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Encyclopedia > Samuil

Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria (c. 958 - October 6, 1014), also sometimes referred as Samuel or Samoil, was Tsar of Bulgaria between 997 and 1014 (co-rule with Roman [1]. between 976 and 997). A "minority" of historians, mainly from the Republic of Macedonia and other former parts of Yugoslavia, Russia and USA views his ethnicity as Macedonian and his empire as a "Slavic Empire", due to some unique distinctions from his predecessors of the First Bulgarian Empire. Events Kshemgupta, King of Kashmir dies and is succeeded by his young son Abhimanyu. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ... Events February 14 - Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock... Look up Tsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the US community of Czar, see Czar, West Virginia. ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... Events February 14 - Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock... Tsar Roman I of Bulgaria The second son of Tsar Peter from his marriage with Maria (Irena), granddaughter of the Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... Events January 10 - Basil II becomes Eastern Roman Emperor, see Byzantine Emperors. ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... Motto: Anthem: Today Over Macedonia (Macedonian: Денес Над Македонија, Denes Nad Makedonija) Capital Skopje Largest city Skopje Official language(s) Macedonian1 Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary republic Branko Crvenkovski Vlado Bučkovski Independence Declared From Yugoslavia September 8, 1991 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   25,333 km² (146th) 1. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages, in Macedonian and Serbian Cyrillic Југославија) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... St Ivan of Rila, patron saint of Bulgaria The history of Bulgaria began in the 7th century CE with the arrival of the Bulgars in the Balkans. ...


Although ultimately unsuccessful in saving his country's independence from the incursions of Emperor Basil II of the Byzantine Empire, Samuil resisted him for decades and is the only man to ever defeat Basil II in battle. Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: ) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


Although he wasn't crowned as Tsar until 997, Samuil's reign actually dates from 976, when his predecessor Tsar Roman bestowed the power of the state, if not the crown, upon him. He restored the Bulgarian Patriarchate, previously abolished by Emperor John I Tzimisces. Already known as a successful general, Samuil now extended Bulgarian territory in all directions. Soon, the kingdom reigned supreme over virtually the entire Balkans, with only parts of Greece and Thrace remaining under Byzantine control. In 986, Samuil drove Basil II's army from the field at Troyanovi Vrata, and the emperor (barely surviving the heavy defeat in Troyanovi Vrata) soon turned to the east for new conquests. His victory prompted Pope Gregory V to recognize him as Tsar, and he was crowned in Rome in 997. Look up Tsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the US community of Czar, see Czar, West Virginia. ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... Events January 10 - Basil II becomes Eastern Roman Emperor, see Byzantine Emperors. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... Ioannes, protected by God and the Virgin Mary. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of south-eastern Europe. ... Thrace (Greek Θρᾴκη, ThrákÄ“, Bulgarian Тракия, Trakija, Turkish Trakya; Latin: Thracia or Threcia) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece (Western Thrace), and European Turkey. ... Events March 2 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks End of the reign of Emperor Kazan of Japan Emperor Ichijo ascends to the throne of Japan Explorer Bjarni Herjólfsson becomes the first inhabitant of the Old World to sight North America Births Deaths March 2 - Lothair, King of... Gregory V, né Bruno ( 972 - February 18, 999), pope (May 3, 996 - February 18, 999), son of Otto, Duke of Carinthia and a grandson of the emperor Otto I the Great, succeeded John XV, when only twenty-four years of age. ... Look up Tsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the US community of Czar, see Czar, West Virginia. ...


After this victory Samuil was able to expand without many obstacles since a civil war erupted in the Byzantine Empire. Only with the help of Varangian Guard sent from his ally Vladimir the Great, was Basil able to subdue the rebellious nobility. After emerging victorious against the rebels he was forced to lead a campaign against the Arabs in Syria. Finally he was able to face Samuil. Byzantine Empire (Greek: ) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Detail of the Millenium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. ...


