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Encyclopedia > Samuel Pepys
Samuel Pepys

Portrait of Samuel Pepys by J. Hayls.
Oil on canvas, 1666.
Born 23 February 1633(1633-02-23)
London, England
Died 26 May 1703 (aged 70)
Clapham, England
Resting place St Olave's, London, England
Known for Diary
Occupation Naval Administrator and Member of Parliament
Religion Anglican
Spouse Elisabeth Marchant
de St Michel

Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 163326 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. Although Pepys had no maritime experience, he rose by patronage, hard work and his talent for administration to be the Chief Secretary to the Admiralty under King James II. His influence was important in the early development of the British Civil Service.[citation needed] Image File history File links Samuel_Pepys. ... John Hayls was an English Baroque Era Painter, who lived from 1600 to 1679. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... Clapham is a neighbourhood in the London Borough of Wandsworth, South London. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... St Olave Hart Street, surrounded by the City of London St Olave Church Interior St Olave Hart Street is an Anglican church in the City of London, located on Hart Street near Fenchurch Street railway station. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... “Diary” redirects here. ... For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... Elisabeth St Michael (Elisabeth de Saint Michael) 1640-1669 was the wife of Samuel Pepys whom she married in 1655, shortly before her fifteenth birthday. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... This article is about the English as a nation. ... For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... “Diary” redirects here. ... ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... The British civil service is the permanent bureaucracy that supports the Government Ministers responsible to the Sovereign and Parliament in administering the United Kingdom. ...


The detailed private diary that he kept during 1660–1669 was first published in the nineteenth century, and is one of the most important primary sources for the English Restoration period. It provides a fascinating combination of personal revelation and eyewitness accounts of great events, such as the Great Plague of London, the Second Dutch War and the Great Fire of London. In historical scholarship, a primary source is a document, or other source of information that was created at or near the time being studied, by an authoritative source, usually one with direct personal knowledge of the events being described. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Eyewitness may refer to the following: For the TV show, Eyewitness (TV) For the movie, Eyewitness (movie) For the court system type of eye witness, witness For the nonfiction book series, Eyewitness (books) For the WW1 writer pseudonym, see Ernest Dunlop Swinton This is a disambiguation page: a list of... A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ... The Royal Prince and other vessels at the Four Days Fight, 11–14 June 1666 by Abraham Storck depicts a battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ...


His surname is usually pronounced /piːps/ (the same as the English word peeps) although at the time it could have been pronounced either "peeps", "peps", or "peppis". Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

