FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Samurai" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Samurai
Samurai in armour, 1860s. Photograph by Felice Beato
Samurai in armour, 1860s. Photograph by Felice Beato

Samurai (?) was a term for the military nobility in pre-industrial Japan. The word "samurai" is derived from the archaic Japanese verb "samorau", changed to "saburau", meaning "to serve"; a samurai is the servant of a lord. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... A samurai is a member of the Japanese warrior caste. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Samurai. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Samurai. ... Felice Beato, self-portrait, c. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ...

Contents

History

Iron helmet and armour with gilt bronze decoration, Kofun era, 5th century. Tokyo National Museum.
Iron helmet and armour with gilt bronze decoration, Kofun era, 5th century. Tokyo National Museum.

It is believed warriors and in the sixth century may have formed a proto-samurai. [1] Following a disastrous military engagement with Tang China and Silla, Japan underwent widespread reforms. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform, issued by Prince Naka no Ōe (Emperor Tenji) in 646 AD. This edict introduced Chinese cultural practices and administrative techniques throughout the Japanese aristocracy and bureaucracy[1]. As part of the Yōrō Code,[2] and the later Taihō Code, of 702 AD, the population was required to report regularly for census, which was used as a precursor for national conscription. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Mommu introduced the law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males were drafted into the national military. These soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, and in return were exempted from duties and taxes.[1] This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modelled after the Chinese system. It was called gundan-sei(軍団制) by later historians and is believed to have been short lived.[citation needed] Download high resolution version (605x927, 84 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (605x927, 84 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Kofun period (Japanese: 古墳時代, Kofun-jidai) is an era in the history of Japan from around AD 250 to 538. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Tokyo National Museum. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li Yuan... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ... Emperor Tenji (From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu) Tomb of Emperor Tenji, Kyoto Emperor Tenji (天智天皇 Tenji Tennō) (626-672), also known as Prince Naka no ÅŒe (中大兄皇子, Naka no ÅŒe no ÅŒji) and Emperor Tenchi, was the 38th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is held by a small number of individuals from an elite or from noble families. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... The Yōrō Code (養老律令, Yōrō-ritsuryō), in one of the ritsuryo, a collection of governing rules compiled in early Nara period in Classical Japan. ... The Taihō Code or Code of Taihō ) was an administrative reorganization enacted in 702 in Japan, at the end of the Asuka period. ... Emperor Mommu (文武天皇 Mommu Tennō) (683-707) was the 42nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


The Taihō Code classified Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks, each divided into two sub-ranks, 1st rank being the highest adviser to the emperor. Those of 6th rank and below were referred to as "samurai" and dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these "samurai" were civilian public servants, the name is believed to have derived from this term. Military men, however, would not be referred to as "samurai" for many more centuries.[citation needed]


In the early Heian period, the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Emperor Kammu (桓武天皇) sought to consolidate and expand his rule in northern Honshū, but the armies he sent to conquer the rebellious Emishi lacked motivation and discipline, and were unable to prevail.[citation needed] Emperor Kammu introduced the title of Seiitaishogun (征夷大将軍) or shogun, and began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery (kyudo, 弓道), these clan warriors became the emperor's preferred tool for putting down rebellions.[citation needed] Although these warriors may have been educated, at this time (7th to 9th century) the Imperial court officials considered them to be little more than barbarians.[citation needed] The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Emperor Kanmu Emperor Kanmu ) (737–806) was the 50th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... HonshÅ« (本州 Literally Main State) is the largest island of Japan, called the Mainland; it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait. ... The name Emishi was used by the Japanese to designate those groups who opposed and resisted the rule of the Japanese Emperors during the late Nara and early Heian periods (7th–10th centuries A.D.), specifically those who lived in northeastern Japan corresponding to the present-day Tohoku region known... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... It has been suggested that Primitive Archery be merged into this article or section. ... A full draw, called kai. KyÅ«dō ), literally meaning way of the bow, is the Japanese art of archery. ...


Ultimately, Emperor Kammu disbanded his army, and from this time, the emperor's power gradually declined . While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto (京都) assumed positions as ministers, and their relatives bought positions as magistrates.[citation needed] To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates often imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless.[citation needed] Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ...


As the threat of robbery rose, the clans began recruiting these exiles in the Kanto plains. Because of their intense training in the martial arts, they proved to be effective guards.[citation needed] Small numbers would accompany tax collectors and, merely by their presence, deter thieves and bandits from attacking. They were saburai, armed retainers, yet their advantage of being the sole armed party quickly became apparent.[citation needed]


Through protective agreements and political marriages, they accumulated political power, eventually surpassing the traditional aristocracy.[citation needed]


Some clans were originally formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes.[citation needed] These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, and by the mid-Heian period they had adopted characteristic Japanese armour and weapons, and laid the foundations of Bushido, their ethical code. [citation needed]However, Bushido was never a code of ethics per se, and only in the late nineteenth, early twentieth century did the term gain popular currency. [citation needed] Japanese samurai in armor, 1860s. ...


For most of samurai history, warriors described themselves as followers of "kyuba no michi," or the "way of the bow and horse," and had no overlying code of ethics to which they were beholden.[citation needed] To be sure, samurai were expected to comport themselves in a certain manner, but any specific points of behavior would have been limited to family or clan teachings. [citation needed]


Before the 14th century, samurai were generally illiterate, rusticated brutes; they did, however, aspire to the more cultured abilities of the nobility. [citation needed] Few achieved this until later periods, however. Examples such as Taira Tadanori (a samurai who appears in the Heike Monogatari or Tale of the Heike) demonstrate that some warriors did respect the arts and aspire to become skilled in them; Tadanori is famous for his skill with the pen, indicating that it was rare for a samurai to possess such skill as to be recognized for it. [citation needed] The Tale of the Heike (Japanese 平家物語, Heike monogatari) is an epic account of the struggle between the Minamoto and Taira clans for control of Japan at the end of the 12th century. ...


Beginning around the fourteenth century, samurai were expected to be cultured and literate, and the ancient saying "Bun Bu Ryo Do" (lit. literary arts, military arts, both ways) or "The pen and the sword in accord," was an ideal to which many aspired. However, the number of men who actually achieved the ideal and lived their lives by it was low. Few warriors had the time or inclination to dedicate their already difficult lives to such pursuits.


An early term for warrior, "Uruwashii", was written with a kanji that combined the characters for literary study ("bun" ) and military arts ("bu" ), and is mentioned in the Heike Monogatari (late 12th century). The Heike Monogatari makes reference to the educated poet-swordsman ideal in its mention of Taira no Tadanori's death: Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ...

"Friends and foes alike wet their sleeves with tears and said, 'What a pity! Tadanori was a great general, pre-eminent in the arts of both sword and poetry.' "

According to William Scott Wilson in his book Ideals of the Samurai: "The warriors in the Heike Monogatari served as models for the educated warriors of later generations, and the ideals depicted by them were not assumed to be beyond reach. Rather, these ideals were vigorously pursued in the upper echelons of warrior society and recommended as the proper form of the Japanese man of arms. With the Heike Monogatari, the image of the Japanese warrior in literature came to its full maturity." Wilson then translates the writings of several warriors who mention the Heike Monogatari as an example for their men to follow. William Scott Wilson (b. ...


It is necessary to remember, however, that the Heike warriors are men fictionalized by a fourteenth century dramatist, and the tales about such warriors had been modified for centuries before the Tale of the Heike was actually written down.


Thus, while we can, if careful, see some of how warriors behaved in literary sources, the actual behavior of early samurai is difficult to glean from literature alone.


Kamakura Bakufu and the rise of Samurai

Originally the emperor and nobility employed these warriors. In time, they amassed enough manpower, resources and political backing in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government. Image File history File links Acap. ... For the topic in theoretical computer science, see Formal grammar Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ...


As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was typically a distant relative of the emperor, and a lesser member of one of three families: the Fujiwara, Minamoto, Taira. The Fujiwara clan (藤原氏 Fujiwara-shi) was a clan of regents who had sort of monopoly to the Sekkan positions, Sesshō and Kampaku. ...


Though originally sent to provincial areas for a fixed four-year term as a magistrate, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, and their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle and later Heian period.


Samurai fought at the naval battle of Dan-no-Ura in 1185. Because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors ultimately became a new force in the politics of the court. Their involvement in the Hōgen in the late Heian period consolidated their power, and finally pitted the rival Minamoto and Taira clans against each other in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160. The Battle of Dan-no-ura, more commonly known as Dan-no-ura no Tatakai (壇ノ浦の戦い), was a major sea battle of the Genpei War, occurring at Dan_no_ura, in the Shimonoseki Strait off the southern tip of Honshu. ... The Heiji Rebellion (平治の乱) was fought between rival subjects of the cloistered emperor Go-Shirakawa of Japan in 1159. ...


The winner, Taira no Kiyomori became an imperial advisor, and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He eventually seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the emperor to figurehead status.


However, the Taira clan was still very conservative in comparison with its eventual successor, the Minamoto, and instead of expanding or strengthening its military might, the Taira clan had its women marry emperors and exercise control through the emperor.


Samurai Residence of "Kamakura Period" The Taira and the Minamoto clashed again in 1180, beginning the Gempei War which ended in 1185. The victorious Minamoto no Yoritomo established the superiority of the samurai over the aristocracy. In 1190, he visited Kyoto and in 1192, became Seii Taishogun, establishing the Kamakura Shogunate, or Kamakura Bakufu. Instead of ruling from Kyoto, he set up the Shogunate in Kamakura, near his base of power. "Bakufu" means tent government, taken from the encampments the soldiers would live in, in accordance with the Bakufu's status as a military government. Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Kamakuras location in Japan Crowds of visitors in Kamakura (Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine) Great Buddha at Kōtoku-in Kamakura (Japanese: 鎌倉市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo (to which it is linked by the railway line to Yokosuka). ...


Over time, powerful samurai clans became warrior nobility buke, who were only nominally under the court aristocracy. When the samurai began to adopt aristocratic pastimes like calligraphy, poetry and music, some court aristocrats in turn began to adopt samurai customs. In spite of various machinations and brief periods of rule by various emperors, real power was now in the hands of the shogun and the samurai.


Ashikaga Shogunate and the Feudal Period

The Samurai Suenaga facing Mongols, during the Mongol invasions of Japan. Moko Shurai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
The Samurai Suenaga facing Mongols, during the Mongol invasions of Japan. Moko Shurai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.