In 1002, a full-scale war broke out. By this time, Basil's army was stronger. The emperor was determined to conquer Bulgaria once and for all. He moved much of the battle-seasoned imperial war potential from the Eastern campaigns against the Arabs, and Samuil was forced to retreat into his country's heartland. Still, by harassing the powerful Byzantine army, Samuil hoped to force Basil to the peace table. For a dozen years, his tactics maintained Bulgarian independence and even kept Basil away from the main Bulgarian cities, including the capital of Ohrid. Events November 13 - English king Ethelred gives order to kill all Danes in England, leading to the St. ... Ohrid (see also different names) is a city on the eastern shore of Lake Ohrid in western Republic of Macedonia. ...


However, on July 29, 1014 at Kleidion (or Belasitsa) in Pirin Macedonia, Basil II was able to corner the main Bulgarian army and force a battle while Samuil was away. He won a crushing victory and blinded 14,000 prisoners, leaving one man in every hundred with the sight in one eye to lead his comrades home. The sight of this atrocious act was too much even for Samuil, who blamed himself for the defeat and died less than three months later, on October 6. July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... Events February 14 - Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock... The Battle of Kleidion (also Clidium, the key, or Belasitsa) took place on July 29, 1014 between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire. ... Categories: Regions of Bulgaria | Macedonia | Bulgaria geography stubs ... The Battle of Kleidion (also Clidium, the key, or Belasitsa) took place on July 29, 1014 between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire. ... Blindness can be defined physiologically as the condition of lacking visual perception. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ...


The independent Bulgarian kingdom survived him by less than four years, and didn't throw off Byzantine rule until 1185. Vanquishing Samuil’s empire, the Byzantines were able to rule the entire Balkan Peninsula for the first time after the Slavic migration in the 6th-7th century. Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ...

Contents


Other theories

The text above represents the established—and internationally accepted—theory about the reign of Samuil, as well as about the origin and character of his state. In a nutshell, Samuil's short-lived empire is considered to be a continuation of the First Bulgarian Empire of the Tsars Simeon and Peter. The theory is based on a chain of events documented by Byzantine and Western sources, starting with the visit of messengers sent by Samuil and his brothers to the court of the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Otto II, in 973 in which the messengers presented themselves and were accepted as representatives of the Bulgarian Empire. It includes the escape of the Bulgarian Patriarch, Damyan, from Drastar to the first centre of the Comitopuli dynasty, Sofia, in 972, the co-rule of Samuil and Peter I's son, Roman I of Bulgaria, the crowning of Samuil as Tsar only after the death of Roman in 997 and the official recognition of that by the Roman Pope, the various quotes of Byzantine and Western historians of Samuil as Tsar of Bulgaria and of his state as the state of the Bulgarians, the very nickname of Basil II Bulgaroktonus (the "Bulgar-Slayer"), as well as the Bitola Inscription of Samuil's nephew, Ivan Vladislav, Tsar of Bulgaria between 1015 and 1018, where he claims to be Bulgarian by birth. Simeon the Great (modern painting) Tsar Simeon the Great (Bulgarian: Цар Симеон Велики, Tsar Simeon Veliki) (lived c. ... Czar Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969), the son of Czar Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, was married to Maria Irena, the granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... Otto II Otto II (955 – December 7, 983, Rome), was the third German ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... Events Edgar of England is crowned king by Saint Dunstan Births September 15 - Al_Biruni, mathematician († 1048) Abu al-Ala al-Maarri, poet Deaths May 7 - Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor Categories: 973 ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... Silistra (Bulgarian: Силистра, historically Дръстър (Drâstâr); Romanian: Silistra or Dârstor; Latin: Silistria; Turkish: Silistre) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ... The Comitopuli dynasty (Bulgarian: Династията на комитопулите) was the last royal dynasty in the First Bulgarian Empire, ruling from ca. ... Nickname: Motto: Official website: sofia. ... Events Otto II marries Theophanu, Byzantine princess. ... Czar Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969), the son of Czar Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, was married to Maria Irena, the granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... Tsar Roman I of Bulgaria The second son of Tsar Peter from his marriage with Maria (Irena), granddaughter of the Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... The Bitola Inscription of Tsar Ivan Alexander The Bitola Inscription is an inscription made by order of Bulgarian Tsar Ivan Vladislav in 1015 or 1016 in connection with the fortification of the Bitola fortress. ... Ivan Vladislav was the ruler of Bulgaria from August or September 1015 to August or September 1018. ... Events August: Canute the Great invades England. ... Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ...


