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Encyclopedia > Sand
Close-up of sand from a beach in Vancouver, showing a surface area of (approximately) between 1-2 square centimetres.
Close-up of sand from a beach in Vancouver, showing a surface area of (approximately) between 1-2 square centimetres.
Heavy minerals (dark) in a quartz beach sand (Chennai, India).
Heavy minerals (dark) in a quartz beach sand (Chennai, India).

Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. Sand can refer to: Look up sand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 608 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1554 × 1533 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 608 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1554 × 1533 pixel, file size: 2. ... Madras redirects here. ... A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when grains collide). ... This article is about the geological substance. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ...


As the term is used by geologists, sand particles range in diameter from 0.0625 (or 116 mm) to 2 millimeters. An individual particle in this range size is termed a sand grain. The next smaller size class in geology is silt: particles smaller than 0.0625 mm down to 0.004 mm in diameter. The next larger size class above sand is gravel, with particles ranging from 2 mm up to 64 mm (see particle size for standards in use). Sand feels gritty when rubbed between the fingers (silt, by comparison, feels like flour). A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology. ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ...


ISO 14688 grades sands as fine, medium and coarse with ranges 0.063 mm to 0.2 mm to 0.63 mm to 2.0 mm. In USA, sand is commonly divided into five sub-categories based on size: very fine sand (1/16 - 1/8 mm diameter), fine sand (1/8 mm - 1/4 mm), medium sand (1/4 mm - 1/2 mm), coarse sand (1/2 mm - 1 mm), and very coarse sand (1 mm - 2 mm). These sizes are based on the Φ sediment size scale, where size in Φ = -log base 2 of size in mm. On this scale, for sand the value of Φ varies from -1 to +4, with the divisions between sub-categories at whole numbers.

Contents

Constituents of sand

Sample of drill cuttings including sand, while drilling an oil well in Louisiana at approximately 9000 ft. Sand grain = 2mm. in dia.
Sample of drill cuttings including sand, while drilling an oil well in Louisiana at approximately 9000 ft. Sand grain = 2mm. in dia.
Close up of black volcanic sand from Perissa, in Santorini, Greece
Close up of black volcanic sand from Perissa, in Santorini, Greece

The most common constituent of sand, in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings, is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the form of quartz, which, because of its chemical inertness and considerable hardness, is resistant to weathering. An oil well is seen in Texas. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1780x1336, 710 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sand Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1780x1336, 710 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sand Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Santorini (Greek Σαντορίνη, IPA: ) is a small, circular archipelago of volcanic islands located in southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km south-east from Greeces mainland. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... -1... Weathering is the decomposition of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the Earths atmosphere. ...


The composition of sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions. The bright white sands found in tropical and subtropical coastal settings are eroded limestone and may contain coral and shell fragments in addition to other organic or organically derived fragmental material.[1] The gypsum sand dunes of the White Sands National Monument in New Mexico are famous for their bright, white color. Arkose is a sand or sandstone with considerable feldspar content, derived from the weathering and erosion of a (usually nearby) granite. Some sands contain magnetite, chlorite, glauconite or gypsum. Sands rich in magnetite are dark to black in color, as are sands derived from volcanic basalts and obsidian. Chlorite-glauconite bearing sands are typically green in color, as are sands derived from basalt (lava) with a high olivine content. Many sands, especially those found extensively in Southern Europe, have iron impurities within the quartz crystals of the sand, giving a deep yellow colour. Sand deposits in some areas contain garnets and other resistant minerals, including some small gemstones. Coral sand Coral sand is sand of particles originating in tropical and sub-tropical marine environments from bioerosion of limestone skeletal material of marine organisms. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation). ... White Sands National Monument is well-known for its fields of white sand dunes composed of gypsum crystals. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... Arkose is a kind of sandstone combining of quartz and with large amounts of feldspar. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Weathering is the decomposition of rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the Earths atmosphere. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Magnetite is a ferrimagnetic mineral with chemical formula Fe3O4, one of several iron oxides and a member of the spinel group. ... Chlorite is a group of phyllosilicate minerals often classified as clays. ... A sample of glauconite Glauconite is a phyllosilicate (mica group) mineral of formula: (K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2. ... For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation). ... This article is about a type of volcanic glass. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The mineral olivine (also called chrysolite and, when gem-quality, peridot) is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4. ... The southern half of Europe is shown in shades of red. ... Fe redirects here. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... For other uses, see Garnet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ...


Sand is transported by wind and water and deposited in the form of beaches, dunes, sand spits, sand bars and related features. For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... This article is about sand formations. ... Sand bars in the Mississippi River at Arkansas and Mississippi A bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ... Sand bars in the Mississippi River at Arkansas and Mississippi A bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ...