Various samurai clans struggled for power during the Kamakura and Ashikaga Shogunates. Image File history File links Mooko-Suenaga. ... Image File history File links Mooko-Suenaga. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Japan Commanders Kublai Khan Hōjō Tokimune Strength 35,000 Mongol & Chinese soldiers and 18,000 Korean warriors 10,000 Casualties 16,000 killed before landed minimal Defensive wall at Hakata. ... This wooden Kongorikishi statue was created during the Kamakura shogunate during 14th century Japan. ... The Ashikaga shogunate (Jp. ...


Zen Buddhism spread among samurai in the 13th century and helped to shape their standards of conduct, particularly overcoming fear of death and killing, but among the general populace, Pure Land Buddhism was favored. A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ...


In 1274, the Yuan Dynasty of the Mongol Empire sent a force of some 40,000 men and 900 ships to invade Japan in northern Kyūshū. Japan mustered a mere 10,000 Samurai to meet this threat. The invading army was harassed by major thunderstorms throughout the invasion, which aided the defenders by inflicting heavy casualties. The Yuan army was eventually recalled and the invasion called off. The Mongol invaders used small bombs, which was likely the first appearance of bombs and gunpowder in Japan. The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 Ukhaatu Khan History  - establishing the Yuan Dynasty 1271  - Fall of Dadu September 14, 1368 Population  - 1330 est. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... The Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) bomb produced in the United States. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ...


The Japanese defenders recognized the possibility of a renewed invasion, and began construction of a great, stone barrier around Hakata Bay in 1276. Completed in 1277, this wall stretched for 20 kilometers around the border of the bay. This would later serve as a strong defensive point against the Mongols. The Mongols attempted to settle matters in a diplomatic way from 1275 to 1279, but every envoy sent to Japan was executed. This set the stage for one of the most famous engagements in Japanese history.


In 1281, a Yuan army of 140,000 men with 4,400 ships was mustered for another invasion of Japan. Northern Kyūshū was defended by a Japanese army of 40,000 men. The Mongol army was still on its ships preparing for the landing operation when a typhoon hit north Kyūshū island. The casualties and damage inflicted by the typhoon, followed by the Japanese defense of the Hakata Bay barrier, resulted in the Mongols again recalling their armies.

Samurai and defensive wall at Hakata. Moko Shurai Ekotoba, (蒙古襲来絵詞) c.1293.
Samurai and defensive wall at Hakata. Moko Shurai Ekotoba, (蒙古襲来絵詞) c.1293.

The thunderstorms of 1274 and the typhoon of 1281 helped the Samurai defenders of Japan repel the Mongol invaders despite being vastly outnumbered. These winds became known as kami-no-kaze, which literally translates as "wind of the gods." This is often given a simplified translation as "divine wind." The kami-no-kaze lent credence to the Japanese belief that their lands were indeed divine and under supernatural protection. Image File history File links Mooko-HakataWall. ... Image File history File links Mooko-HakataWall. ... Hakata (博多区; -ku) is a ward in Fukuoka, Japan with a population of 176,585. ...


In the 14th century, a blacksmith called Masamune developed a two-layer structure of soft and hard steel for use in swords. This structure gave much improved cutting power and endurance, and the production technique led to Japanese swords (katana) being recognized as some of the most potent hand weapons of pre-industrial East Asia. Many swords made using this technique were exported across the East China Sea, a few making their way as far as India. Masamune Portrait This article is about the swordsmith. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... The East China Sea is a marginal sea and part of the Pacific Ocean. ...


Issues of inheritance caused family strife as primogeniture became common, in contrast to the division of succession designated by law before the 14th century. To avoid infighting, invasions of neighboring samurai territories became common and bickering among samurai was a constant problem for the Kamakura and Ashikaga Shogunates. This does not cite any references or sources. ... This wooden Kongorikishi statue was created during the Kamakura shogunate during 14th century Japan. ... The Ashikaga shogunate (Jp. ...


The Sengoku jidai ("warring-states period") was marked by the loosening of samurai culture with people born into other social strata sometimes making names for themselves as warriors and thus becoming de facto samurai. In this turbulent period, bushido ethics became important factors in controlling and maintaining public order. “Sengoku” redirects here. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Japanese samurai in armor, 1860s. ...


Japanese war tactics and technologies improved rapidly in the 15th and 16th century. Use of large numbers of infantry called ashigaru ("light-foot", due to their light armour), formed of humble warriors or ordinary people with Nagayari (a long lance) or (Naginata), was introduced and combined with cavalry in maneuvers. The number of people mobilized in warfare ranged from thousands to hundreds of thousands. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Japanese ashigaru (足軽) were conscripted foot-soldiers of medieval Japan. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... A samurai wielding a naginata Naginata (なぎなた, 長刀 or 薙刀) is a pole weapon that was traditionally used in Japan by members of the samurai class. ...

Nanban (Western)-style samurai cuirass, 16th century.
Nanban (Western)-style samurai cuirass, 16th century.

The arquebus, a matchlock gun, was introduced by the Portuguese via a Chinese pirate ship in 1543 and the Japanese succeeded in assimilating it within a decade. Groups of mercenaries with mass-produced arquebuses began playing a critical role. Nanbandoo, western-style cuirass. ... Nanbandoo, western-style cuirass. ... The period of Nanban (Southern Barbarian) contacts in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1650, under the promulgation of the Seclusion Laws. ... This article is devoted to the type of armour known as a cuirass. ... Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppo) The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; possibly related to German Hakenbuechse or Dutch Haakbus) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... The Matchlock was the first firearm to have a trigger mechanism for firing. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppo) The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; possibly related to German Hakenbuechse or Dutch Haakbus) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ...


By the end of feudal period, several hundred thousand firearms existed in Japan and massive armies numbering over 100,000 clashed in battles. By comparison, the largest and most powerful army in Europe, the Spanish, had only several thousand firearms and could only assemble 30,000 troops.


In 1592, Toyotomi Hideyoshi decided to invade Korea (with the purported aim of conquering China) and sent an initial army of 240,000 samurais (Hideyoshi's invasions of Korea). First, the Japanese met initial success in land battles due mainly to organizational defects in the Korean land forces and also the tepid response by the Joseon royal court. However, despite this initial advantage and their use of arquebuses and muskets, Japanese samurais and their soldiers were ultimately defeated by Korean (and later Ming) forces. The naval campaigns of Korean Admiral Yi Su-Shin in particular brought havoc to the Japanese navy, who were never able to control the sea lanes of the Korea Strait. Year 1592 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ...


In 1597, Hideyoshi, dissatisfied with the outcome of the first campaign in having failed to obtain any substantial gain and because of the full retreat of Japanese forces, mounted a second invasion against Korea. One of the main differences between the first and second invasions was that conquering China was no longer a goal for the Japanese (instead, Hideyoshi and his generals planned to conquer Korea). This second invasion comprised of approximately 141,100 samurais and soldiers under the overall command of Kobayakawa Hideaki. Again, despite some success in land battles, the Korean and Ming forces eventually prevailed and forced the Japanese to withdraw from the Korean peninsula. In the final battle of the war (Battle of Noryang), the combined Korean and Ming fleet destroyed nearly 300 Japanese battleships out of the 500 remaining.


Social mobility was high, as the ancient regime collapsed and emerging samurai needed to maintain large military and administrative organizations in their areas of influence. Most of the samurai families that survived to the 19th century originated in this era declaring themselves to be the blood of one of the four ancient noble clans, Minamoto, Taira, Fujiwara and Tachibana. In most cases, however, it is hard to prove these claims. Minamoto (源) was an honorary surname bestowed by the Emperors of Japan of the Heian Period to their sons and grandsons after accepting them as royal subjects. ... Taira (平) is a Japanese surname. ... Fujiwara (藤原) can refer to: The Fujiwara clan and its members Kamatari Fujiwara Keiji Fujiwara Fujiwara-no-Sai, character of Hikaru no Go Takumi Tak Fujiwara, character of Initial D Zakuro Fujiwara, character of Tokyo Mew Mew (Known as Renee Roberts in the Mew Mew Power English anime) This...

See also: Nanban trade period

The Nanban Trade Period (Jp:南蛮貿易時代, Lit. ...

Oda, Toyotomi and Tokugawa

Oda Nobunaga was the well-known lord of the Nagoya area (once called Owari Province) and an exceptional example of samurai of the Sengoku Period. He came within a few years of, and laid down the path for his successors to follow, the reunification of Japan under a new Bakufu (Shogunate). This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nagoya Castle Nagoya (名古屋市; -shi) is the fourth largest (third largest metropolitan region) and the third most prosperous city in Japan. ... “Sengoku” redirects here. ...


Oda Nobunaga made innovations in the fields of organization and war tactics, heavily used arquebuses, developed commerce and industry and treasured innovation. Consecutive victories enabled him to realize the termination of the Ashikaga Bakufu and the disarmament of the military powers of the Buddhist monks, which had inflamed futile struggles among the populace for centuries. Attacking from the "sanctuary" of Buddhist temples, they were constant headaches to any warlord and even the emperor who tried to control their actions. He died in 1582 when one of his generals, Akechi Mitsuhide, turned upon him with his army. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

The Samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga in Rome in 1615, Coll. Borghese, Rome.
The Samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga in Rome in 1615, Coll. Borghese, Rome.

Importantly, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (see below) and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who founded the Tokugawa Shogunate, were loyal followers of Nobunaga. Hideyoshi was brought up from a nameless peasant to be one of Nobunaga's top generals and Ieyasu had shared his childhood with Nobunaga. Hideyoshi defeated Mitsuhide within a month and was regarded as the rightful successor of Nobunaga by avenging the treachery of Mitsuhide. Download high resolution version (416x613, 130 KB)Hasekura in Rome. ... Download high resolution version (416x613, 130 KB)Hasekura in Rome. ... Itinerary and dates of the travels of Hasekura Tsunenaga Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga (1571–1622) (Japanese: 支倉六右衛門常長, also spelled Faxecura Rocuyemon in period European sources, reflecting the contemporary pronunciation of Japanese[1]) was a Japanese samurai and retainer of Date Masamune, the daimyo of Sendai. ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until...


These two were gifted with Nobunaga's previous achievements on which build a unified Japan and there was a saying: "The reunification is a rice cake; Oda made it. Hashiba shaped it. At last, only Ieyasu tastes it."[citation needed] (Hashiba is the family name that Toyotomi Hideyoshi used while he was a follower of Nobunaga.)


Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who became a grand minister in 1586, himself the son of a poor peasant family, created a law that the samurai caste became codified as permanent and hereditary, and that non-samurai were forbidden to carry weapons, thereby ending the social mobility of Japan up until that point, which lasted until the dissolution of the Edo Shogunate by the Meiji revolutionaries. This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ...