Alongside this view, there is another theory, initially presented by D. Anastasievic (and subsequently shared by the historians from the present-day Republic of Macedonia), which questions the Bulgarian character of Samuil's empire and suggests that it was a Slav state, in particular Macedonian Slav state. The theory is centred around a short note by Byzantine historian John Skilitsa saying that after the death of Tsar Peter I, his sons, Boris II and Roman (held until then as hostages in Constantinople), were sent back to Bulgaria in order to hinder the Comitopulis from stirring the people to revolt. The note is dated to the end of 969 or to 970, when northeastern Bulgaria with the capital of Preslav were occupied by Prince Sviatoslav of the Kievan Rus', who also had established a capital south of the Danube, in the Bulgarian town of Pereyaslavets. The riot of the Comitopulis is consequently viewed as a revolt of the Macedonian Slavs against the Bulgarians. The other argument quoted by the supporters of the theory is that a part of the core of the state of Samuil was the present-day region of Macedonia. The multitude of other sources which refer to the empire of Samuil as to Bulgaria and to him as a Bulgarian Tsar are explained in one way or another, depending on the context, predominantly explained as belonging to state, not ethnicity. The protagonists of this theory argues that the fusion of Bulgars and Slavs into a single ethnicity was far from completed. There are several theories about the actual ethnicity of Samuil, not necessarily Bulgarian or Slavic. The recognition of Samuil as a Bulgarian Tsar by the Pope is, for example, explained by the practice of the Roman Pope to give a title to the crown which was identified with the territory of an already recognized empire, and Samuil's Empire extended over the territory of the Bulgarian Empire which had collapsed. According to the supporters of the theory, this was equivalent to the Byzantines calling themselves “Romans” and their empire the Roman Empire. Motto: Anthem: Today Over Macedonia (Macedonian: Денес Над Македонија, Denes Nad Makedonija) Capital Skopje Largest city Skopje Official language(s) Macedonian1 Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary republic Branko Crvenkovski Vlado Bučkovski Independence Declared From Yugoslavia September 8, 1991 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   25,333 km² (146th) 1. ... The Macedonian Slavs are an ethnic group which inhabits the geographical region of Macedonia in south-eastern Europe and speaks the Macedonian language. ... Czar Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969), the son of Czar Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, was married to Maria Irena, the granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... Czar Boris II of Bulgaria, the son of Czar Peter I of Bulgaria ruled for three years (969-972). ... Tsar Roman I of Bulgaria The second son of Tsar Peter from his marriage with Maria (Irena), granddaughter of the Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Comitopuli dynasty (Bulgarian: Династията на комитопулите) was the last royal dynasty in the First Bulgarian Empire, ruling from ca. ... Events December 11 - John I becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Events Major volcano eruption in Mashu Japan Devastating decade long famine begins in France Byzantine Emperor John I successfully defends the Eastern Roman Empire from massive barbarian invasion Construction completed on Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, worlds oldest Islamic university Births Leif Ericson, Norse explorer Seyyed Razi, important Muslim... Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ... Kniaz Sviatoslav I, Prince of Kiev (c. ... Map of the the extent of Kievan Rus through the 11th century. ... The Danube (German: Donau, Slovak: Dunaj, Hungarian: Duna, Slovenian: Donava, Croatian: Dunav, Serbian: Дунав/Dunav, Bulgarian: Дунав, Romanian: Dunăre, Ukrainian: , Latin: Danuvius, Turkish: Tuna) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... Trade city located at the mouth of the Danube. ... The Comitopuli dynasty (Bulgarian: Династията на комитопулите) was the last royal dynasty in the First Bulgarian Empire, ruling from ca. ... This article is about the Slavic ethnic group. ... The coat of arms of the Holy See The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, lit. ...


