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Encyclopedia > Sanchi
  ?Sanchi
Madhya Pradesh • India
The Great Stupa at Sanchi.
Map indicating the location of Sanchi
 Sanchi 
Coordinates: 23°17′N 77°26′E / 23.29, 77.44
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
District(s) Vidisha
Population - (2001)

Coordinates: 23°17′N 77°26′E / 23.29, 77.44 , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... Download high resolution version (866x578, 111 KB) Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The divisions of a district. ... Vidisha District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Sanchi is a small village in India, located 46 km north east of Bhopal, and 10 km from Besnagar and Vidisha in the central part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the location of several Buddhist monuments dating from the third century BCE to the twelfth century CE. It is a nagar panchayat in Raisen district in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. For other uses, see Bhopal (disambiguation). ... Vidisha or Besnagar is a city in Madhya Pradesh state of central India. ... Vidisha or Besnagar or old name Bhelsa is a city in Madhya Pradesh,near its capital Bhopal, state of central India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Panchayat (पंचायत in Devanagiri) is an Indian political system that groups five villages in a quincunx (four peripheral villages around a central one were laid out as the 5 side of a die). ... Raisen District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state of India. ... India is subdivided into twenty-eight states and seven union territories; the states and territories are themselves further subdivided. ...


The 'Great Stupa' at Sanchi was originally commissioned by the emperor Ashoka the Great in the third century BCE. Its nucleus was a simple hemispherical brick structure built over the relics of the Buddha. It was crowned by the chhatra, a parasol-like structure symbolising high rank, which was intended to honour and shelter the relics (Dehejia 1997). Stupa at Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland A stupa (from the Sanskrit) is a type of Buddhist structure found across the Indian subcontinent, Asia and increasingly in the Western World. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Media:Example. ...

Contents

Sunga period

The compound Buddhist symbols: Shrivatsa within a triratana, over a Chakra wheel, on the Tonana gate at Sanchi.
The compound Buddhist symbols: Shrivatsa within a triratana, over a Chakra wheel, on the Tonana gate at Sanchi.
A bracket figure from Sanchi. British Museum.
A bracket figure from Sanchi. British Museum.

The stupa was vandalized at one point, sometime in the second century BCE, an event some have related to the rise of the Sunga emperor Pusyamitra Sunga. It has been suggested that Pushyamitra may have destroyed the original stupa, and his son Agnimitra rebuilt it.[1] During the later rule of the Sunga, the stupa was expanded with stone slabs to almost twice its original size. The dome was flattened near the top and crowned by three superimposed parasols within a square railing. With its many tiers it was a symbol of the dharma, the Wheel of the Law. The dome was set on a high circular drum meant for circumambulation, which could be accessed via a double staircase. A second stone pathway at ground level was enclosed by a stone balustrade with four monumental gateways (toranas) facing the cardinal directions. The buildings which seem to have been commissioned during the rule of the Sungas are the Second and Third stupas (but not the gateways), and the ground balustrade and stone casing of the Great Stupa. Image File history File links SanchiGateSymbol. ... Image File history File links SanchiGateSymbol. ... According to the entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica, Vishnu is one of the principal Hindu deities, worshipped as the protector and preserver of the world and restorer of dharma (moral order). ... The Triratna or Three Jewels symbol, on a Buddha footprint. ... For the Naruto jutsu, see Chakra (Naruto). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 439 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1147 × 1567 pixel, file size: 460 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 439 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1147 × 1567 pixel, file size: 460 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ...   (Sanskrit) (Devnagari: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... A torana is an element of Hindu and Buddhist architecture. ...


Satavahana period

Carved decoration of the Northern gateway to the Great Stupa of Sanchi
Carved decoration of the Northern gateway to the Great Stupa of Sanchi

The gateways and the balustrade were built after 70 BCE, and appear to have been commisioned by the Satavahana. An inscription records the gift of one of the top architraves of the Southern Gateway by the artisans of the Satavahana king Satakarni: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 410 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (602 × 879 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sanchi Stupa History of Buddhism in... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 410 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (602 × 879 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sanchi Stupa History of Buddhism in... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... The architrave is the lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns. ... Satakarni (Sātakarnī I) was the third of the Satavahana kings. ...

"Gift of Ananda, the son of Vasithi, the foreman of the artisans of rajan Siri Satakarni"[2]

Although made of stone, they were carved and constructed in the manner of wood and the gateways were covered with narrative sculptures. They showed scenes from the life of the Buddha integrated with everyday events that would be familiar to the onlookers and so make it easier for them to understand the Buddhist creed as relevant to their lives. At Sanchi and most other stupas the local population donated money for the embellishment of the stupa to attain spiritual merit. There was no direct royal patronage. Devotees, both men and women, who donated money towards a sculpture would often choose their favourite scene from the life of the Buddha and then have their names inscribed on it. This accounts for the random repetition of particular episodes on the stupa (Dehejia 1992). On these stone carvings the Buddha was never depicted as a human figure. Instead the artists chose to represent him by certain attributes, such as the horse on which he left his father’s home, his footprints, or a canopy under the bodhi tree at the point of his enlightenment. The human body was thought to be too confining for the Buddha. The Bodhi Tree at the Mahabodhi Temple. ...