It is important to note that the distinction between samurai and non-samurai was so obscure that during the 16th century, most male adults in any social class (even small farmers) belonged to at least one military organization of their own and served in wars before and during Hideyoshi's rule. It can be said that an "all against all" situation continued for a century.


The authorized samurai families after the 17th century were those that chose to follow Nobunaga, Hideyoshi and Ieyasu. Large battles occurred during the change between regimes, and a number of defeated samurai were destroyed, went ronin or were absorbed into the general populace. Graves of the forty-seven Ronin at Sengaku-ji Ronin robbing a merchants house in Japan around 1860 (1) For other uses, see Ronin (disambiguation). ...


Tokugawa Shogunate

Samurai walking followed by a servant, by Hanabusa Itcho (1652 - 1724)
Samurai walking followed by a servant, by Hanabusa Itcho (1652 - 1724)

During the Tokugawa era, samurai increasingly became courtiers, bureaucrats, and administrators rather than warriors. With no warfare since the early 17th century, samurai gradually lost their military function during the Tokugawa era (also called the Edo period). Download high resolution version (1843x1953, 1051 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1843x1953, 1051 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Edo period (江戸時代) is a... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ...


By the end of the Tokugawa era, samurai were aristocratic bureaucrats for the daimyo, with their daisho, the paired long and short swords of the samurai (cf. katana and wakizashi) becoming more of a symbolic emblem of power rather than a weapon used in daily life. Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... An Edo-era daisho on its stand. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


They still had the legal right to cut down any commoner who did not show proper respect (kiri sute gomen (斬り捨て御免)), but to what extent this right was used is unknown. When the central government forced daimyos to cut the size of their armies, unemployed ronin became a social problem. A commoner, in British law, is someone who is neither the Sovereign nor a noble. ... Kiri sute gomen (斬り捨て御免 or 切り捨て御免 : literally, authorisation to cut or authorisation to leave (the body of the victim)) is an old Japanese expression dating back to the feudal era. ... Graves of the forty-seven Ronin at Sengaku-ji Ronin robbing a merchants house in Japan around 1860 (1) For other uses, see Ronin (disambiguation). ...


Theoretical obligations between a samurai and his lord (usually a daimyo) increased from the Genpei era to the Edo era. They were strongly emphasized by the teachings of Confucius and Mencius (ca 550 B.C.) which were required reading for the educated samurai class. During the Edo period, after the general end of hostilities, the code of Bushido was formalized. It is important to note that bushido was an ideal, but that it remained uniform from the 13th century to the 19th century — the ideals of Bushido transcended social class, time and geographic location of the warrior class. Confucius (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Mencius (Romanization; 孟子, pinyin: Mèng Zǐ; Wade-Giles: Meng Tzu; most accepted dates: 372 – 289 BCE; other possible dates: 385 – 303/302 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher who was arguably the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself. ...


Bushido was formalized by many samurai in this time of peace in much the same fashion as chivalry was formalized after knights as a warrior class became obsolete in Europe. The conduct of samurai became a favorable model of a citizen in Edo, with formalities being emphasized. With time on their hands, samurai spent more time in pursuit of other interests such as becoming scholars. Japanese samurai in armor, 1860s. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ...


Bushido still survives in present-day Japanese society, as do many other aspects of the samurai's way of life.


Modernization of the samurai (1854-1868)

Shogunal samurai troops in 1864.Illustrated London News.
Shogunal samurai troops in 1864.Illustrated London News.
Two-sworded samurai in Westernized clothing, during the Late Tokugawa shogunate, 1866.
Two-sworded samurai in Westernized clothing, during the Late Tokugawa shogunate, 1866.

By this time, the Way of Death and Desperateness had been eclipsed by a rude awakening in 1853, when Commodore Matthew Perry's massive steamships from the U.S. Navy first imposed broader commerce on the once-dominant national policy of isolationism. Prior to that only a few harbor towns, under strict control from the Shogunate, were able to participate in Western trade, and even then, it was based largely on the idea of playing the Franciscans and Dominicans off against one another (in exchange for the crucial arquebus technology, which in turn was a major contributor to the downfall of the classical samurai). The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 353 pixelsFull resolution (915 × 404 pixel, file size: 349 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bakumatsu shogunal troops in 1864. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 353 pixelsFull resolution (915 × 404 pixel, file size: 349 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bakumatsu shogunal troops in 1864. ... The Illustrated London News was a magazine founded by Herbert Ingram and his friend Mark Lemon, the editor of Punch magazine. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 553 pixelsFull resolution (941 × 650 pixel, file size: 408 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 553 pixelsFull resolution (941 × 650 pixel, file size: 408 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858). ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppo) The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; possibly related to German Hakenbuechse or Dutch Haakbus) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ...


From 1854, the samurai army and the navy were modernized. A Naval training school was established in Nagasaki in 1855. Naval students were sent to study in Western naval schools for several years, starting a tradition of foreign-educated future leaders, such as Admiral Enomoto. The Nagasaki Training Center, in Nagasaki, near Dejima. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ...


French naval engineers were hired to build naval arsenals, such as Yokosuka and Nagasaki. By the end of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1867, the Japanese navy of the shogun already possessed eight western-style steam warships around the flagship Kaiyō Maru, which were used against pro-imperial forces during the Boshin war, under the command of Admiral Enomoto. A French Military Mission to Japan (1867) was established to help modernize the armies of the Bakufu. Categories: Cities in Kanagawa Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Kaiyō Maru (Japanese: 開陽丸) was one of Japans first modern warships, powered by both sails and steam. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ... The French military mission before its departure to Japan, in 1866. ... For the James Clavell novel, see Shogun or for the TV Miniseries. ...


The last showing of the original samurai was in 1867 when samurai from Chōshū and Satsuma provinces defeated the Shogunate forces in favor of the rule of the emperor in the Boshin War (1868-1869). The two provinces were the lands of the daimyo that submitted to Ieyasu after the Battle of Sekigahara (1600). ChōshÅ« may refer to any of the following: Nagato Province ) in Japan ChōshÅ« Domain ) in Japan The wrestler Riki Choshu ) Category: ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... Combatants Forces loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori, many clans from Western Japan Forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Clans of Eastern Japan Commanders Ishida Mitsunari, Mōri Terumoto, others Tokugawa Ieyasu, others Strength 81,890 88,888 Casualties At least 40,000 dead Otani Yoshitsugu Shimazu Toyohisa Unknown; but not excessive The Battle... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Decline during the Meiji Restoration (1868-)

Samurai of the Satsuma clan, during the Boshin War period, circa 1867. Photograph by Felice Beato
Samurai of the Satsuma clan, during the Boshin War period, circa 1867. Photograph by Felice Beato

Emperor Meiji abolished the samurai's right to be the only armed force in favor of a more modern, western-style, conscripted army in 1873. Samurai became Shizoku (士族) who retained some of their salaries, but the right to wear a katana in public was eventually abolished along with the right to execute commoners who paid them disrespect. ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... Satsuma is the name of a town in Japan, Satsuma, Kagoshima, the surrounding district, Satsuma District, Kagoshima, the former province, Satsuma Province, which is now the western half of Kagoshima Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, a revolt, the Satsuma Rebellion. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... Felice Beato, self-portrait, c. ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ...


The samurai finally came to an end after hundreds of years of enjoyment of their status, their powers, and their ability to shape the government of Japan. However, the rule of the state by the military class was not yet over.


In defining how a modern Japan should be, members of the Meiji government decided to follow the footsteps of United Kingdom and Germany, basing the country on the concept of "noblesse oblige." Samurai were not to be a political force under the new order. In French, noblesse oblige means, literally, nobility obliges. // Noblesse oblige is generally used to imply that with wealth, power, and prestige come social responsibilities. ...


With the Meiji reforms in the late 19th century, the samurai class was abolished, and a western-style national army was established. The Imperial Japanese Armies were conscripted, but many samurai volunteered to be soldiers and many advanced to be trained as officers. Much of the Imperial Army officer class was of samurai origin and they were highly motivated, disciplined and exceptionally trained. The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Saigo Takamori (seated, in Western uniform), surrounded by his officers, in samurai attire, during the 1877 Satsuma rebellion. News article in Le Monde Illustré, 1877.
Saigo Takamori (seated, in Western uniform), surrounded by his officers, in samurai attire, during the 1877 Satsuma rebellion. News article in Le Monde Illustré, 1877.

The last samurai conflict was arguably in 1877, during the Satsuma Rebellion in the Battle of Shiroyama. This conflict had its genesis in the previous uprising to defeat the Tokugawa Shogunate, leading to the Meiji Restoration. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1228x911, 1264 KB) Saigo Takamori with his officers, from Le Monde Illustre, 1877. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1228x911, 1264 KB) Saigo Takamori with his officers, from Le Monde Illustre, 1877. ... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori (西郷 隆盛 Saigō Takamori, 23 January 1827/28 - 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Satsuma fief Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor CIC: Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori Strength 300,000 40,000 Casualties estimate ~60,000 dead soldiers about 30,000 dead The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, Southwestern War) was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army... Saigo Takamori (seated, in Western uniform), surrounded by his officers, in samurai attire. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Satsuma fief Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor CIC: Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori Strength 300,000 40,000 Casualties estimate ~60,000 dead soldiers about 30,000 dead The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, Southwestern War) was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Samurai of Satsuma Commanders Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori† Strength 300,000 troops 350-400 samurai Casualties unknown 350 (Approximate) The Battle of Shiroyama (Japanese:城山の戦い) took place on September 24, 1877, in Kagoshima, Japan. ...


The newly formed government instituted radical changes, aimed at reducing the power of the feudal domains, including Satsuma, and the dissolution of samurai status. This led to the ultimately premature uprising, led by Saigō Takamori. Saigō Takamori 23 January 1827/28 — 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ...


Samurai were many of the early exchange students, not directly because they were samurai, but because many samurai were literate and well-educated scholars. Some of these exchange students started private schools for higher educations, while many samurai took pens instead of guns and became reporters and writers, setting up newspaper companies, and others entered governmental service.


Only the name Shizoku existed after that. After Japan lost the World War II, the name Shizoku disappeared under the law on January 1, 1948. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...


Western samurai

The French Navy officer Eugène Collache fought for the Shogun as a samurai during the Boshin War(1869).
The French Navy officer Eugène Collache fought for the Shogun as a samurai during the Boshin War(1869).