The critics of this Slav theory have asserted that its supporters are interpreting Skilitsa extremely frivolously (who never stated that the intended riot of Comitopulis had an ethnic character or mentioned Macedonian Slavs or Macedonians in his chronicles) and that they are presupposing that such a revolt was directed against the Bulgarian administration as such, which according to them, did not exist at the time. Northeastern Bulgaria was in Russian hands after the death of Tsar Peter I and Peter's successor, Boris II was nothing more than a Russian puppet during his short-lived reign. It is furthermore pointed out that Samuil was the son of the Bulgarian provincial governor of Sredets (the present-day region of Sofia), and it was Sredets that was the original centre of the riot, with Macedonia becoming a political centre as late as the late 970s when Roman settled in Skopje, making it a temporary capital of the tsardom. The Comitopuli dynasty (Bulgarian: Династията на комитопулите) was the last royal dynasty in the First Bulgarian Empire, ruling from ca. ... Czar Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969), the son of Czar Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, was married to Maria Irena, the granddaughter of Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... Czar Boris II of Bulgaria, the son of Czar Peter I of Bulgaria ruled for three years (969-972). ... Nickname: Motto: Official website: sofia. ... Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Decades: 920s - 930s _ 940s - 950s - 960s - 970s - 980s - 990s - 1000s - 1010s - 1020s Years: 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 Events Categories: 970s ... Tsar Roman I of Bulgaria The second son of Tsar Peter from his marriage with Maria (Irena), granddaughter of the Byzantine Emperor Romanus I Lecapenus. ... Skopje (Macedonian: Скопје, see also other names of Skopje) is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Macedonia, as well as the political, cultural, economical and academic centre of the country. ...


See also

The history of Bulgaria as a separate country began in the 7th century with the arrival of the Bulgars and the foundation of the First Bulgarian Empire together with the local seven Slavic tribes, a union recognized by Byzantium in 681. ... Early Bulgar leaders bore the title of baltavar (balt-avar), which literally means ruler of Avars. Later they acquired the title Khan and Khagan, still later the title tsar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Comitopuli dynasty (Bulgarian: Династията на комитопулите) was the last royal dynasty in the First Bulgarian Empire, ruling from ca. ... The Bitola Inscription of Tsar Ivan Alexander The Bitola Inscription is an inscription made by order of Bulgarian Tsar Ivan Vladislav in 1015 or 1016 in connection with the fortification of the Bitola fortress. ...

External links

  • Borders of Bulgaria during the reign of Samuil

Notes

  1. ^ There is a theory that Samuil shared the crown with Roman I of Bulgaria between 972/976 and 997. According to this theory he was recognised as Tsar and reigned until 997 when he died in Byzantine prison. Roman is explicitly mentioned as Tsar in several historical sources, for example in Annals by Yahya of Antioch who calls Roman "Tsar" and Samuil "Roman's loyal military chief". Other historians dispute this theory as Roman was castrated and technically could not lay claims to the crown. The name "Roman" turns up later as the name of the commander of Skopje who surrendered the city to the Byzantines in 1004, received the title of patrician from Basil II "The Bulgar-Slayer" and became the Byzantine strategus in Abydus, (Skylitzes-Cedr. II,455,13). This, however, could also be only a coincidence of names.
Preceded by:
Roman
List of Bulgarian monarchs Succeeded by:
Gavril Radomir

  Results from FactBites:
 
Macedonia FAQ: Tsar Samuil (711 words)
Samuil's Empire comprised the whole of Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, Albania and the former coastal Sclaviniae of Duklja, Travunja, Zahumlje and the Neretva region, and also Serbia (t.e.
Heading this conglomeration of people was Tsar Samuil, who was crowned by the Roman Pope, because Samuil was in a constant conflict with the Byzantine Empire, and the crown of the Bulgarian rules was in Constantinople.
Following the final subjugation of Samuil's state in 1018, the Byzantine Empire dealt fiercely with the Macedonian population, particularly those living in the towns: they were banished and aliens were brought in their place.
Samuil - definition of Samuil in Encyclopedia (364 words)
Although ultimately unsuccessful in saving his country's independence from the incursions of Emperor Basil II of the Byzantine Empire, Samuil resisted him for decades and is the only man to ever defeat Basil II in battle.
In 986, Samuil drove Basil II's army from the field at Troyanovi Vrata, and the emperor sooned turned to the east for new conquests.
The sight was too much even for Samuil, who blamed himself for the defeat and died less than three months later, on October 6.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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