorado Territory was a historic, organized territory of the United States that existed between 1861 and 1876. ... The concept of the militia in the United States of America is a complex one. ... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... The Eastern Plains of Colorado refers to region of the U.S state of Colorado on the east side of the Rocky Mountains, and east of the population centers of the Front Range. ...

Contents

Background

Starting in the late 1850s, the gold rush in the Rocky Mountains (then part of the western Kansas Territory) brought a flood of white settlers into the mountains and the surrounding foothills. The sudden immigration came into conflict with the Cheyenne and the Arapaho who inhabited the area, eventually leading to the Colorado War in 1864. // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ... Miners at Pikes Peak The Pikes Peak Gold Rush (later known as the Colorado Gold Rush) was the boom in gold prospecting and mining in the Pikes Peak Country of northwestern Kansas Territory and southwestern Nebraska Territory of the United States that began in July 1858 and lasted... The Rocky Mountains, often called the Rockies, are a broad mountain range in western North America. ... map of Kansas Territory Kansas Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854 to January 29, 1861, when Kansas became the 34th U.S. state admitted to the Union. ... The Colorado War (1863–1865) was an armed conflict between the United States and a loose alliance among the Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Cheyenne tribes of Native Americans (the last two were particularly closely allied). ...


Conflict between the Native Americans and the miners spread, and warriors from the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes hindered wagon travel across Colorado's eastern plains. Territorial governor John Evans sent Colonel John Chivington at the head of a locally raised militia to 'quiet' the Indians. After a few skirmishes and an effective warpath on the part of the Indians, many of the Cheyennes and Arapahos were resigned to negotiate peace and camped near Fort Lyon on the eastern plains. Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... John Evans (9 March 1814–3 July 1897) was a US politician, physician, railroad promoter, and namesake of Evanston, Illinois. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... John Milton Chivington (January 27, 1821 – October 4, 1892) was a 19th century United States Army officer noted for his role in the New Mexico Campaign of the American Civil War and in the Colorado War. ... Fort Lyon aka Fort Wise existed on the Colorado eastern plains until 1867, when a new fort was erected near the present-day town of Las Animas. ...


Some of the chiefs of both tribes had recently signed the Fort Wise Treaty of 1861 with the United States, in which they ceded their lands to the United States and agreed to move to the Indian reservation south of Sand Creek in Oklahoma, demarcated by a line to be run due north from a point on the northern boundary of New Mexico, fifteen miles west of Purgatory River and extending to the Sandy Fork of the Arkansas River. BIA map of reservations in the United States Tribal sovereignty: Map of the United States, with non-reservation land highlighted. ... Sand Creek may refer to: Sand Creek, Wisconsin Sand Creek Massacre This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... The Arkansas River flows through Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas. ...


Attack

The Dog Soldiers, a group of Cheyenne warriors, realized there could be no successful negotiations with the miners and settlers in Colorado Territory, and thus went on the warpath against them.[citation needed] The Dog-Soldiers were a warrior society of the Cheyenne Tribe. ... The Kansas, Nebraska, Utah, and New Mexico territories in 1860 The Colorado Territory was a historic, organized territory of the United States that existed between 1861 and 1876. ...


Black Kettle, a chief of a group of around 800 mostly Southern Cheyennes and some Arapahoes, reported to Fort Lyon in an effort to declare peace. After having done so, he and his band camped out at nearby Sand Creek, less than 40 miles north. The Dog Soldiers were not part of this encampment. Assured by the U.S. Government's promises of peace, he sent out most of his warriors to hunt. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fort Lyon aka Fort Wise existed on the Colorado eastern plains until 1867, when a new fort was erected near the present-day town of Las Animas. ...


Colonel Chivington and his 800 troops of the First Colorado Cavalry, Third Colorado Cavalry and a company of First New Mexico Volunteers marched to their campsite. On the morning of November 29, 1864, the army attacked the village and massacred the majority of its mostly-unarmed inhabitants, although an American flag and a white flag were being flown over Black Kettle's lodge as he had been instructed. Chivington proclaimed before the attack "Kill and scalp all, big and little; nits make lice." The troops lost 15 killed and more than 50 wounded [1]. Between 150 and 184 Cheyennes were reported dead. One source from the Cheyenne side said that "about 53 men were killed and 110 women and children killed" [2]. Some of the dead were reportedly mutilated, and most were women, children, and elderly men. Chivington and his men later displayed scalp and other body parts, including human fetuses and genitalia in the Apollo Theater and saloons in Denver. The 1st Colorado Cavalry was formed in 1962 by Territorial Governor John Evans, comprised mostly of members of the Colorado First Volunteers (Infantry) and of C and D Companies of the Colorado Second Infantry. ... In response to numerous depredations by the Cheyenne and Arapaho, especially the Hungate massacre and the public display in Denver of the mutilated vitims, Governor John Evans received authorization from the War Department in Washington for the establishment of the Third Colorado Cavalry. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Flag ratio: 7:12; nicknames: Stars and Stripes, Old Glory The flag of the United States of America consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag (WW2 photo). ... Apollo Theater marquee, c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ...