The English sailor and adventurer William Adams (1564–1620) seems to have been the first foreigner to receive the dignity of samurai. The Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu presented him with two swords representing the authority of a samurai, and decreed that William Adams the pilot was dead and that Miura Anjin (三浦按針), a samurai, was born. Adams also received the title of hatamoto (bannerman), a high-prestige position as a direct retainer in the Shogun's court. He was provided with generous revenues: "For the services that I have done and do daily, being employed in the Emperor's service, the emperor has given me a living" (Letters). He was granted a fief in Hemi (逸見) within the boundaries of present-day Yokosuka City, "with eighty or ninety husbandmen, that be my slaves or servants" (Letters). His estate was valued at 250 koku (measure of the income of the land in rice equal to about five bushels). He finally wrote "God hath provided for me after my great misery" (Letters) by which he meant the disaster-ridden voyage that had initially brought him to Japan. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (505x970, 409 KB) Summary Representation of Eugene Collache in Samurai attire. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (505x970, 409 KB) Summary Representation of Eugene Collache in Samurai attire. ... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... Eugène Collache in samurai attire. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... William Adams (September 24, 1564–May 16, 1620), also known in Japanese as Anjin-sama (anjin, pilot; sama, a Japanese social title or honorific more or less equivalent to lord) and Miura Anjin (三浦按針: the pilot of Miura), was an English navigator who travelled to Japan and is believed to be... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until... A hatamoto (旗本: Lit. ... Categories: Cities in Kanagawa Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... A koku ) is a unit of volume in Japan, equal to ten cubic shaku. ... A bushel is a unit of volume, used (with somewhat different definitions) in the systems of Imperial units and U.S. customary units. ...


Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn (1556?-1623?), a Dutch colleague of Adams' on their ill-fated voyage to Japan in the ship De Liefde, was also given similar privileges by Tokugawa Ieyasu. It appears Joosten became a samurai[citation needed] and was given a residence within Ieyasu's castle at Edo. Today, this area at the east exit of Tokyo Station is known as Yaesu (八重洲). Yaesu is a corruption of the Dutchman's Japanese name, Yayousu (耶楊子). Also in common with Adam's, Joostens was given a Red Seal Ship (朱印船) allowing him to trade between Japan and Indo-China. On a return journey from Batavia Joosten drowned after his ship ran aground. Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn (c. ... Marunouchi side of Tokyo Station Tokyo Station ) is a train station located in the Marunouchi business district of Tokyo, near the Imperial Palace grounds and the Ginza commercial district. ... Taxis line up in front of the Yaesu side of Tokyo Station. ... A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. ... Indochina, or French Indochina, was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in south-east Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... Look up Batavia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Also, during the Boshin War (1868-1869), French soldiers joined the forces of the Shogun against the Southern Daimyos favorable to the restoration of the Meiji emperor. It is recorded that the French Navy officer Eugène Collache fought in samurai attire with his Japanese brother-in-arms. At the same time, the Prussian Edward Schnell served the Aizu domain as a military instructor and procurer of weapons. He was granted the Japanese name Hiramatsu Buhei (平松武兵衛), which inverted the characters of the daimyo's name Matsudaira (松平). Hiramatsu (Schnell) was given the right to wear swords, as well as a residence in the castle town of Wakamatsu, a Japanese wife, and retainers. In many contemporary references, he is portrayed as wearing a Japanese kimono, overcoat, and swords, with Western riding trousers and boots. Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of... Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) Mutsuhito (睦仁), the Meiji Emperor (明治天皇, literally Enlightened Rule Emperor) (3 November 1852–30 July 1912) was the 122nd Emperor of Japan. ... Eugène Collache in samurai attire. ... A reenactment of the German weapons dealer Henry Schnell in the 2006 Aizu Clan Parade in Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. ... Monument to the Byakkotai Samurai Aizu ) is a former feudal domain (Han), part of the modern-day Japanese prefecture of Fukushima, formerly a part of Mutsu province. ... Matsudaira Katamori (松平容保), (February 15, 1836−December 5, 1893) was a samurai that lived in the last days of the Edo period and the early Meiji period. ... Aizuwakamatsu castle Aizuwakamatsu (会津若松市; -shi) is a city located in Fukushima, Japan. ...


Culture

As de facto aristocrats for centuries, samurai developed their own cultures that influenced Japanese culture as a whole.


Education

A samurai was expected to read and write, as well as to know some mathematics. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, a great samurai yet originally a peasant, could only read and write in hiragana and this was a significant drawback for him. Samurai were expected, though not required, to have interests in other arts such as dancing, Go, literature, poetry, and tea. Ōta Dōkan who first ruled Edo wrote how he was shamed to realize that even a commoner had more knowledge of poetry than he. This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji Hiragana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana and kanji; the Latin alphabet is also used in some cases. ... A contemporary dancer rehearsing in a dance studio Dance generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. ... Go is a strategic East Asian board game for two players. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, a making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... ÅŒta Dōkan (太田道灌) (1432-1486) was born as ÅŒta Sukenaga (太田資長) into a daimyo family descending from Minamoto no Yorimasa. ... Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ...


Shudō

A Shudō-type encounter between younger and older samurai. From "Tale of Shudō" (衆道物語) 1661.
A Shudō-type encounter between younger and older samurai. From "Tale of Shudō" (衆道物語) 1661.

Shudō (衆道), the tradition of love bonds between a seasoned and a novice samurai was held to be "the flower of the samurai spirit" and formed the real basis of the samurai aesthetic. It was analogous to the educational Greek pederasty and an honored and important practice in samurai society. It was one of the main ways in which the ethos and the skills of the samurai tradition were passed down from one generation to another.[citation needed] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 490 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (513 × 628 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 490 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (513 × 628 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Man and youth Tryst between a man and a male youth. ... Man and youth Tryst between a man and a male youth. ... The term pederasty or paederasty embraces a wide range of erotic practices between adult and adolescents, generally between males. ...


Another name for the bonds was bidō (美道 "the beautiful way"). The devotion that two samurai would have for each other would be almost as great as that which they had for their daimyo. Indeed, according to contemporary accounts, the choice between his lover and his master could become a philosophical problem for samurai. Hagakure and other samurai manuals gave specific instructions in the way that this tradition was to be carried out and respected. After the Meiji Restoration and the introduction of a more westernised lifestyle, the practice died out. Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Cover of The Book of the Samurai Hagakure (KyÅ«jitai: 葉隱; Shinjitai: ; meaning In the Shadow of Leaves), or Hagakure Kikigaki () is a practical and spiritual guide for a warrior, drawn from a collection of commentaries by the samurai, Yamamoto Tsunetomo, former retainer to Nabeshima Mitsushige, the third ruler of what... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ...


Names

A samurai was usually named by combining one kanji from his father or grandfather and one new kanji. Samurai normally used only a small part of their total name. Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ...


For example, the full name of Oda Nobunaga would be "Oda Kazusanosuke Saburo Nobunaga" (織田上総介三郎信長), in which "Oda" is a clan or family name, "Kazusanosuke" is a title of vice-governor of Kazusa province, "Saburo" is a name before genpuku, a coming of age ceremony, and "Nobunaga" is an adult name. Samurai were able to choose their own last names. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Marriage

The marriage of samurai was done by having a marriage arranged by someone with the same or higher rank than those being married. While for those samurai in the upper ranks this was a necessity (as most had few opportunities to meet a female), this was a formality for lower ranked samurai. Most samurai married women from a samurai family, but for a lower ranked samurai marriages with commoners were permitted. In these marriages a dowry was brought by the woman and was used to start their new lives. “Spouse” redirects here. ... A formality is an established procedure or set of specific behaviors and utterances, conceptually similar to a ritual although typically secular and less involved. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given to the family of the bridegroom by the family of the bride at the time of their marriage. ...


A samurai could have a mistress but her background was strictly checked by higher ranked samurai. In many cases, this was treated like a marriage. "Kidnapping" a mistress, although common in fiction, would have been shameful, if not a crime. When she was a commoner, a messenger would be sent with betrothal money or a note for exemption of tax to ask for her parent's acceptance and many parents gladly accepted. If a samurai's wife gave birth to a son he could be a samurai. Madame de Pompadour the mistress of King Louis XV of France. ...


A samurai could divorce his wife for a variety of reasons with approval from a superior, but divorce was, while not entirely nonexistent, a rare event. A reason for divorce would be if she could not produce a son, but then adoption could be arranged as an alternative to divorce. A samurai could divorce for personal reasons, even if he simply did not like his wife, but this was generally avoided as it would embarrass the samurai who had arranged the marriage. A woman could also arrange a divorce, although it would generally take the form of the samurai divorcing her. After a divorce samurai had to return the betrothal money, which often prevented divorces. Some rich merchants had their daughters marry samurai to erase a samurai's debt and advance their positions. For the record label, see Divorce Records. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ...


A samurai's wife would be dishonored and allowed to commit jigai (a female's seppuku) if she were cast off.[citation needed] Jigai was a traditional method of suicide for women in ancient Japan. ... “hara-kiri” redirects here. ...


Philosophy

The philosophies of Buddhism and Zen, and to a lesser extent Confucianism, influenced the samurai culture as well as Shinto. Zen meditation became an important teaching due to it offering a process to calm one's mind. The Buddhist concept of reincarnation and rebirth led samurai to abandon torture and needless killing, while some samurai even gave up violence altogether and became Buddhist monks after realizing how fruitless their killings were. Some were killed as they came to terms with these realizations in the battlefield. The most defining role that Confucianism played in samurai philosophy was to stress the importance of the lord-retainer relationship; this is, the loyalty that a samurai was required to show his lord. A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism notable for its emphasis on practice and experiential wisdom—particularly as realized in the form of meditation known as zazen—in the attainment of awakening. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, China Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Reincarnation, literally to be made flesh again, is a doctrine or mystical belief that some essential part of a living being (in some variations only human beings) survives death to be reborn in a new body. ... Rebirth may refer the following spiritual/religious concepts: Reincarnation Buddhist Rebirth The experience of being born again in Christianity Rebirth may also refer to: Rebirth, an album by Pain Rebirth, an album by Jennifer Lopez Rebirth, an album by Gackt Rebirth, an album by Angra ReBirth RB-338, software synthesizer... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, China Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ...


Bushidō "way of the warrior" was a term attached to a samurai "code of conduct" or way of life enforced during Edo period by the Tokugawa Shogunate, so that they could control the samurai more easily. Its deceptive simplicity led to countless arguments over its interpretation. Hagakure: The Book of the Samurai by Yamamoto Tsunetomo is a manual of instruction into the way of the samurai. Even as it was published, it received a number of reviews that criticized its strict and impersonal interpretations. If the lord is wrong, for example if he ordered a massacre of civilians, should he observe loyalty to massacre as ordered or should he observe rectitude to let the civilians escape unharmed? If a man had sick parents but committed an unforgivable mistake, should he protect his honour by committing seppuku or should he show courage by living with dishonor and care for his parents? Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... The Hagakure, or Hagakure kikigaki (In the Shadow of Leaves) is a practical and spiritual guide for a warrior, drawn from a collection of commentaries by the former samurai Yamamoto Tsunetomo, as told to his fellow samurai Tashiro Tsuramoto. ... Tsunetomo Yamamoto (12 June 1659 - 1719) was a samurai of the Saga domain in Hizen Province under his lord Mitsushige Nabeshima. ... (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ... Righteousness in this article refers to the important theological concept in Islam, Judaism and Christianity. ... Alexander Hamilton defending his honour by obliging to duel Aaron Burr. ... “hara-kiri” redirects here. ... Bravery and Fortitude redirect here. ...