Study of sand

An electron micrograph showing grains of sand
An electron micrograph showing grains of sand
Beach Sand of the Beaches of the Red Sea in Egypt
Beach Sand of the Beaches of the Red Sea in Egypt

Study of individual grains can reveal much historical information as to the origin and kind of transport of the grain. Quartz sand that is recently weathered from granite or gneiss quartz crystals will be angular. It is called sharp sand in the building trade where it is preferred for concrete, and in gardening where it is used as a soil amendment to loosen clay soils. Sand that is transported long distances by water or wind will be rounded, with characteristic abrasion patterns on the grain surface. Desert sand is typically rounded. Image File history File links Sand_under_electron_microscope. ... Image File history File links Sand_under_electron_microscope. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Gneiss Gneiss (pronounced ) is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. ...


People who collect sand as a hobby are known as arenophiles or psammofiles. An arenophile (also called psammofile) is one who collects sand samples, the interest of the hobby lying in the variety of texture, colour, mineralogy and location. ...


Uses of sand

At 300 km/h, an ICE 3 (DB class 403) releases sand from several bogies to the rails.
At 300 km/h, an ICE 3 (DB class 403) releases sand from several bogies to the rails.
Sand sorting tower at a gravel extraction pit.
Sand sorting tower at a gravel extraction pit.
  • Sand is often a principal component of concrete.
  • Molding sand, also known as foundry sand, is moistened or oiled and then shaped into molds for sand casting. This type of sand must be able to withstand high temperatures and pressure, allow gases to escape, have a uniform, small grain size and be non-reactive with metals.
  • It is the principal component in glass production.
  • Graded sand is used as an abrasive in sandblasting and is also used in media filters for filtering water.
  • Brick manufacturing plants use sand as an additive with a mixture of clay and other materials for manufacturing bricks.
  • Sand is sometimes mixed with paint to create a textured finish for walls and ceilings or a non-slip floor surface.
  • Sandy soils are ideal for certain crops such as watermelons, peaches, and peanuts and are often preferred for intensive dairy farming because of their excellent drainage characteristics.
  • Sand is used in landscaping, it is added to make small hills and slopes (for example, constructing golf courses).
  • Beach nourishment - transportation to popular beaches where seasonal tides or artificial changes to the shoreline cause the original sand to flow out to sea.[2]
  • Sandbags are used for protection against floods and gun fire. They can be easily transported when empty, then filled with local sand.
  • Sand castle building is a popular activity. There are competitive sand castle building competitions (See sand art and play).
  • Sand animation is a type of performance art and a technique for creating animated films.
  • Aquaria are often lined with sand instead of gravel. This is a low cost alternative which some believe is better than gravel.
  • Railroads use sand to improve the traction of wheels on the rails.
  • Weights can use sand in pulley and gear systems as weights.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 667 pixel, file size: 466 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sand Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 667 pixel, file size: 466 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sand Metadata This... Siemens Velaro is a family of high-speed EMUs. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (854x944, 142 KB) Sand sorting tower at Little Paxton Pits near St Neots, Cambridgeshire, England. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (854x944, 142 KB) Sand sorting tower at Little Paxton Pits near St Neots, Cambridgeshire, England. ... This article is about the construction material. ... Molding Sand, or Foundry sand, is sand that when moistened or oiled tends to pack well and hold its shape. ... A foundry is a factory which produces castings of metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. ... Casting is the process of production of objects by pouring molten material into a cavity called a mould which is the negative of the object, and allowing it to cool and solidify. ... This article is about the material. ... An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish (see metal polishing and wood finishing) a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away. ... Man sandblasting a stone wall Device used for adding sand to the compressed air (top of which is a sieve for adding the sand) Diesel powered compressor used as an air supply for sandbasting Sandblasting or bead blasting[1] is a generic term for the process of smoothing, shaping and... A media filter is a type of filter utilizing a bed of sand, crushed granite or other material to filter water for drinking, swimming pools, aquaculture, irrigation, and other applications. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... A factory (previously manufactory) or manufacturing plant is a large industrial building where workers manufacture goods or products. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... In materials science, texture is the distribution of crystallographic orientations of a sample. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... For the political designation, see Eco-socialism. ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This article is about the legume. ... Dairy farm redirects here. ... Landscape engineering is the application of mathematics and science to create useful land- and waterscapes. ... This article is about the game. ... Before and after photos of beach restoration efforts, Florida coastline, USA. Beach nourishment device Beach nourishment is a complimentary term that describes a process by which sediment (usually sand) lost through longshore drift or erosion is replaced on a beach. ... For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sandbag (disambiguation). ... Flooding near Key West, Florida, United States from Hurricane Wilmas storm surge in October 2005 For other uses, see Flood (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ... An elaborate sand sculpture. ... “Sandcastle” redirects here. ... Sand animation is a term which has two meanings. ... This article is about Performance art. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ... railroads redirects here. ... Dumbbells, a type of free weights Weights are exercise equipment used for strength training. ...