Contents

Biography

Pepys was born in London on 23 February 1633, the second son of John Pepys (1601–1680), a tailor, and Margaret Pepys née Kite (d. 1667), daughter of a Whitechapel butcher. Samuel Pepys was baptised at St Bride's Church on 3 March. His father's first cousin, Richard Pepys, was elected M.P. for Sudbury in 1640, and appointed Baron of the Exchequer on 30 May 1654, and Chief Justice of Ireland, on 25 September 1655. In about 1644 Pepys attended Huntingdon Grammar School, before being educated at St Paul's School, London, circa 1646–1650. Samuel Pepys attended the execution of Charles I, in 1649.[1] In 1651, he entered Magdalene College, Cambridge, taking his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1654. Sometime later that year, or in early 1655, he entered the household of another of his father's cousins, Sir Edward Montagu, who would later be made 1st Earl of Sandwich. In the same year, he married the fourteen-year-old Elisabeth Marchant de St Michel, a descendant of French Huguenot immigrants, first in a religious ceremony, on 10 October 1655, and later in a civil ceremony, on 1 December 1655, at St Margaret's, Westminster because religious ceremonies were not legally recognised under the Interregnum. The couple regularly celebrated the anniversary of the former date. On 26 March 1658 Pepys had a "bladder stone" removed in a dangerous, painful operation, the successful outcome of which he celebrated for several years. In mid-1658 Pepys moved to Axe Yard near the modern Downing Street, and worked as a teller in the exchequer under George Downing. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... Whitechapel is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, United Kingdom. ... Spire of St Brides Church from Fleet Street St Brides Church Interior St Brides Church could well be one of the most ancient, with worship perhaps dating back to the conversion of the Middle Saxons in the seventh century. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Sudbury is a small, ancient market town in the county of Suffolk, England, on the River Stour, 15 miles from Colchester and 60 miles from London. ... The Exchequer of Pleas or Exchequer was one of the three common-law courts of Medieval and Early Modern England. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Chief Justice John L. Murray is the current Chief Justice of Ireland. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... St Pauls School St Pauls School is a boys public school, founded in 1509 by John Colet. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Full name The College of Saint Mary Magdalene Motto Garde ta Foy Keep your Faith Named after Mary Magdalene Previous names Buckingham College Established 1428 Sister College(s) Magdalen College Master Duncan Robinson Location Magdalene Street Undergraduates 335 Postgraduates 169 Homepage Boatclub Magdalene College (pronounced ) was founded in 1428 as... A B.A. issused as a certificate Bachelor of Arts (B.A., BA or A.B.), from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus is an undergraduate bachelors degree awarded for either a course or a program in the liberal arts or the sciences, or both. ... The household is the basic unit of analysis in many microeconomic and government models. ... Look up sir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sir Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, 1625–1672 by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1666. ... The Earl of Sandwich is a title in the peerage of England, created by Charles II and bestowed upon Sir Edward Montagu. ... Elisabeth St Michael (Elisabeth de Saint Michael) 1640-1669 was the wife of Samuel Pepys whom she married in 1655, shortly before her fifteenth birthday. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... The Anglican church of St. ... The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Kidney stones, also known as nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis or renal calculi, are solid accretions (crystals) of dissolved minerals in urine found inside the kidneys or ureters. ... Downing Street Downing Street gates Downing Street is the street in London which contains the buildings that have been, for over two hundred years, the official residences of two of the most senior British cabinet ministers, the First Lord of the Treasury, an office held by the Prime Minister of... The Exchequer was (and in some cases still is) a part of the governments of England (latterly to include Wales, Scotland and Ireland) that was responsible for the management and collection of revenues. ... Sir George Downing, 1st Baronet (c. ...

A short letter from Samuel Pepys to John Evelyn at the latter's home in Deptford, written by Pepys on 16 October 1665 and referring to 'prisoners' and 'sick men' during the Second Dutch War

On 1 January 1660, Pepys began to keep a diary. In April and May of that year, he accompanied Montagu's fleet to The Netherlands to bring Charles II back from exile. In June, the position of Clerk of the Acts to the Navy Board was procured for Pepys, following the rise in fortunes of his patron, Montagu; the position was secured on 13 July. As secretary to the board, Pepys was entitled to a £350 annual salary plus the various gratuities and benefits that came with the job: he rejected an offer of £1000 for the position from a rival, and moved to official accommodation in Seething Lane in the City of London soon afterwards. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 506 pixels Full resolution (2281 × 1442 pixel, file size: 305 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Guy de la Bedoyere. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 506 pixels Full resolution (2281 × 1442 pixel, file size: 305 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Guy de la Bedoyere. ... John Evelyn. ... This article is about the district in London. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Royal Prince and other vessels at the Four Days Fight, 11–14 June 1666 by Abraham Storck depicts a battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region Greater London Status sui generis, City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ...


On the Navy Board, Pepys proved to be a more able and efficient worker than his superior colleagues: a fact that often annoyed Pepys, and provoked much harsh criticism in his Diary. Learning arithmetic from a private tutor, and using models of ships to make up for his lack of first-hand nautical experience, Pepys came to play a significant role in the board's activities. On 15 February 1662 Pepys became a younger brother of Trinity House, and on 30 April he received the freedom of Portsmouth. He joined the Tangier committee in August 1662, and became its treasurer in 1665. In 1663 he independently negotiated a £3000 contract for Norwegian masts, demonstrating the freedom of action that his superior abilities allowed. On 21 February 1665 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... A view of Tangier bay at sunrise as seen from Cape Malabata Tangier - Avenue Mohammed VI Tangier (Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish, Tânger in Portuguese, and Tanger in French) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 669,680 (2004 census). ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...