The incident of 47 Ronin caused debates about the righteousness of the samurai's actions and how bushido should be applied. They had defied the shogun by taking matters into their own hands but it was an act of loyalty and rectitude as well. Finally, their acts were agreed to be rectitude but not loyalty to the shogun. This made them criminals with conscience and eligible for seppuku. Incense burns at the burial graves of the 47 Ronin at Sengaku-ji. ... (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ... Righteousness in this article refers to the important theological concept in Islam, Judaism and Christianity. ... Righteousness in this article refers to the important theological concept in Islam, Judaism and Christianity. ... (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ...


Women

Maintaining the household, or ie, was the main duty of samurai women. This was especially crucial during early feudal Japan, when warrior husbands were often traveling abroad or engaged in clan battles. The wife, or okusan (meaning: one who remains in the home), was left to manage all household affairs, care for the children, and perhaps even defend the home forcibly. For this reason, many women of the samurai class were trained in wielding a polearm called a naginata or a special knife called the kaiken in an art called tantojutsu (lit. the skill of the knife), which they could use to protect their household, family, and honor if the need arose. A samurai wielding a naginata Naginata (なぎなた, 長刀 or 薙刀) is a pole weapon that was traditionally used in Japan by members of the samurai class. ...


Traits valued in women of the samurai class were humility, obedience, self-control, strength, and loyalty. Ideally, a samurai wife would be skilled at managing property, keeping records, dealing with financial matters, educating the children (and perhaps servants, too), and caring for elderly parents or in-laws that may be living under her roof. Confucian law, which helped define personal relationships and the code of ethics of the warrior class required that a woman show subservience to her husband, filial piety to her parents, and care to the children. Too much love and affection was also said to indulge and spoil the youngsters. Thus, a woman was also to exercise discipline.


Though women of wealthier samurai families enjoyed perks of their elevated position in society, such as avoiding the physical labor that those of lower classes often engaged in, they were still viewed as far beneath men. Women were prohibited from engaging in any political affairs and were usually not the heads of their household.


This does not mean that samurai women were always powerless. Powerful women both wisely and unwisely wielded power at various occasions. After Ashikaga Yoshimasa, 8th shogun of the Muromachi shogunate lost interest in politics, his wife Hino Tomiko largely ruled in his place. Nene, wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, was known to overrule her husband's decisions at times and Yodo, his mistress, became the de facto master of Osaka castle and the Toyotomi clan after Hideyoshi's death. Chiyo, wife of Yamauchi Kazutoyo, has long been considered the ideal samurai wife. According to legend, she made her kimono out of a quilted patchwork of bits of old cloth and saved pennies to buy her husband a magnificent horse on which he rode to many victories. The source of power for women may have been that samurai looked down upon matters concerning money and left their finances to their wives.


As the Tokugawa period progressed more value became placed on education, and the education of females beginning at a young age became important to families and society as a whole. Marriage criteria began to weigh intelligence and education as desirable attributes in a wife, right along with physical attractiveness. Though many of the texts written for women during the Tokugawa period only pertained to how a woman could become a successful wife and household manager, there were those that undertook the challenge of learning to read, and also tackled philosophical and literary classics. Nearly all women of the samurai class were literate by the end of the Tokugawa period.


Weapons

Samurai helmet with a half-face mask, made of leather and iron, Edo period, 17th century. Asian Art Museum of San Francisco.
Samurai helmet with a half-face mask, made of leather and iron, Edo period, 17th century. Asian Art Museum of San Francisco.

The samurai used various weapons, but the katana is the weapon that is synonymous with samurai. Bushido teaches that the katana is the samurai's soul and sometimes a samurai is pictured as entirely dependent on the katana for fighting. They believe that the katana was so precious that they often gave them names and considered them as part of the living. However the use of swords did not become common in battle until the Kamakura period (1185–1333), where the tachi and uchigatana (the predecessor to the katana) became prevalent. The katana itself did not become the primary weapon until the Edo period. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1100x1500, 321 KB)Japanese Samurai helmet with a half-face mask, c. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1100x1500, 321 KB)Japanese Samurai helmet with a half-face mask, c. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Samurai armour on display. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Japanese samurai in armor, 1860s. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... Tachi forged by Bishu Osafune Sukesada, 12th year of the Eishô era, a day in February (1515, Muromachi). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ...


After a male child of the bushi was born, he would receive his first sword in a ceremony called mamori-gatana. The sword, however, was merely a charm sword covered with brocade to which was attached a purse or wallet, worn by children under five. Upon reaching the age of thirteen, in a ceremony called Genbuku (元服), a male child was given his first real swords and armour, an adult name, and became a samurai. A katana and a wakizashi together are called a daisho (lit. "big and small"). An Edo-era daisho on its stand. ...


The wakizashi itself was a samurai's "honour blade" and purportedly never left the samurai's side. He would sleep with it under his pillow and it would be taken with him when he entered a house and had to leave his main weapons outside. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Tantō was a small dagger sometimes worn with or instead of the Wakizashi in a daisho. The tanto or the wakizashi was used to commit seppuku, a ritualized suicide. Two Tantō tantō blade hidden in a fan-shaped mounting A Tantō (短刀) is a Japanese knife or dagger with a blade length of about 15 - 30 cm (6 - 12). There is a disputed saying about the tantō, wakizashi, and katana stating they are The Tantō differs from the others as... “hara-kiri” redirects here. ...

Samurai with assorted weapons.

The samurai stressed skill with the yumi (longbow), reflected in the art of kyujutsu (lit. the skill of the bow). The bow would remain a critical component of the Japanese military even with the introduction of firearms during the Sengoku Jidai period. The yumi, an asymmetric composite bow made from bamboo, wood, rattan and leather, was not as powerful as the Eurasian reflex composite bow, having an effective range of 50 meters (about 164 feet) or less (100 meters [328 feet]) if accuracy was not an issue. It was usually used on foot behind a tedate (手盾), a large and mobile bamboo wall, but shorter versions (hankyu) could also be used from horseback. The practice of shooting from horseback became a Shinto ceremony of Yabusame (流鏑馬). ImageMetadata File history File links Samurai_with_weapons_-_Kusakabe,_Kimbei,_1841-1934. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Samurai_with_weapons_-_Kusakabe,_Kimbei,_1841-1934. ... Yumi (弓, ゆみ) is the Japanese term for bows (which includes the longbow, Daikyu and the shortbow, hankyu) used in the practice of Kyudo (弓道, Japanese archery). ... Kanjuro Shibata XX practicing Kyudo Kyudo (弓道) (The Way of the Bow) is the Japanese art of archery. ... The Sengoku Period (戦国時代 Sengoku jidai) or warring-states period, is a period of long civil war in the History of Japan that spans through the middle 15th to the early 17th centuries. ... // A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... A reflex bow is a bow (often made entirely of wood) that has curved or curled arms. ... // A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... Yabusame Archer Yabusame (流鏑馬) is a type of Japanese archery, one that is performed while riding a horse. ...


In the 15th century, the yari (spear) also became a popular weapon, displacing along with the naginata from the battlefield as personal bravery became less of a factor and battles became more organized around massed, inexpensive foot troops ashigaru. A charge, mounted or dismounted, was more effective when using a spear than a katana and it offered better than even odds against a samurai using a katana. In the Battle of Shizugatake where Shibata Katsuie was defeated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, then known as Hashiba Hideyoshi, the Seven Spearmen of Shizugatake (賤ヶ岳七本槍) played a crucial role in the victory. several yari, including one hafted with a simple crossbar straight yari head with saya Jumonji yari head use of yari in mock combat Yari (槍) is the Japanese term for spear, or more specifically, the straight-headed spear. ... A samurai wielding a naginata Naginata (なぎなた, 長刀 or 薙刀) is a pole weapon that was traditionally used in Japan by members of the samurai class. ... The Japanese ashigaru (足軽) were conscripted foot-soldiers of medieval Japan. ... Combatants forces of Toyotomi Hideyoshi forces loyal to Oda Nobunaga Commanders Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Kato Kiyomasa, Fukushima Masanori Shibata Katsuie, Sakuma Morimasa Strength 20,000 men Unknown In May, 1583, a former general of Nobunagas named Shibata Katsuie coordinated a number of simultaneous attacks on these fortresses, believing that Hideyoshi... Shibata Katsuie (柴田 勝家) or Gonroku (-権六)(1530 – 1583) was a Japanese military commander during the Sengoku Period who served Oda Nobunaga. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ...


The latter half of the 16th Century saw the introduction of the teppo or arquebus in Japan through Portuguese trade, enabling warlords to raise effective armies from masses of peasants. The new weapons were highly controversial. Their ease of use and deadly effectiveness was perceived by many samurai as a dishonorable affront to Bushido tradition. Oda Nobunaga made deadly use of the teppo at the Battle of Nagashino in 1575, leading to the end of the Takeda clan. Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppo) The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; possibly related to German Hakenbuechse or Dutch Haakbus) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Takeda forces combined Oda-Tokugawa forces Commanders Takeda Katsuyori, Anayama Nobukimi, Takeda Nobukado, Takeda Nobutoyo Oda Nobunaga, Tokugawa Ieyasu, Okudaira Sadamasa Strength 15,000 38,000 Casualties 10,000 dead, incl. ... Takeda clan mon (coat-of-arms) The Takeda ) was one of many clans of daimyō (feudal lords) in Japans Sengoku period; its importance derives almost entirely from the power and fame of Takeda Shingen. ...


After their initial introduction by the Portuguese and the Dutch, the teppo, were produced on a large scale by Japanese gunsmiths. By the end of the 16th Century, there were more firearms in Japan than in any European nation. Teppo, employed en masse largely by ashigaru peasant foot troops were in many ways the antithesis of samurai valor. With the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate and an end to civil war, production of the guns declined sharply with prohibitions to ownership. By the Tokugawa Shogunate most spear-based weapons had been phased out partly because they were suboptimal for the close-quarter combat common in the Edo period, this combined with the aforementioned restrictions on fire-arms resulted in the Daisho being the only weapons typically carried by samurai. The Japanese ashigaru (足軽) were conscripted foot-soldiers of medieval Japan. ... An Edo-era daisho on its stand. ...