Foreigners of Indo-Greek appearance (wearing the chlamys cape over short chiton tunics, with short curly hair and headbands, playing carnyx (κάρνυξ) trumpets lower left) honouring the Sanchi stupa with gifts, prayers and music. Northern Gateway, Sanchi, India. 2nd-1st century BCE (Click image for reference).

Some of the friezes of Sanchi also show devotees in Greek attire (Greek clothing, attitudes, and musical instruments) celebrating the stupa[3]. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (811x1317, 840 KB) Frieze portraying foreigners in Greek attire worshiping the Buddhist stupa of Sanchi in Central India. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (811x1317, 840 KB) Frieze portraying foreigners in Greek attire worshiping the Buddhist stupa of Sanchi in Central India. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... A Chlamys (χλαμΰς) is an Ancient Greek piece of clothing, namely a cloak. ... Families See text. ... three carnyx players are depicted on plate E of the Gundestrup cauldron. ...


Later periods

Further stupas and other religious Buddhist and early Hindu structures were added over the following centuries until the 12th century CE. Temple 17 is probably one of the earliest Buddhist temples as it dates to the early Gupta period. It consists of a flat roofed square sanctum with a portico and four pillars. The interior and three sides of the exterior are plain and undecorated but the front and the pillars are elegantly carved, giving the temple an almost ‘classical’ appearance (Mitra 1971). A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The word temple has different meanings in the fields of architecture, religion, geography, anatomy, and education. ... Gupta is a surname of Indian origin. ...


With the decline of Buddhism, the monuments of Sanchi went out of use and fell into a state of disrepair. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Western Re-discovery

A British officer in 1818, General Taylor, was the first known Western historian to document (in English) the existence of Sanchi. Amateur archaeologists and treasure hunters ravaged the site until 1881, when proper restoration work was initiated. Between 1912 and 1919 the structures were restored to their present condition under the supervision of Sir John Marshall.[4] 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... John Hubert Marshall was an English archaeologist, excavator of the prehistoric city of Taxila in the Himalayas, in todays Pakistan, and of other sites throughout India. ...


Today, around fifty monuments remain on the hill of Sanchi, including three stupas and several temples. The monuments have been listed among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites since 1989. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Geography

Sanchi is located at 23.48° N 77.73° E[5]. It has an average elevation of 434 metres (1423 feet). The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Demographics

As of 2001 India censusGRIndia, Sanchi had a population of 6785. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Sanchi has an average literacy rate of 67%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 75%, and female literacy is 57%. In Sanchi, 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...


Notes

Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party Flag of India India
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv, vi
Reference 524
Region Asia-Pacific
Inscription History
Inscription 1989  (13th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
  1. ^ "Who was responsible for the wanton destruction of the original brick stupa of Asoka and when precisely the great work of reconstruction was carried out is not known, but it seems probable that the author of the former was Pushyamitra, the first of the Sunga kings (184-148 BCE), who was notorious for his hostility to Buddhism, and that the restoration was affected by Agnimitra or his immediate successor." in John Marshall, A Guide to Sanchi, p. 38. Calcutta: Superintendent, Government Printing (1918).
  2. ^ Original text "L1: Rano Siri Satakarnisa L2: avesanisa vasithiputasa L3: Anamdasa danam", John Marshall, "A guide to Sanchi", p52
  3. ^ "A guide to Sanchi" John Marshall. These "Greek-looking foreigners" are also described in Susan Huntington, "The art of ancient India", p. 100.
  4. ^ John Marshall, "An Historical and Artistic Description of Sanchi", from A Guide to Sanchi, Calcutta: Superintendent, Government Printing (1918). Pp. 7-29 on line, Project South Asia.
  5. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Sanchi

A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, Australia and the Pacific (Australasia). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Agnimitra was the second king of the Sunga dynasty, and the son of Pusyamitra Sunga, whom he succeeded in 151 BCE. Category: ...

References

  • Dehejia, Vidya. (1992). Collective and Popular Bases of Early Buddhist Patronage: Sacred Monuments, 100 BC-AD 250. In B. Stoler Miller (ed.) The Powers of Art. Oxford University Press: Oxford. ISBN 0-19-562842-X.
  • Dehejia, Vidya. (1997). Indian Art. Phaidon: London. ISBN 0-7148-3496-3.
  • Mitra, Debala. (1971). Buddhist Monuments. Sahitya Samsad: Calcutta. ISBN 0896844900

External links

See also

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Sanchi

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sanchi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (617 words)
Sanchi is a small village of India, located 46 km north east of Bhopal, in the central part of the state of Madhya Pradesh.
Stupa 1 (the 'great stupa') at Sanchi was commissioned by the emperor Ashoka in the third century BCE.
In the case of Sanchi and most other stupas it was the local population who donated money towards the embellishment of the stupa to attain spiritual merit.
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