St Olave's church, the Seething Lane entrance

Pepys lived, worked, and wrote his diary through a number of significant historical events, among them the Second Dutch War (1665–1667), the Great Plague of London of 1665, and the Great Fire of London (1666). On several occasions in 1667 and 1668, he appeared before a select committee of Parliament to defend the record of the Navy Board and to argue for sufficient funds to maintain the fleet.[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 298 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Guy de la Bedoyere. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 298 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Guy de la Bedoyere. ... The Royal Prince and other vessels at the Four Days Fight, 11–14 June 1666 by Abraham Storck depicts a battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. ... A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... A Select Committee is a committee made up of a small number of parliamentary members appointed to deal with particular areas or issues originating in the Westminster System of parliamentary democracy. ...


Throughout the period of the diary, his health, particularly his eyesight, suffered from the long hours he worked. At the end of May 1669, he reluctantly concluded that, for the sake of his eyes, he should completely stop writing and, from then on, only dictate to his clerks, which meant that he could no longer keep his diary.


He and his wife took a holiday to France and the Low Countries in June–October 1669; but, on their return, Elisabeth fell ill and died on 10 November 1669. Pepys erected a monument to her in the church of St Olave's, Hart Street, in London. It has been suggested that Regents: Low Countries be merged into this article or section. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... St Olave Hart Street, surrounded by the City of London St Olave Church Interior St Olave Hart Street is an Anglican church in the City of London, located on Hart Street near Fenchurch Street railway station. ...


In 1673, he was promoted to Secretary to the Admiralty Commission and elected M.P. for Castle Rising, Norfolk. In 1676, he was elected as Master of Trinity House. At the beginning of 1679 Pepys was elected M.P. for Harwich. By May of that year, he was under attack from his political enemies. He resigned as Secretary to the Admiralty, and was imprisoned in the Tower of London on suspicion of treasonable correspondence with France. He was released in July, but proceedings against him were not dropped until June 1680. Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Castle Rising is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Trinity House, London (January 2007) A meeting at Trinity House circa 1808 // The Corporation of Trinity House is the official General Lighthouse Authority for England, Wales and other British Territtorial Waters (with the exception of Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland). ... Arms of Harwich Town Council Harwich (IPA, /hɑːˈɹɪtʃ/) is a town in Essex, England, located on the coast with the North Sea to the east. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ...

York Stairs, built 1626, and the last intact watergate on the River Thames. It stands a few yards from Pepys's later home in York Buildings, Buckingham Street, and was regularly used by him

In 1683, he was sent to Tangier to assist Lord Dartmouth with the evacuation of the British colony. After six months' service, he travelled back through Spain, returning to England on 30 March 1684. In June 1684, once more in favour, he was appointed King's Secretary for the affairs of the Admiralty, a post that he retained after the death of Charles II (February 1685) and the accession of James II. From 1685 to 1688, he was active not only as Secretary for the Admiralty, but also as M.P. for Harwich. He was a loyal supporter of James II. When James fled the country at the end of 1688, Pepys's career also came to an end. In January 1689, he was defeated in the parliamentary election at Harwich; in February, one week after the accession of William and Mary, he resigned his secretaryship. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 446 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Guy de la Bedoyere. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 446 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Guy de la Bedoyere. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... A view of Tangier bay at sunrise as seen from Cape Malabata Tangier - Avenue Mohammed VI Tangier (Tanja طنجة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish, Tânger in Portuguese, and Tanger in French) is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 669,680 (2004 census). ... Admiral George Legge (c. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... James II of England (also known as James VII of Scotland; 14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Arms of Harwich Town Council Harwich (IPA, /hɑːˈɹɪtʃ/) is a town in Essex, England, located on the coast with the North Sea to the east. ... William III Mary II The phrase William and Mary usually refers to the joint sovereignty over the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland of King William III and his wife Queen Mary II. Their joint reign began in February, 1689, when they were called to the throne by...


