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Encyclopedia > Sanandaj
Amirieh Park located in Mount Awyer has the widest Open Space Cinema screen in the world.
Amirieh Park located in Mount Awyer has the widest Open Space Cinema screen in the world.
A view of the city from Mount Awyer.
A view of the city from Mount Awyer.
A view of the city from Mount Awyer.
A view of the city from Mount Awyer.

Sanandaj or Senna (Persian: سنندج‎, Sanandaj; Kurdish: سنه, Sine) is the capital of the province Kurdistan, which is situated in the Kurdish dominated western part of Iran. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1211 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sanandaj Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1211 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sanandaj Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Amireih Jungle Park, Mount Awyer, Kurdistan, Iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1211 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sanandaj Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1211 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sanandaj Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Amireih Jungle Park, Mount Awyer, Kurdistan, Iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 3011 KB) By: Ebrahim Badakhshan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 3011 KB) By: Ebrahim Badakhshan. ... Amireih Jungle Park, Mount Awyer, Kurdistan, Iran. ... Persian (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ« ) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Kurdish language is an Iranian language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Map showing Iranian province of Kurdistan. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts...


It had an estimated population of 358,084 in 2006 [1]. The city of Sanandaj is the capital of the province, and lies at a distance of 512 km from Tehran, 1,480 m above sea level. The population of Sanandaj is mainly Kurdish, with an Armenian and Jewish minority. Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...


While the local urban people refer to the city as Sine (= Sna), the people of local rural areas tend to use the word 'Kursan', a local variation of 'Kurdistan'.

Contents

History

The name "Sanandaj" is the arabized form of "Sena Dezh"(Sine Dizh in Kurdish), which means "the Castle of Sena". Nowadays, it is commonly referred to as Sine in Kurdish. Although the province of Kurdistan has archeological traces which go back to thousands of years BC when the Aryan Kurds first settled in these parts, Sanandaj itself is a rather new city and was built less than 400 years ago. After the Islamic conquest in 642 A.D., majority of the inhabitants accepted Sunni Islam which is the predominant religion of the area, today. The Kurdish language is an Iranian language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... The Kurdish language is an Iranian language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Sanskrit and Iranian terms ārya-, the extended form aryāna-, ari- and/or arya- (Sanskrit: आर्य, Persian: آریا). Beyond its use as the ethnic self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Iranians, the meaning noble/spiritual one has been attached to it in Sanskrit... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Suleyman Khan Ardalan the governor of Kurdistan constructed the Senna Dej (castle) during the Shah Safi period (1629-1642). Sanandaj was under the control of the Ardalan household for four centuries. In the war between the Safavids and the Ottomans, this family sometimes sided with the Safavids and sometimes with the Ottomans. In 1733, Karim Khan Zand destroyed Sanandaj. After a period of chaos, Khusrow Khan Ardalan took over the power. From 1799 to 1824, Imam Allah Khan, son of Khusrow Khan governed in Sanandaj and to some extent he worked for the sake of improvement of Sanandaj. In 1867, due to the dissatisfaction of the inhabitants, Haj Mirza Mu'tamid-u-lleh the uncle of Nasser-al-Din Shah governed in Kurdistan till the year 1874. [2] Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Karim Khan Zand (Persian: کریم خان زند) was a king of Persia who reigned from 1760 until 1779. ... Nasser-al-Din Shah The Shah, on his European tour, in The Royal Albert Hall, London Nasser-al-Din Shah Qajar (Persian: ناصرالدین شاه قاجار; also Nassereddin Shah or Nassiruddin Shah) (July 16, 1831 - May 1, 1896) was the Shah of Persia from September 17, 1848 until his death on May 1, 1896. ...


The main landmark of Sanandaj is a fortress dating back to the period of Abbasid rule.[3] Sanandaj was very prosperous in the Safavid era but was completely destroyed at the time of Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty. It was later chosen to be the capital of this province and is presently one of the most prominent cities of western Iran. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, Abbāsīyūn) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ...


Tracing their roots to the village of Kilaneh, the Sanandaji family, which since the Islamic Revolution in 1979 have moved to Europe and the United States, were the predominant land and farm owners in the state of Kurdistan throughout its modern history. Until the White Revolution during the Shah's reign, the family heavily influenced the economy and society of the region. It is for this reason that they bear the title of Khan, and the name Sanandaji.


The Founder of the Sanandaji family, Kohzad (the son of mountains) was the son of Bahram who was the son of Khodadad born 1660 A.D. in Kilaneh, situated 20 Kilometers south of Sanandaj. Kohzad migrated to Sanandaj around 1750, setting up a modest cloth trading business which his sons followed up. By the end of the 18th century the family was wealthy enough to become one of the most influential landowners in the then largely feudal society of Persia.