In the 1570s cannons became a common part of the samurai's armoury. They often were mounted in castles or on ships being used more as anti-personnel weapons though in the siege of Nagashino castle (1575) a cannon was used to good effect against an enemy siege-tower. The first popular cannon in Japan were swivel-breech loaders nick-named kunikuzushi or "Destroyer of Provinces". Kunikuzushi weighed 264 lbs. and used 40 lb. chambers, firing a small shot of 10 oz. The Arima clan of Kyushu used guns like this at the battle of Okinawate against the Ryozoji clan. By the time of the Osaka campaign (1614-1615) cannon technology had improved in Japan to the point where at Osaka, Ii Naotaka managed to fire an 18 lb. shot into the castle's keep.


Some other weapons used by samurai were jō, bō, and the Chinese trebuchets (more as an anti-personnel weapon than a siege engine). A jō ) is an approximately four-foot (1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France. ...


Etymology of samurai and related words

Kanji for Samurai
Kanji for Samurai

The term samurai originally meant "those who serve in close attendance to nobility", and was written in the Chinese character (or kanji) that had the same meaning. In Japanese, it was originally pronounced in the pre-Heian period as saburapi and later as saburai, then samurai in the Edo period. In Japanese literature, there is an early reference to samurai in the Kokinshū (古今集, early 10th century): Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... The Kokin Waka ShÅ« ), usually abbreviated as KokinshÅ« ), is an early Heian waka Imperial anthology, conceived by Emperor Uda (r. ...

Attendant to your nobility
Ask for your master's umbrella
The dews 'neath the trees of Miyagino
Are thicker than rain
(poem 1091)

The word bushi (武士, lit. "warrior or armsman") first appears in an early history of Japan called Shoku Nihongi (続日本記, 797 A.D.). In a portion of the book covering the year 723 A.D., Shoku Nihongi states: "Literary men and Warriors are they whom the nation values". The term bushi is of Chinese origin and adds to the indigenous Japanese words for warrior: tsuwamono and mononofu. The terms bushi and samurai became synonymous near the end of the 12th century, according to William Scott Wilson in his book Ideals of the Samurai—Writings of Japanese Warriors. Wilson's book thoroughly explores the origins of the word warrior in Japanese history as well as the kanji used to represent the word. Wilson states that bushi actually translates as "a man who has the ability to keep the peace, either by literary or military means, but predominantly by the latter". The Shoku Nihongi(続日本紀)is an imperially commissioned history of Japan written in the early Heian period. ... Events July 17 - Irene orders her son, the Byzantine emperor Constantine VI captured and deposed August 15 - Irenes orders are accomplished; her son is blinded, and herself declared emperor the next day. ... Events Saint Boniface fells Thors Oak near Fritzlar, marking the decisive event in the Christianization of the northern Germanic tribes The worlds first mechanical clock is allegedly built in China. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... William Scott Wilson (b. ...


It was not until the early modern period, namely the Azuchi-Momoyama period and early Edo period of the late 16th and early 17th centuries that the word saburai was replaced with samurai. However, the meaning had changed long before that. The Azuchi-Momoyama period (Japanese: 安土桃山時代, Azuchi-Momoyama-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

A Samurai katana in koshirae.

During the era of the rule of the samurai, the term yumitori (弓取, "bowman") was also used as an honorary title of an accomplished warrior even though swordsmanship had become more important. (Japanese archery (kyujutsu) is still strongly associated with the war god Hachiman.) Image File history File links A picture of a edo era Koshirae. ... Image File history File links A picture of a edo era Koshirae. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Koshirae is the mounting worn by the Japanese sword (e. ... Kanjuro Shibata XX practicing Kyudo Kyudo (弓道) (The Way of the Bow) is the Japanese art of archery. ... Hachiman in the Guise of a Buddhist Monk, statue from Kamakura period, 1201 AD Hachiman (Japanese, 八幡神 -shin, also can be read as Yawata no kami) is the Shinto god of war, and divine protector of Japan and the Japanese people. ...


A samurai with no attachment to a clan or daimyo (大名) was called a ronin (浪人). In Japanese, the word ronin means "wave man", a person destined to wander aimlessly forever, like the waves in the sea. The word came to mean a samurai who was no longer in the service of a lord because his lord had died, because the samurai had been banished or simply because the samurai chose to become a ronin. Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Graves of the forty-seven Ronin at Sengaku-ji Ronin robbing a merchants house in Japan around 1860 (1) For other uses, see Ronin (disambiguation). ...


The pay of samurai was measured in koku of rice (180 liters; enough to feed a man for one year). Samurai in the service of the han are called hanshi. The Han (藩) were the fiefs of feudal clans of Japan that existed during all the Edo period and for a few years after the Meiji Restoration. ...

 Samurai armour Topkapi palace, Istanbul, Turkey
Samurai armour
Topkapi palace, Istanbul, Turkey

The following terms are related to samurai or the samurai tradition: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 853 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 853 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), located in Istanbul (Constantinople), was the administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1465 to 1853. ...

  • Uruwashii
    a cultured warrior symbolized by the kanji for "bun" (literary study) and "bu" (military study or arts)
  • Buke (武家)
    A martial house or a member of such a house
  • Mononofu (もののふ)
    An ancient term meaning a warrior.
  • Musha (武者)
    A shortened form of bugeisha (武芸者), lit. martial art man.
  • Shi ()
    A word roughly meaning "gentleman," it is sometimes used for samurai, in particular in words such as bushi (武士, meaning warrior or samurai).
  • Tsuwamono ()
    An old term for a soldier popularized by Matsuo Bashō in his famous haiku. Literally meaning a strong person.
natsukusa ya
tsuwamono domo ga
yume no ato

Matsuo Bashō A statue of Bashō in Hiraizumi, Iwate. ... Haiku )   is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka Shiki of the older hokku ), the opening verse of a linked verse form, haikai no renga. ...

Summer grasses,
All that remains
Of soldiers' dreams

(trans. Lucien Stryk)

Myth and reality

Most samurai (during the Edo period) were bound by a strict code of honor and were expected to set an example for those below them. A notable part of their code is seppuku (切腹 seppuku?), which allowed a disgraced samurai to regain his honor by passing into death, where samurai were still beholden to social rules. Whilst there are many romanticised characterisations of samurai behaviour such as the writing of Bushido (武士道 Bushidō?) in 1905, studies of Kobudo and traditional Budo indicate that the samurai were as practical on the battlefield as were any other warrior. Honor (or honor) comprises the reputation, self-perception or moral identity of an individual or of a group. ... “hara-kiri” redirects here. ... Japanese samurai in armor, 1860s. ... Kobudo (古武道) is a Japanese term that can be translated as old martial way. ... Budo (武道) is a term for Japanese martial arts. ...


Despite the rampant romanticism of the 20th century, samurai could be disloyal and treacherous (e.g., Akechi Mitsuhide), cowardly, brave, or overly loyal (e.g., Kusunoki Masashige). Samurai were usually loyal to their immediate superiors, who in turn allied themselves with higher lords. These loyalties to the higher lords often shifted; for example, the high lords allied under Toyotomi Hideyoshi (豊臣秀吉) were served by loyal samurai, but the feudal lords under them could shift their support to Tokugawa, taking their samurai with them. There were, however, also notable instances where samurai would be disloyal to their lord or daimyo, when loyalty to the emperor was seen to have supremacy.[3] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Kusunoki Masashige (楠木 正成, 1294-1336, also Nankō or Dai-Nankō) was a 14th century samurai who fought for Emperor Go-Daigo in his attempt to wrest rulership of Japan away from the Kamakura shogunate, then under the leadership of the Hojo clan. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... The Tokugawa clan crest The Tokugawa clan ) was a powerful daimyo family of Japan. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ...


Popular culture

Further information: Samurai cinema
Actor Kotaro Satomi on the set of Mito Komon

Jidaigeki (lit. historical drama) has always been a staple program on Japanese movies and TV. The programs typically feature a samurai with a kenjutsu who stood up against evil samurai and merchants. Mito Kōmon (水戸黄門), a fictitious series of stories about Tokugawa Mitsukuni's travel is a popular TV drama in which Mitsukuni travels disguised as a retired rich merchant with two unarmed samurai disguised as his companions [citation needed]. He finds trouble wherever he goes, and after gathering evidence, he has his samurai knock around unrepentantly evil samurai and merchants, before revealing his identity. It is then obvious to the villains that he can destroy their entire clan and the villains surrender in the hope that his punishments will not extend to their families [citation needed]. While earlier samurai period pieces were more dramatic rather than action based, samurai movies post World War II have become more action based, with darker and more violent characters. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MitoKomonSatomiKotaro. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MitoKomonSatomiKotaro. ... Jidaigeki (時代劇) is a genre of film and television in Japan. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Satomi Kōtarō on set in the role of Mitsuemon Mito Kōmon ) is a Japanese jidaigeki that has been on prime-time television since 1969. ... Tokugawa Mitsukuni (徳川光圀; July 11, 1628 - January 14, 1701) was a prominent daimyo who was known for his influence in the politics of the early Edo period. ...


The samurai-themed works of film director Akira Kurosawa are among the most praised of the genre, influencing many filmmakers across the world with his techniques and storytelling [citation needed]. Notable works of his include Seven Samurai, in which a besieged farming village hires a collection of wandering samurai to defend them from bandits, Yojimbo, where a former samurai involves himself in a town's gang war by working for both sides, and The Hidden Fortress, in which two foolish peasants find themselves helping a legendary general escort a princess to safety. The latter was one of the primary inspirations for George Lucas's Star Wars, which also borrows a number of aspects from the samurai, for example the Jedi Knights of the series. Darth Vader's costume is largely inspired by a samurai's mask and armour. Akira Kurosawa , 23 March 1910—6 September 1998) was a prominent Japanese film director, film producer, and screenwriter. ... For other uses, see Seven Samurai (disambiguation). ... Yōjimbō 用心棒 is a 1961 film by Akira Kurosawa, in which a ronin, portrayed by Toshiro Mifune, arrives at a small town with competing crime lords making their money from gambling, and convinces each crime lord to hire him as protection from the other. ... The Hidden Fortress (Japanese: 隠し砦の三悪人, Kakushi toride no san akunin) is a 1958 film by Akira Kurosawa and starring Toshirō Mifune as General Rokurota Makabe and Misa Uehara as Princess Yuki. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... Star Wars is an epic science fantasy saga and fictional universe created by George Lucas during the late 1970s. ... Jedi Masters (left to right) Saesee Tiin, Agen Kolar, Mace Windu, and Kit Fisto. ...