From May to July 1689, and again in June 1690, he was imprisoned on suspicion of Jacobitism, but no charges were ever successfully brought against him. After his release, he retired from public life, aged 57. Ten years later, in 1701, he moved out of London, to a house at Clapham, then in the country though now very much part of greater London, where he lived until his death, on 26 May 1703. He had no children and bequeathed his estate to his nephew, John Jackson.

Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Clapham is a neighbourhood in the London Borough of Wandsworth, South London. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ...


Interests and achievements

As well as being one of the most important civil servants of his age, Pepys was a widely cultivated man, taking a learned interest in books, music, the theatre, and science. He served on a great many committees and public bodies.

  • He was M.P. for Castle Rising, Norfolk, and for Harwich. Although also elected M.P. for Sandwich, he immediately withdrew when his election was contested. Most of these constituencies had connections with his relative Sir Edward Montagu but, according to his most recent biographer, Claire Tomalin, Pepys' patron was the future James II.[3]
  • Also through Montagu, he was involved in the administration of the short-lived English colony at Tangier. He was appointed to the Tangier Committee in 1662, when the colony was first founded, and became Treasurer in 1665. He resigned in 1679 but, in 1683, went out as secretary to Lord Dartmouth's expedition to evacuate and abandon the colony.
The first edition of Newton's Principia, bearing Pepys' name.
The first edition of Newton's Principia, bearing Pepys' name.
  • In 1673 he was involved with the establishment of the Royal Mathematical School at Christ's Hospital, which was to train 40 boys annually in navigation, for the benefit of the Royal Navy and the British merchant navy. In 1675 he was appointed a Governor of Christ's Hospital, and for many years he took a close interest in its affairs. Among his papers are two detailed memoranda on the administration of the school. In 1699 after the successful conclusion of a seven-year campaign to get the master of the Mathematical School replaced by a man who knew more about the sea, he was rewarded for his service as a Governor by being made a freeman of the City of London.

His contemporary and great friend John Evelyn remembered him as "universally beloved, hospitable, generous, learned in many things". Pepys's character is encapsulated in his Latin motto (which he borrowed from Cicero's De Republica vi.26) mens cujusque is est quisque, which can be translated as "Each man's mind is who he is" or, more poetically, "The mind is the man". Castle Rising is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Arms of Harwich Town Council Harwich (IPA, /hɑːˈɹɪtʃ/) is a town in Essex, England, located on the coast with the North Sea to the east. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sir Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, 1625–1672 by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1666. ... Tangier Garrison was a military installation in Tangier held by the English from 1661 to 6 February 1684 when it returned to being part of Morocco. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1266x842, 646 KB)Isaac Newtons own first edition copy of his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica with his handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1266x842, 646 KB)Isaac Newtons own first edition copy of his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica with his handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events France under Louis XIV makes Truce of Ratisbon separately with the Empire and Spain. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1686 (MDCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Newtons own copy of his Principia, with handwritten corrections for the second edition. ... Trinity House, London (January 2007) A meeting at Trinity House circa 1808 // The Corporation of Trinity House is the official General Lighthouse Authority for England, Wales and other British Territtorial Waters (with the exception of Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland). ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bluecoat School directs here. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... John Evelyn. ...


The Pepys Library

Pepys was a lifelong bibliophile and carefully nurtured his large collection of books, manuscripts, and prints. At his death, there were more than 3,000 volumes, including the diary, all carefully catalogued and indexed; they form one of the most important surviving 17th century private libraries. There are remarkable holdings of incunabula, manuscripts, and printed ballads. Pepys made detailed provisions in his will for the preservation of his book collection; and, when his nephew and heir, John Jackson, died, in 1723, it was transferred, intact, to the Pepys Library, at Magdalene College, Cambridge, where it can still be seen. The bequest included all the original book cases and his elaborate instructions that "the placing as to heighth [sic] be strictly reviewed and, where found requiring it, more nicely adjusted". Bibliophilia is the love of books; a bibliophile is a lover of books. ... For other uses, see Library (disambiguation). ... A page from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed in Strassburg by J.R.Grueninger. ... A ballad is a story in song, usually a narrative song or poem. ... The Pepys Library is housed on the first floor of its own building in the second court of Magdalene College, Cambridge. ... Full name The College of Saint Mary Magdalene Motto Garde ta Foy Keep your Faith Named after Mary Magdalene Previous names Buckingham College Established 1428 Sister College(s) Magdalen College Master Duncan Robinson Location Magdalene Street Undergraduates 335 Postgraduates 169 Homepage Boatclub Magdalene College (pronounced ) was founded in 1428 as...