Hazards

A stingray about to bury itself in sand
A stingray about to bury itself in sand
Sandstorm in Iraq.
Sandstorm in Iraq.

While sand is generally harmless, one must take care with some activities involving sand such as sandblasting. Bags of silica sand used for sandblasting now carry labels warning the user to wear respiratory protection and avoid breathing the fine silica dust. There have been a number of lawsuits in recent years where workers have developed silicosis, a lung disease caused by inhalation of fine silica particles over long periods of time. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) for silica sand state that "excessive inhalation of crystalline silica is a serious health concern".[1] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1408x856, 584 KB) Süsswasserstachelroche ein Tag alt (Dasyatis pastinaca) Source/Quelle: Fotografiert von Marcel Burkhard alias cele4 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sand ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1408x856, 584 KB) Süsswasserstachelroche ein Tag alt (Dasyatis pastinaca) Source/Quelle: Fotografiert von Marcel Burkhard alias cele4 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sand ... For other uses, see Stingray (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x2000, 1037 KB) A massive sand storm cloud is close to enveloping a military camp as it rolls over Al Asad, Iraq, just before nightfall on April 27, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x2000, 1037 KB) A massive sand storm cloud is close to enveloping a military camp as it rolls over Al Asad, Iraq, just before nightfall on April 27, 2005. ... Man sandblasting a stone wall Device used for adding sand to the compressed air (top of which is a sieve for adding the sand) Diesel powered compressor used as an air supply for sandbasting Sandblasting or bead blasting[1] is a generic term for the process of smoothing, shaping and... Silicosis (also known as Grinders disease) is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. ... In medicine, pulmonology is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ...


In areas of high pore water pressure sand can partially liquefy to form quicksand. Quicksand, once dried, produces a considerable barrier to escape for creatures caught within, who often die from exposure as a result. Pore water pressure refers to the pressure of groundwater held within a soil or rock, in gaps between particles (pores). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


See also

Look up Sand in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sand

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Dry quicksand is loose sand whose bulk density is reduced by blowing air through it and which yields easily to weight or pressure. ... Particle size, also called grain size, refers to the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Psammomys obesus Sand Rat (Psammomys obesus) also known as Fat Sand Rat is a terrestrial mammal from the gerbil subfamily that is mostly found in North Africa and Middle East ranging from Mauritania to Arabian Peninsula. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... “Sandstorm” redirects here. ... Several places are named Sand Island. ... Singing sand, whistling sand or barking sand is sand that produces sounds of either high or low frequency under pressure. ... Athabasca Oil Sands Tar sands is a common term for what are more accurately called bituminous sands, but also commonly referred to as oil sands or (in Venezuela) extra heavy oil. ... White Sands National Monument is well-known for its fields of white sand dunes composed of gypsum crystals. ...

References

  1. ^ Seaweed also plays a role in the formation of sand
  2. ^ Importing Sand, Glass May Help Restore Beaches : NPR

External links

  • Beach Sand: What It Is, Where It Comes From and How It Gets Here-- Beaufort County Library