Samurai films and westerns share a number of similarities and the two have influenced each other over the years. Kurosawa was inspired by the works of director John Ford and in turn Kurosawa's works have been remade into westerns such as The Seven Samurai into The Magnificent Seven and Yojimbo into A Fistful of Dollars. There is also an anime adaptation (Samurai 7) of "The Seven Samurai" which spans many episodes. Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... John Ford (February 1, 1894 – August 31, 1973) was an American film director famous for westerns such as Stagecoach and The Searchers and adaptations of such classic 20th century American novels as The Grapes of Wrath. ... The Magnificent Seven is a 1960 western film directed by John Sturges about a group of hired gunmen tasked with protecting a Mexican village from bandits. ... A Fistful of Dollars (Per un pugno di dollari in Italy and officially on-screen in the U.S. and UK as simply Fistful of Dollars) is a 1964 film directed by Sergio Leone and starring Clint Eastwood. ... Samurai 7 ) is a 2004 Japanese anime series, produced by GONZO and based on Akira Kurosawas classic 1954 movie Seven Samurai. ...


Another fictitious television series, Abarembo Shogun, featured Yoshimune, the eighth Tokugawa shogun. Samurai at all levels from the shogun down to the lowest rank, as well as ronin, featured prominently in this show. Lantern, Megumi (Firefighting company), Abarenbo Shogun Abarenbo Shogun (暴れん坊将軍) was a Japanese television program on the TV Asahi network. ... Tokugawa Yoshimune 1684-1751. ... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Graves of the forty-seven Ronin at Sengaku-ji Ronin robbing a merchants house in Japan around 1860 (1) For other uses, see Ronin (disambiguation). ...


Shōgun is the first novel in James Clavell's Asian Saga. It is set in feudal Japan around the year 1600 and gives a highly fictionalized account of the rise of Tokugawa Ieyasu to the Shogunate, seen through the eyes of an English sailor whose fictional heroics are loosely based on William Adams' exploits. This page is about the James Clavell novel. ... James Clavell, born Charles Edmund Dumaresq Clavell (10 October 1924 – 7 September 1994) was a novelist, screenwriter, director and World War II hero and POW. Clavell is best known for his epic Asian Saga series of novels and their televised adaptations, along with such films as The Great Escape and... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until... This page is about the Japanese ruler and military rank. ... William Adams (September 24, 1564–May 16, 1620), also known in Japanese as Anjin-sama (anjin, pilot; sama, a Japanese social title or honorific more or less equivalent to lord) and Miura Anjin (三浦按針: the pilot of Miura), was an English navigator who travelled to Japan and is believed to be...

Saigo Takamori (upper right, in Western uniform) directing his troops, some of them in traditional samurai armour, at the Battle of Shiroyama.
Saigo Takamori (upper right, in Western uniform) directing his troops, some of them in traditional samurai armour, at the Battle of Shiroyama.

A Hollywood movie, The Last Samurai, containing a mixture of fact and fiction, was released in 2003 to generally good reviews in North America. The film's plot is loosely based on the 1877 Satsuma Rebellion led by Saigō Takamori, and also on the story of Jules Brunet, a French army captain who fought alongside Enomoto Takeaki in the Boshin War. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1425x965, 2599 KB) Battle of Shiroyama, 1880 painting. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1425x965, 2599 KB) Battle of Shiroyama, 1880 painting. ... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori (西郷 隆盛 Saigō Takamori, 23 January 1827/28 - 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Samurai of Satsuma Commanders Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori† Strength 300,000 troops 350-400 samurai Casualties unknown 350 (Approximate) The Battle of Shiroyama (Japanese:城山の戦い) took place on September 24, 1877, in Kagoshima, Japan. ... The Last Samurai is an action/drama film written by John Logan and Edward Zwick & Marshall Herskovitz based on a story by Logan. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Imperial Japanese Army Satsuma fief Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor CIC: Sumiyoshi Kawamura Saigō Takamori Strength 300,000 40,000 Casualties estimate ~60,000 dead soldiers about 30,000 dead The Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensō 西南戦争, Southwestern War) was a revolt of the Satsuma clan samurai against the Imperial Japanese Army... Saigō Takamori 23 January 1827/28 — 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ... The French military mission before its departure to Japan. ... Enomoto Takeaki at the time of Republic of Ezo in 1869. ... Combatants Imperial faction: Satsuma, ChōshÅ«, Tosa Tokugawa Shogunate Commanders Ruler: Meiji Emperor, CIC: Saigō Takamori, Army: Kuroda Kiyotaka Shogunate: Ruler: Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Army: Katsu Kaishu, Navy: Enomoto Takeaki, Ezo Republic: President:Enomoto Takeaki, CIC: Otori Keisuke, Navy: Arai Ikunosuke Casualties ~1,000 killed ~2,000 killed Campaign map of...


The movie Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai, starring actor Forest Whitaker takes as its central character a black assassin in contemporary America who gains inspiration from the Hagakure. The soundtrack album positions hip hop against readings of the Hagakure. Forest Steven Whitaker (born July 15, 1961) is an American actor, producer, and director. ... Cover of The Book of the Samurai Hagakure (Kyūjitai: 葉隱; Shinjitai: ; meaning In the Shadow of Leaves), or Hagakure Kikigaki () is a practical and spiritual guide for a warrior, drawn from a collection of commentaries by the samurai, Yamamoto Tsunetomo, former retainer to Nabeshima Mitsushige, the third ruler of what...


Kill Bill by Quentin Tarantino can be described as a glorification of the katana. It is primarily inspired by old kung-fu movies and relates little to the samurai. This same distortion of samurai culture continues onto the low-budget world of the cult film, where in films such as Samurai Vampire Bikers From Hell, the primary characters attempt to portray a lineage to the samurai but are more closely linked to the anime or comic book culture of the late twentieth century. Kill Bill is the fourth film by writer-director Quentin Tarantino. ... Quentin Jerome Tarantino (born March 27, 1963) is an American film director, actor, and screenwriter. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Samurai Vampire Bikers From Hell DVD Cover Samurai Vampire Bikers From Hell is a 1992 martial art based Cult Film that was created and directed by Scott Shaw. ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ...


The samurai have also appeared frequently in Japanese comics (manga) and animation (anime). Most common are historical works where the protagonist is either a samurai or former samurai (or another rank/position) who possesses considerable martial skill. Two of the most famous examples are Lone Wolf and Cub, where the former proxy executioner for the Shogun and his toddler son become hired killers after being betrayed by other samurai and nobles, and Rurouni Kenshin, where a former assassin, after helping end the Bakumatsu era and bringing about the Meiji era, finds himself protecting newfound friends and fighting off old enemies while upholding his oath to never kill again through the use of a reverse-bladed sword. This article is about the comics published in East Asian countries. ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... This article is about a Japanese manga series. ... It has been suggested that Sakabato be merged into this article or section. ...


Samurai-like characters are not just restricted to historical settings and a number of works set in the modern age, and even the future, include characters who live, train and fight like samurai. Notable examples include Goemon Ishikawa XIII from the Lupin III series of comics, television series, and movies, and Motoko Aoyama from the romantic comedy Love Hina. Another more western movie is The Hunted (1995), where a surviving samurai clan protects a witness from evil ninja's. Some relevance to the samurai can even be seen in the show Beyblade, which is set in the present. One character, Jin of the Gale, seems to be a mix of samurai and ninja traits. Another anime, which is intended for adult audiences involving samurai is 2004's Samurai Champloo, which portrays Edo-period Japan combined with modern street-culture and hip-hop. One of the show's main characters is Jin, once an accomplished samurai who became a wandering ronin after killing his master. Goemon Ishikawa is a fictional character in Kazuhiko Katōs anime and manga series Lupin III. Goemon Ishikawa (石川五ェ門 Ishikawa Goemon) is the thirteenth generation of renegade samurai, beginning with the real-life historical figure Ishikawa Goemon (石川五右衛門). He is usually quiet and participates in Lupins exploits less frequently than Jigen. ... Serialized in Weekly Manga Action Original run 10 August 1967 – 27 April 1972 No. ... Serialized in Weekly Shonen Magazine Original run October 21, 1998 – October 31, 2001 No. ... The Hunted is a 1995 film directed by J. F. Lawton and starring Christopher Lambert, John Lone and Joan Chen. ... Original run 8 January 2001 – 24 December 2001 No. ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) For the oleo-resin, see Animé (oleo-resin). ... Samurai Champloo ) is an anime series consisting of twenty-six episodes. ... Hip hop is a subculture, which is said to have begun with the work of DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five, and Afrika Bambaattaa. ...

Usagi Yojmbo, the longest running American samurai comic book to date.
Usagi Yojmbo, the longest running American samurai comic book to date.

American comic books have adopted the character type for stories of their own. For instance, the Marvel Universe superhero Wolverine during the 1980s attempted to use the ideals and concept of the samurai as a means to control his violent urges in a constructive manner. The ronin have also been a feature in popular series such as Ronin by Frank Miller and Usagi Yojimbo by Stan Sakai. Download high resolution version (480x727, 100 KB)Usagi Yojimbo, book 11 (front cover), by Stan Sakai This image is a book cover. ... Download high resolution version (480x727, 100 KB)Usagi Yojimbo, book 11 (front cover), by Stan Sakai This image is a book cover. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode, see Super Hero (Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode). ... For other uses, see Wolverine (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ronin Book One Ronin is a graphic novel by Frank Miller in which a ronin is re-incarnated in a dystopic near-future New York. ... Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American writer, artist and film director best known for his film noir-style comic book stories. ... Usagi Yojimbo (Japanese: 兎用心棒 rabbit bodyguard,) is a comic book series created by Stan Sakai. ... Stan Sakai (born 1953) is a third-generation American of Japanese descent. ...


The concept of a samurai, as opposed to that of a knight, has led to a major gap in how a warrior or a hero is characterised in Japan and the rest of the world. A samurai does not have to be tall and heavily muscled to be strong - he can be barely five feet tall, seemingly weak and even handicapped. Females can also be samurai. Equating size with power and strength does not readily appeal to the Japanese aesthetic. Perfect examples of this can be found in the Blind Swordsman Zatoichi movie series. The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Drawing of a Thracian peltast of 400 BC A warrior is a person habitually engaged in warfare. ... “Heroine” redirects here. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Shintaro Katsu in Shintaro Katsus Zatoichi (1989) Takeshi Kitano in Zatoichi (2003) Zatoichi (座頭市 Zatōichi) is a fictional character featured in one of Japans longest running series of films and a television series set in the Edo period. ...