A sizable Jewish minority settled down and thrived in Sanandaj due to the tolerant attitude of the Kurdish citizens plus the support of the ruling elite,greatly enriching the township. The Jewish community provided the only existing banking system, modern health care and also education.The best run school system in Sanandaj was provided by the International Jewish Alliance, directly from Europe. The co-author of these historical facts, Khosro Sanandaji, a direct descendant of Kohzad, himself attended this school for three years. A great majority of this Jewish community migrated to Israel by the end of 1980s.

Awalan Mountain is located in the southern country of Sanandaj.
Awalan Mountain is located in the southern country of Sanandaj.

An extract of Kaveh Cyrus Sanandaji's autobiography reveals: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x702, 845 KB) Awalan Mountains in the Southern country of Sanandaj, Kursitan Province of Iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x702, 845 KB) Awalan Mountains in the Southern country of Sanandaj, Kursitan Province of Iran. ...


"My surname, Sanandaji, is derived from my great-great grandfather and the area of Kurdistan we originate from. A simple study of the name's origin reveals that by adding an "i" to the end of a noun, in Persian, the meaning of the word is changed and refers to the belonging of the noun. Thus my father's family were the ruling family of Sanandaj, the largest area (state) of Kurdistan, and they are often referred to as Khans; a sign of respect and rank often given to such political leaders. Translated, khan means ruler, and one often hears this name in reference to the great Mongolian conqueror, Temujin, or Genghis Khan."


Climate

Sanandaj has a pleasant weather in spring and summer. The average seasonal temperature in Sanandaj is 15.20 C in spring, 25.20 C in summer, 10.40 C in autumn and 1.60 C in winter. In a 30-year long study carried out on the climate of Sanandaj, the maximum absolute temperature was found to be 44 C, the minimum absolute -31 C, and the average annual temperature 13.10 C. The average relative humidity was 69% at 06:30 hours and 38% at 12:30 hours. The average annual rainfall was 497.3 mm and the maximum daily, 61 mm. The average number of frosty days was 111.4; and the maximum number of hours of sunshine over the entire year 2,786.2.


Culture

Attractions

The Square of Liberty: The main square in Sanandaj.
The Square of Liberty: The main square in Sanandaj.
Sanandaj
Sanandaj
A view of the city from Mount Awyer.
A view of the city from Mount Awyer.
  • Dense forests of the region
  • Negel historical village on Sanandaj � Marivan road, (and it's historic Quran)
  • Salavat Abad village
  • Edifices of Khosro Abad, Salar Saeed Sanandaj (Museum of anthropology and contemporary arts) and Moshir which have been constructed in Qajar time
  • The old houses of Moshiri, Vakil, Asef Vaziri and Sadegh Vaziri
  • Palangan Castle
  • Several historical bridges belonging to the Safavid era
  • Historical hills
  • Old public bathes
  • Old bazaars of Sanandaj and Asef belonging to the Safavid era
  • Several Mosques and Imamzadehs
  • Zoroastrian Fire Temple " Atashkadeh" in Karaftoo near the Havatoo plateau.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 76 KB) Author: Ebrahim Badakhshan Youre welcomed to use this photo freely. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 76 KB) Author: Ebrahim Badakhshan Youre welcomed to use this photo freely. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 3254 KB) Author: Ebrahim Badakhshan Youre welcomed to use this photo freely. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 3254 KB) Author: Ebrahim Badakhshan Youre welcomed to use this photo freely. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 2987 KB) This photo is free to use. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3008x2000, 2987 KB) This photo is free to use. ... Amireih Jungle Park, Mount Awyer, Kurdistan, Iran. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...

Handicrafts

As in most other parts of Iran, carpet weaving is one of the most significant handicrafts of the region, especially in Bijar and Sanandaj. Shaw, kilim and jajim weaving.Wood work and jewelry and ornaments are among other main handicrafts of this province. The unique art of crafting backgammon boards utilizing genuine wood from walnut trees up to 1000 years old, mostly grown wild inside small valleys high up in the Zagros mountains must be noted. These magnificent trees were sadly overharvested during the past 50 years, exported to Europe, mainly to Italy.


Higher education

  • University of Kurdistan
  • Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences
  • Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj

See also

Hajar Khatoon Mosque (in Kurdish: مسجد هاجرخاتون) is architecturally a unique and ancient Muslim mosque (now a tourist destination) in the city of Sanandaj in the Iranian Kurdistan. ...

External links

Coordinates: 35°19′N 46°60′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sanandaj (90 words)
Sanandaj is the capital of the Kordestan Province with 1.55 million inhabitants (2005 estimate) and an area of 28,817 km².
The main landmark of Sanandaj is a fortress dating back to the period of Abbasid rule.
The population of Sanandaj is mainly Kurdish, with an Armenian minority.
Sanandaj - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (954 words)
The population of Sanandaj is mainly Kurdish, with an Armenian and Jewish minority.
Sanandaj was under the control of the Ardalan household for duration of four centuries.
The average seasonal temperature in Sanandaj is 15.20 C in spring, 25.20 C in summer, 10.40 C in autumn and 1.60 C in winter.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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