Bostons Big Dig presented geotechnical challenges in an urban environment. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Void ratio, in materials science, is defined as the volume of voids in a mixture divided by the volume of solids. ... Bulk density a property of particulate materials. ... Thixotropy is the property of some non-newtonian pseudoplastic fluids to show a time-dependent change in viscosity; the longer the fluid undergoes shear, the lower its viscosity. ... Reynolds dilatancy is the observed tendency of a compacted granular material to dilate (expand in volume) as it is sheared. ... The angle of repose, also referred to as angle of friction, is an engineering property of granular materials. ... Cohesion is the component of shear strength of a rock or soil that is independent of interparticle friction. ... Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term porosity is used in multiple fields including manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. ... In the earth sciences, permeability (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a material (typically, a rock or unconsolidated material) to transmit fluids. ... Specific storage (Ss), storativity (S), specific yield (Sy) and specific capacity are aquifer properties; they are measures of the ability of an aquifer to release groundwater from storage, due to a unit decline in hydraulic head. ... Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies the principles of engineering mechanics to soil to predict the mechanical behavior of soil. ... Effective stress (σ) is a value reflecting the strength of a soil. ... Pore water pressure refers to the pressure of groundwater held within a soil or rock, in gaps between particles (pores). ... Shear strength in reference to soil is a term used to describe the maximum strength of soil at which point significant plastic deformation or yielding occurs due to an applied shear stress. ... Consolidation is a process by which soils decrease in volume. ... Soil compaction occurs when weight of livestock or heavy machinery compresses the soil, causing it to lose pore space. ... Soil classification deals with the systematic categorization of soils based on distinguishing characteristics as well as criteria that dictate choices in use. ... A type of seismic wave, the S-wave moves in a shear or transverse wave, so motion is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. ... An example of lateral earth pressure overturning a retaining wall. ... A drill rig operator advances a direct push soil sampler. ... The (Dutch) Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is a test to measure the strength or bearing capacity of (soft) soils. ... The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is an in-situ dynamic penetration test designed to provide information on the geotechnical properties of soils. ... Exploration geophysics is the applied branch of geophysics which uses deep and primarily near surface methods to probe or image the earth. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... Water borehole in northern Uganda A borehole is a deep and narrow shaft in the ground used for abstraction of fluid or gas reserves below the earths surface. ... The Liquid Limit, also known as the upper plastic limit, and the Atterberg limit, is the water content at which a soil changes from the liquid state to a plastic state. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A direct shear test is a laboratory test used by Professional Engineer Mohamed Fazlin to find the shear strength parameters of soil. ... A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water. ... The Proctor compaction test, and the related Modified Proctor compaction test, are tests to determine the maximum practically-achievable density of soils and aggregates, and are frequently used in geotechnical engineering. ... The R-Value test, California Test 301, measures the response of a compacted sample of soil or aggregate to a vertically applied pressure under specific conditions. ... A sieve analysis is a practice or procedure used to assess the particle size distribution of a granular material. ... A triaxial shear test is a common method to measure the mechanical properties of many deformable solids, especially soil, sand, clay, and other granular materials or powders. ... Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Crosshole sonic logging is a method to verify the integrity of drilled shafts and other concrete piles. ... Shallow foundations of a house A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the ground. ... In geotechnical engineering, bearing capacity is the capacity of soil to support the loads applied to the ground. ... A shallow foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth very near the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. ... A deep foundation installation for a bridge in Napa, California. ... Dynamic load testing is a fast and effective method of assessing foundation bearing capacity that requires instrumenting a deep foundation with accelerometers and strain transducers and analyzing data collected by these sensors. ... Wave equation analysis is a numerical method of analysis for the behavior of driven foundation piles. ... A gravity-type stone retaining wall A retaining wall is a structure that holds back soil or rock from a building, structure or area. ... A diagram of a mechanically stabilized earth wall as it would be modeled in a finite element analysis. ... Soil nailing is a technique in which soil slopes, excavations or retaining walls are reinforced by the insertion of relatively slender elements - normally steel reinforcing bars. ... A tieback is a horizontal wire used to reinforce retaining walls for stability. ... Historically, Gabions were round cages with open tops and bottoms, made from wicker and filled with earth for use as fortifications. ... Slurrywall excavator A slurry wall is a type of wall used to build tunnels, open cuts and foundations in areas of soft earth close to open water or with a high ground water table. ... Figure 1: Simple slope slip section The field of slope stability encompasses the analysis of static and dynamic stability of slopes of earth and rock-fill dams, slopes of other types of embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and soft rock. ... Mass wasting, also known as mass movement or slope movement, is the geomorphic process by which soil, regolith, and rock move downslope under the force of gravity. ... This article is about geological phenomenon. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Soil liquefaction describes the behavior of water saturated soil when its behavior changes from that of a solid to that of a liquid. ... A series of mixed vertical oscillators A plot of the peak acceleration for the mixed vertical oscillators A response spectrum is simply a plot of the peak or steady-state response (displacement, velocity or acceleration) of a series of oscillators of varying natural frequency, that are forced into motion by... If you want to build a house and need to know where the best (or the worst) place to locate for earthquake shaking, then you need to dig up the regional seismic hazard maps. ... // The interaction between ground and structure consists of an exchange of mutual stress between the structure itself and the foundations ground. ... Geosynthetics is the term used to describe a range of generally synthetic products used to solve geotechnical problems. ... Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. ... Geomembranes are a kind of geosynthetic material. ... A geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) is a woven fabric like material primarily used for the lining of landfills. ... Also referred to as Deformation Survey. ... An automatic deformation monitoring system is a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent software and hardware elements forming a complex whole for deformation monitoring that, once set up, does not require human input to function. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sand: From the beach, river or lumber yard (1359 words)
Sand is defined as granular material that passes through different sizes of strainers or "sieves".
From a distance, the color of the sand is related to the composition of the individual particles.
The sand here is composed of basalt (lava) which is weathered by waves and wind at the oceans edge.
George Sand (1181 words)
For the rest of her life, Sand was committed to ideal of Socialism, which his friend Flaubert rejected in their dispute.
Sand herself was accused of lesbianism and nymphomania, partly because of affairs with well-known celebrities.
Sand's literary reputation started to decline after her death, and in the beginning of the 20th century, her work did not attract much attention.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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