Samurai in computer games

Samurai are also heroes and enemies in many computer games, and can be found especially in RPG, strategy, action, adventure, and fighting game genres. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up adventure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Screenshot of The King of Fighters XI (2005, SNK Playmore). ...


For example, samurai can be seen in the strategy game series Age of Empires, RTS Battle Realms and in the Ultima Online: Samurai Empire MMORPG. Samurai battles also provide the theme for the strategy simulation Shogun: Total War, which portrays Sun-Tzu war philosophy and realistic battle physics. Samurai character class is available in the famous RPG Wizardry 8. Final Fantasy V, X, X-2 and XI also contain a samurai class. Age of Empires, abbreviated to AoE or AOE, is a history-based real-time strategy computer game released in 1997. ... Real-time strategy (often abbreviated as RTS) is a genre of computer wargames which take place in real-time, where resource gathering, base building, technology development and high-level control over individual units (harvest, build, destroy) are key components[1], which distinguishes it from related strategy wargame genres, such as... Battle Realms, released by Ubisoft in 2001, is a real-time strategy computer game and is the first game created by relatively new Liquid Entertainment. ... An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions. ... Shogun: Total War Categories: Computer and video game stubs | Real-time strategy computer games ... Sun Tzu (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (Master Sun) is an honorific title bestowed upon Sūn Wǔ (孫武; c. ... Wizardry 8 is the 8th title in the Wizardry series of computer role playing games by Sir-Tech. ... “FF5” redirects here. ... Final Fantasy XI ), also known as Final Fantasy XI: Online, is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix) as a part of the Final Fantasy video game series. ...


Some popular Japanese titles featuring samurai include Shingen the Ruler, Samurai Warriors, Brave Fencer Musashi, Musashi: Samurai Legend, and Seven Samurai 20XX. Also, there is a lead character portraying a samurai in the sci-fi thriller game Xenosaga Episode II: Jenseits von Gut und Böse named Jin Uzuki. Jin Uzuki, Shion Uzuki's brother, is a samurai who fights with a sword only and wears a traditional kimono. Other popular Japanese games featuring samurai as main characters are the Onimusha, Genji and Way of the Samurai series. In Ninja Gaiden, one boss is a demonic fiend who takes the form of a samurai. Shingen the Ruler (Takeda Shingen 2 in Japan) is a strategic war game for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), produced by Hot B in 1989, and released in North America in 1990. ... This article may not meet Wikipedias content policies because it lacks an encyclopedic perspective. ... Brave Fencer Musashi , Brave Fencer Musashiden) is a console role-playing game (RPG) published by Squaresoft in 1998 for the Sony PlayStation. ... Seven Samurai 20XX ) is a PlayStation 2 game released by Sammy Studios in 2004. ... It has been suggested that List of Xenosaga cast members be merged into this article or section. ... Jin Uzuki (ジン・ウヅキ) is Shion Uzukis calm, composed, and older brother. ... Shion Uzuki ) is the main protagonist in the PlayStation 2 trilogy known as the Xenosaga series. ... Onimusha (Japanese: 鬼武者, literally Oni Warrior) is a PlayStation 2 action-adventure game series by Capcom. ... Way of the Samurai is a PlayStation 2 action-adventure game set in 19th Century Japan. ... For information regarding the game Ninja Gaiden for the Xbox, see Ninja Gaiden (Xbox). ...


Several fighting games hold samurai fighters, for example, Bishamon from Darkstalkers, and Sodom from Street Fighter Alpha. Samurai Shodown has a roster full of samurai characters. Haohmaru and Genjuro are the most traditional samurai warriors in this fighting game. Soul Calibur offers two samurai characters: Mitsurugi and Yoshimitsu. Bishamonten (毘沙門天), also called Bishamon, is one of the Japanese Seven Gods of Fortune, according to Shinto beliefs. ... Darkstalkers, known in Japan and Asia as Vampire ), is a series of 2D fighting games produced by Capcom during the late 1990s for the CPS-2 hardware. ... Sodom (a. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Note: This article is specifically about the original Samurai Shodown game. ... Haohmaru(Japanese: 覇王丸) is a video game character from SNK Playmores Samurai Shodown series of fighting games. ... Genjuro is a character in the anime and manga Flame of Recca. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Heishiro Mitsurugi ) is a video game character designed for the Soul Series of fighting games. ... Yoshimitsu can refer to: Ashikaga Yoshimitsu was a Japanese shogun. ...


Famous Samurai

Minamoto no Yoshiie (源義家; 1041-4 August 1108), also known as Hachimantarō, was a Minamoto clan samurai of the late Heian period, and Chinjufu shogun (Commander-in-chief of the defense of the North). ... Yoshitsune and Benkei Viewing Cherry Blossoms, by Yoshitoshi Tsukioka, 1885 Minamoto no Yoshitsune (源 義経) (1159-1189) was a late Heian and early Kamakura period general of the Minamoto clan of Japan. ... Kusunoki Masashige (楠木 正成, 1294-1336, also Nankō or Dai-Nankō) was a 14th century samurai who fought for Emperor Go-Daigo in his attempt to wrest rulership of Japan away from the Kamakura shogunate, then under the leadership of the Hojo clan. ... Sanada Saemon-no-Suke Yukimura , 1567 May 7, 1615) was a Japanese samurai, second son of the Sengoku period daimyo Sanada Masayuki (真田昌幸). His proper name was Sanada Nobushige (真田信繁), named after Takeda Shingens younger brother Takeda Nobushige (武田信繁), who was a brave and respected warrior. ... Uesugi Kenshin February 18, 1530—April 19, 1578) was a warlord who ruled Echigo province in the Sengoku Period of Japan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Timeline of Miyamoto Musashis life be merged into this article or section. ... Sasaki Kojirō (佐々木 小次郎, (also known as Ganryu Kojiro) died April 14, 1612) was a prominent Japanese swordsman, born in the Fukui Prefecture, from the Sengoku and early Edo period. ... Sakamoto Ryōma (坂本 龍馬 Sakamoto Ryōma January 3, 1836 - December 10, 1867) was born in Kochi, of Tosa han. ... Saigō Takamoris statue in Ueno park Saigō Takamori (西郷 隆盛 Saigō Takamori, 23 January 1827/28 - 24 September 1877), one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history, lived during the late Edo Period and early Meiji Era. ...

See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The Precepts of Kato Kiyomasa
Look up samurai in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Samurai

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Kendo ), or way of the sword, is the martial art of Japanese fencing. ... Kiri sute gomen (斬り捨て御免 or 切り捨て御免 : literally, authorisation to cut or authorisation to leave (the body of the victim)) is an old Japanese expression dating back to the feudal era. ... An onna bugeisha (女武芸者) was a female samurai in medieval Japan. ... Pechin(Satunushi) The Pechin ) is the Okinawan/Ryukyuan equivalent of the Japanese Samurai. ... The following is a list of Samurai and their wives. ... While earlier samurai period pieces were more dramatic rather than action based, samurai movies post World War II have become more action based, with darker and more violent characters. ... The Seiwa Genji (清和源氏) were the most successful and powerful of the many branch families of the Minamoto clan. ... This article is about a Japanese manga series. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c William Wayne Farris, Heavenly Warriors — The Evolution of Japan's Military, 500–1300, Harvard University Press, 1995.
  2. ^ A History of Japan, Vol. 3 and 4, George Samson, Tuttle Publishing, 2000.
  3. ^ Mark Ravina, The Last Samurai — The Life and Battles of Saigō Takamori, John Wiley & Sons, 2004.

Samurai Films

Historical

Directed by Akira Kurosawa Akira Kurosawa , 23 March 1910—6 September 1998) was a prominent Japanese film director, film producer, and screenwriter. ...

Other films For other uses, see Seven Samurai (disambiguation). ... The Hidden Fortress (Japanese: 隠し砦の三悪人, Kakushi toride no san akunin) is a 1958 film by Akira Kurosawa and starring Toshirō Mifune as General Rokurota Makabe and Misa Uehara as Princess Yuki. ... Ran (Japanese: , chaos, wretchedness) is an Oscar-winning 1985 film written and directed by Japanese filmmaker Akira Kurosawa. ... Kagemusha ) is a 1980 film by Akira Kurosawa. ... Yojimbo (Japanese: 用心棒, Yōjinbō) is a 1961 jidaigeki (period drama) film by Akira Kurosawa. ... Sanjuro is the English title for Tsubaki Sanjūrō ), a 1962 black and white Japanese samurai film directed by Akira Kurosawa and starring Toshirō Mifune. ...

The Criterion Collection DVD cover. ... Toshiro Mifune in Yojimbo. ... Shōgun is a 1980 film, directed by Jerry London. ... The Twilight Samurai (たそがれ清兵衛, Tasogare Seibei) is a 2002 Japanese movie directed by Yamada Yoji. ... When the Last Sword is Drawn (壬生義士伝, Mibu gishi den) is a 2003 Japanese movie directed by Yojiro Takita. ... Dai-bosatsu tôge is a samurai movie released in 1966. ... Aragami is a 2003 Japanese action film directed by Ryuhei Kitamura. ... Samurai Fiction, also known as SF: Episode One, is not a typical samurai movie. ... This article is about a Japanese manga series. ... The Last Samurai is an action/drama film written by John Logan and Edward Zwick & Marshall Herskovitz based on a story by Logan. ... Incense burns at the burial graves of the 47 Ronin at Sengakuji. ... This article is about the 1993 anime movie. ...

Influenced by samurai

Graves of the forty-seven Ronin at Sengaku-ji Ronin robbing a merchants house in Japan around 1860 (1) For other uses, see Ronin (disambiguation). ... The Way of the Gun is a 2000 film, directed by Christopher McQuarrie and starring Ryan Phillippe and Benicio Del Toro as two reckless and brutal gunfighters who kidnap a woman (Juliette Lewis) who is carrying the child of a powerful mobster, hoping to obtain a huge cash payoff. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
WCAG Samurai (557 words)
The WCAG Samurai was a group of developers, led by Joe Clark, that publishes corrections for, and extensions to, the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0.
WCAG Samurai has been a year in the making and was introduced to the public in the article “To Hell with WCAG 2” published by A List Apart on 22 May 2006.
WCAG Samurai membership rolls will not be published, and membership was by invitation only.
Samurai (481 words)
Samurai employed a range of weapons such as bows and arrows, spears and guns; but their most famous weapon and their symbol was the sword.
Samurai were supposed to lead their lives according to the ethic code of bushido ("the way of the warrior").
All samurai were forced to live in castle towns and received income from their lords in form of rice.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m