After this event, many more Cheyenne and Arapaho men joined the Dog Soldiers, and sought revenge on settlers throughout the Platte valley, killing as many as 200 civilians.


Official investigations

The attack was initially reported in the press as a victory against a brave opponent. Within weeks, however, a controversy was raised about a possible massacre. Several investigations were conducted; two by the military, and one by the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War. The panel declared: A detective is an officer of the police who performs criminal or administrative investigations, in some police departments, the lowest rank among such investigators (above the lowest rank of officers and below sergeants), a civilian licensed to investigate information not readily available in public records (a private investigator, also called... The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War was a United States Congressional investigating committee created to handle issues surrounding the American Civil War. ...

"As to Colonel Chivington, your committee can hardly find fitting terms to describe his conduct. Wearing the uniform of the United States, which should be the emblem of justice and humanity; holding the important position of commander of a military district, and therefore having the honor of the government to that extent in his keeping, he deliberately planned and executed a foul and dastardly massacre which would have disgraced the verist [sic] savage among those who were the victims of his cruelty. Having full knowledge of their friendly character, having himself been instrumental to some extent in placing them in their position of fancied security, he took advantage of their in-apprehension and defenceless [sic] condition to gratify the worst passions that ever cursed the heart of man.

"Whatever influence this may have had upon Colonel Chivington, the truth is that he surprised and murdered, in cold blood, the unsuspecting men, women, and children on Sand creek, who had every reason to believe they were under the protection of the United States authorities, and then returned to Denver and boasted of the brave deed he and the men under his command had performed.

"In conclusion, your committee are of the opinion that for the purpose of vindicating the cause of justice and upholding the honor of the nation, prompt and energetic measures should be at once taken to remove from office those who have thus disgraced the government by whom they are employed, and to punish, as their crimes deserve, those who have been guilty of these brutal and cowardly acts."

Statements were taken by Major Edward Wynkoop and his adjutant, which substantiated the later accounts of survivors. These statements were filed with his reports and can be found in the Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, and copies of which were submitted as evidence in the Joint Committee of the Conduct of the War, and in separate hearings conducted by the military in Denver. An adjutant (from the Latin adiutans, present participle of the verb adiutare, to help; the Romans actually used adiutor for the noun) is an officer who assists a more senior officer. ...


Numerous witnesses came forward during these investigations, offering damning testimony, almost all of which was substantiated by other witnesses; at least one of those witnesses was murdered in Denver just weeks after offering his testimony. However, despite the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the Wars' recommendation, justice was never served on those responsible for the massacre.[citation needed] In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. ...


A Civil War memorial installed at the Colorado Capitol in 1909 listed the Sand Creek massacre as one of the Union's great victories. A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union...


Sand Creek today

A stone marker commemorates the "Sand Creek Battle Ground."
A stone marker commemorates the "Sand Creek Battle Ground."

The site, on Big Sandy Creek in Kiowa County, is now preserved by the National Park Service with the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site in Colorado, which was dedicated on April 28, 2007, almost 142 years after the massacre. Image File history File links X-32034. ... Image File history File links X-32034. ... Big Sandy Creek may refer to: Big Sandy Creek, a tributary of the Arkansas River in southeastern Colorado in the United States (the site of the Sand Creek Massacre). ... Kiowa County is a county located in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ...