The Diary

Among the most important items in the Library are the original bound manuscripts of Pepys's diary. Although it is clear from the content that they were written as a purely personal record of his life and not for publication, there are indications that Pepys actively took steps to preserve them. Apart from the fact that he wrote his diary out in fair copy from rough notes, he also had the loose pages bound into six volumes, catalogued them in his library with all his other books, and must have known that eventually someone would find them interesting.


The diary was written in one of the many standard forms of shorthand used in Pepys's time, in this case called Tachygraphy and devised by Thomas Shelton; but, by the time when the college took an interest in the diary, it was thought to be ciphered. The Reverend John Smith was engaged to transcribe the diaries into plain English; and he laboured at this task for three years, from 1819 to 1822, apparently unaware that a key to the shorthand system was stored in Pepys's library a few shelves above the diary volumes. Smith's transcription (which is also kept in the Pepys Library) was the basis for the first published edition of the diary, released in two volumes in 1825. Shorthand is an abbreviated, symbolic writing method that improves speed of writing or brevity as compared to a normal method of writing a language. ... Thomas Shelton (fl. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... The Pepys Library is housed on the first floor of its own building in the second court of Magdalene College, Cambridge. ...


A second transcription, done with the benefit of the key, but often less accurately, was completed in 1875 by Mynors Bright, and published in 1875–1879.[4] Henry Wheatley, drawing on both his predecessors, produced a new edition in 1893–1899, revised in 1926, with extensive notes and an index. The complete and definitive edition, edited and transcribed by Robert Latham and William Matthews, was published in nine volumes, along with separate Companion and Index volumes, over the years 1970–1983. Various single-volume abridgements of this text are also available.


Pepys recorded his daily life for almost ten years in breathtaking honesty; the women he pursued, his friends, his dealings, are all laid out. His diary reveals his jealousies, insecurities, trivial concerns, and his fractious relationship with his wife. It is an important account of London in the 1660s. Included are his personal account of the restoration of the monarchy, the Great Plague of London of 1665, the Great Fire of London (1666), and the arrival of the Dutch fleet and other events of the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665–1667). The juxtaposition of his commentary on politics and national events, alongside the very personal, can be seen from the beginning. His opening paragraphs, written in January 1660, begin: King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March 1665 until 31 July 1667. ...

Blessed be God, at the end of the last year I was in very good health, without any sense of my old pain but upon taking of cold. I lived in Axe yard, having my wife and servant Jane, and no more in family than us three. My wife, after the absence of her terms for seven weeks, gave me hopes of her being with child, but on the last day of the year she hath them again.
The condition of the State was thus. Viz. the Rump, after being disturbed by my Lord Lambert, was lately returned to sit again. The officers of the army all forced to yield. Lawson lie[s] still in the River and Monke is with his army in Scotland. Only my Lord Lambert is not yet come in to the Parliament; nor is it expected that he will, without being forced to it.

His job required that he meet with many people to dispense monies and make contracts. He often laments over how he "lost his labour" having gone to some appointment at a coffee house or tavern, there to discover that the person he was seeking was not within. This was a constant frustration to Pepys. The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... John Lambert (1619 - 1684) served as an English Parliamentary general in the English Civil War. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... A Street Cafe, Jerusalem, Henry Fenn (1838- ): steel engraving in Picturesque Palestine, ca 1875 A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or caf shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The diary similarly gives a detailed account of Pepys's personal life. He liked wine and plays, and the company of other people. He also spent a great deal of time evaluating his fortune and his place in the world. He was always curious and often acted on that curiosity, as he acted upon almost all his impulses.