Meanwhile, the Sand Creek Massacre Trail in Wyoming follows the paths of the Northern Arapaho and Cheyenne in the years after the massacre until their eventual surrender and the establishment of the Wind River Indian Reservation near Riverton in central Wyoming. The trail passes through Cheyenne, Laramie, Casper, and Riverton en route to Ethete in Fremont County in the reservation. In recent years, Arapaho youth have taken to running the length of the trail in an effort to bring healing to their nation. Alexa Roberts, superintendent of the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, said that the trail represents a living portion of the history of the two tribes. Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... The Wind-Bighorn rivers The Wind River is the name applied to the upper reaches of the Bighorn River in Wyoming in the United States. ... Riverton is a city located in Fremont County, Wyoming. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Location in Wyoming Coordinates: County Laramie County Founded 1867 Government  - Mayor Jack R. Spiker Area  - City 57. ... Downtown Laramie Laramie is the county seat of Albany County in the U.S. state of Wyoming. ... Downtown Casper Casper is a city located in Natrona County, Wyoming. ... Ethete is a census-designated place located in Fremont County, Wyoming. ... Fremont County is a county located in the state of Wyoming. ...


Depiction in fiction

  • The Sand Creek massacre is the subject of the 1970 movie Soldier Blue.
  • The massacre is portrayed in Steven Spielberg's mini-series Into the West.
  • The massacre and Chivington's involvement within it are included in the 2000AD comic series and graphic novel collection, Nemesis The Warlock Book V - Torquemurder, by Pat Mills, Kevin O'Neill and Bryan Talbot.
  • Acoma Pueblo poet Simon Ortiz uses the Sand Creek massacre as inspiration for his 1981 collection of poems From Sand Creek.
  • Italian songwriter Fabrizio De André wrote a song about the massacre, entitled Fiume Sand Creek.
  • Italian singer Loredana Bertè sings "Fiume Sand Creek" in her concerts and recorded it in her 2007 live album.
  • Italian writer Emilio Salgari references the Sand Creek massacre several times in his short adventure novel La scotennatrice.
  • American novelist James Michener included a fictionalized account of the massacre and its aftermath in his book Centennial, moving the incident further north, near the South Platte River and making the victims primarily Arapaho.
  • The massacre is mentioned (along with Black Kettle's death in Oklahoma) in Christian band Five Iron Frenzy's song "Banner Year".
  • Margaret Coel, in her novel The Story Teller, uses Sand Creek as a background for her fictional account of the murder of several young Arapahos.
  • A similar incident occurs in the 2003 film The Last Samurai.
  • In the 1988 movie Young Guns, Jose Chavez y Chavez, played by Lou Diamond Phillips, mentions the Sand Creek incident.
  • The Tom Clancy novel "The Sum of all Fears" includes a character named Marvin Russel, a Native American Sioux who becomes a terrorist. The character makes reference to the Sand Creek Massacre during a flashback in the book.

Soldier Blue is an American western movie made in 1970 and directed by Ralph Nelson. ... Steven Allan Spielberg KBE (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... Into the West is a 2005 miniseries produced by Steven Spielberg and Dreamworks which began as a six-week event on June 10, 2005 on Turner Network Television (TNT). ... (Redirected from 2000AD) Note: This is an article about the British comic book 2000 AD, rather than the year 2000 2000 AD logo 2000 AD is a weekly British science fiction oriented comic. ... A comic book or comicbook is a magazine or book containing sequential art in the form of a narrative. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... Pat Mills, nicknamed the godfather of British comics, is a comics writer and editor who, along with John Wagner, revitalised British boys comics in the 1970s, and has remained a leading light in British comics ever since. ... Kevin ONeill can be Kevin ONeill, the comics illustrator Kevin ONeill, the basketball coach Kevin ONeil, the music drummer: see The Honeydrippers: Volume One. ... Bryan Talbot (born February 24, 1952) is a British comic book artist and writer. ... Simon J. Ortiz (born on May 27, 1941 in Albuquerque, New Mexico) is a Native American writer of the Acoma Pueblo tribe, and one of the key figures in the second wave of what has been called the Native American Renaissance. ... Fabrizio De André Fabrizio de André (February 18, 1940 - January 11, 1999) was an Italian singer-songwriter. ... Loredana Bertè (born September 20, 1950) is a popular Italian singer. ... Emilio Salgari (August 21, 1862 – April 25, 1911) was a writer of action adventure swashbucklers and a pioneer of science fiction in Italy. ... James Albert Michener (February 3, 1907? - October 16, 1997) was the American author of such books as Tales of the South Pacific (for which he won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1948), Hawaii, The Drifters, Centennial, The Source, The Fires of Spring, Chesapeake, Caribbean, Caravans, Alaska, Texas and Poland. ... Centennial was a novel written by American author James Michener and published in 1974. ... The South Platte River in Denver, Colorado The South Platte River is one of the two principal tributaries of the Platte River and itself a major river of the American West, located in the U.S. states of Colorado and Nebraska. ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... Five Iron Frenzy (also known as Five Iron or FIF) was a Christian ska band formed in Denver, Colorado in 1995 and disbanded in 2003. ... The Last Samurai is an action/drama film written by John Logan and Edward Zwick & Marshall Herskovitz based on a story by Logan. ... Young Guns is a 1988 action/western film directed by Christopher Cain and written by John Fusco. ... Jose Chavez y Chavez (1851-1924) was a cowboy from New Mexico. ... Phillips in August 1987. ... Thomas Leo Clancy Jr. ... The Sum of All Fears is a best-selling thriller novel by Tom Clancy, and part of the Jack Ryan series. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... An Emil Hoas Production For the helicopter H-13 Sioux, see Bell 47 Wahktageli (Coward Warrior), a Yankton Sex chief (Karl Bodmer) Funeral scaffold of a Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer) Horse racing of the Sioux Indians (Karl Bodmer) The Sioux (IPA ) are a Native American people. ... This article is becoming very long. ...

Further reading

  • Sand Creek Massacre, Senate Executive Document No. 26, 39th Congress, Second Session. Report of the Secretary of War Communicating…a Copy of the Evidence Taken at Denver and Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, by a Military Commission Ordered to Inquire into the Sand Creek Massacre, November, 1864. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1867.[3]
  • Massacre of the Cheyenne Indians, Senate Report No. 142, 38th Congress, Second Session. Report of the Joint Committee on The Conduct of the War. (3 vols.) (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1865.)
  • Condition of the Indian Tribes, Report of the Joint Special Committee Appointed Under Joint Resolution of March 3, 1865, with an Appendix. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1867.)
  • Official Records of the War of the Rebellion.
  • Stan Hoig, "The Sand Creek Massacre". University of Oklahoma Press, 1977 ISBN 978-0-8061-1147-6
  • Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West, Owl Books (1970). ISBN 0-8050-6669-1.
  • West, Elliott. "The Contested Plains: Indians, Goldseekers, and the Rush to Colorado," University Press of Kansas (1998). ISBN 0-7006-1029-4.
  • Kevin Wingert, "Trail Helps Mark 1864 Massacre", Cheyenne Wyoming Tribune-Eagle, August 17, 2006
  • Michno, Gregory F., "Encyclopedia of Indian Wars" (Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, 2003. ISBN 0-87842-468-7)

Dee Brown (February 29, 1908---December 12, 2002) was an American novelist and historian. ... Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee (1970). ...

References

  1. ^ Michno, Gregory F., "Encyclopedia of Indian Wars" (Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana, 2003. ISBN 0-87842-468-7), Page 159
  2. ^ George Bent, the son of the American William Bent and a Cheyenne mother, was at Black Kettle’s village when Chivington’s men struck. Sand Creek Massacre National Historical Sitehas the following information: "On April 30, 1913, Bent wrote: "About 53 men were killed and 110 women and children killed, 163 in all killed. Lots of men, women and children were wounded”."
  3. ^ Inquiry into the Sand Creek Massacre, November, 1864 (1867). Retrieved on April 29, 2007.

Born in St. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sand Creek Massacre - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1066 words)
The Sand Creek Massacre (also known as the Chivington Massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864 when Colorado Militia troops in the Colorado Territory attacked a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped on the territory's eastern plains.
The Sand Creek Massacre is the subject of the 1970 movie Soldier Blue.
Simon J. Ortiz uses the Sand Creek massacre as inspiration for his 1981 collection of poems From Sand Creek, which focuses on tropes such as memory and story, nature and (dis)connection and the conflicts between the new scientism of the European conquerers and the more spiritualistic pantheism of the Arapaho and the Cheyenne.
Sand Creek Tours (1385 words)
Today, Sand Creek is a peaceful quiet place where the meadowlark sing, the prairie dogs scamper playfully, a small herd of deer in the creek bed curiously observe their surroundings, while an eagle soars overhead.
By the next year what had happened at Sand Creek had been condemned in the East as a massacre, while many in Colorado Territory believed that it was a justifiable battle.
The Sand Hills camp (the Arapahoe camp with Chief Left Hand) and the military camp we believe to be a short distance downstream of our family ranch (these areas we cannot visit, although the entire area is clearly visible across a barbed wire fence).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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