He was passionately interested in music; and he composed, sang, and played, for pleasure. He taught his wife to sing, and paid for dancing lessons for her (although these stopped when he became jealous of the dancing master).


Periodically he would resolve to devote more time to hard work instead of leisure. For example, in his entry for New Year's Eve, 1661, he writes: "I have newly taken a solemn oath about abstaining from plays and wine ...". The following months reveal his lapses to the reader; by 17 February, it is recorded, "[H]ere I drank wine upon necessity, being ill for the want of it." Propriety did not prevent him from engaging in a number of extra-marital liaisons with various women: these were chronicled in his diary, often in some detail, and generally using a cocktail of languages (English, French and Portuguese) when relating the intimate details. The most dramatic of these encounters was with Deborah Willet, a young woman engaged as a companion for Elisabeth Pepys. On 25 October 1668 Pepys was surprised by his wife whilst embracing Deborah Willet: he writes that his wife "coming up suddenly, did find me imbracing the girl con my hand sub su coats; and endeed I was with my main in her cunny. I was at a wonderful loss upon it and the girl also....". Following this event, he was characteristically filled with remorse but (equally characteristically) this did not prevent his continuing to pursue Willet when she had been dismissed from the Pepys household.[5] For other articles with similar names, see New Year (disambiguation). ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1668 (MDCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Citing poor eyesight, Samuel Pepys recorded the last entry in his diary on 31 May 1669.[6] For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ...


Disease of the stone

From a young age, Pepys suffered from stones in his urinary tract (a condition from which his mother also suffered) and was almost never without pain, as well as other symptoms, including blood in the urine. By the time of his marriage, the condition was very severe and probably had a serious effect on his ability to engage in sexual intercourse. “Bladder stone” redirects here. ... In medicine, hematuria (or haematuria) is the presence of blood in the urine. ...


In 1657, Pepys took the brave decision to undertake surgery: this cannot have been an easy option, because the operation was known to be especially painful and hazardous. Nevertheless, Pepys consulted Thomas Hollier, the surgeon; and, on 26 March 1658, the operation took place in a bedroom at the house of Pepys's cousin, Jane Turner. March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by...


The procedure, described by Pepys as being "cut of the stone", was conducted without the use of anaesthetics or antiseptics, and involved restraining the patient with ropes and four strong men; the surgeon then made an incision along the perineum (between the scrotum and the anus), about three inches (8 cm) long and deep enough to cut into the bladder. The stone was removed through this opening with pincers, which came from below, and which were assisted, from above, by a tool that had been inserted into the bladder through the penis. A detailed description of the procedure can be found in Claire Tomalin's biography, referenced below. Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... In human anatomy, the perineum also known in slang as taint, grundle, chode, or gooch is generally defined as the surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx. ... In some male mammals, the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... Female Human Anatomy Male Human Anatomy This article is about the bodily orifice. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ...


Pepys' stone was successfully removed and was described as being the size of a tennis ball (presumably a real tennis ball which is slightly smaller than a modern lawn tennis ball, but still an unusually large stone). However, he made a good recovery and resolved to hold a celebration on every anniversary of the operation. On Monday 26 March 1660, he wrote, in his diary, A Penn tennis ball. ... Jeu de paume in the 17th century. ... This article is about the sport, tennis. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ...

This day it is two years since it pleased God that I was cut of the stone at Mrs. Turner's in Salisbury Court. And did resolve while I live to keep it a festival, as I did the last year at my house, and for ever to have Mrs. Turner and her company with me.

However, there were long-term effects from the operation. It has been speculated that the operation may have left him sterile; but there is no direct evidence for this, as he was childless before the operation. There are references in the Diary to pains in his bladder, whenever he caught cold; and the wound from the operation seems to have caused him problems in later life. In April 1700, Pepys wrote, to his nephew Jackson,

It has been my calamity for much the greatest part of this time to have been kept bedrid, under an evil so rarely known as to have had it matter of universal surprise and with little less general opinion of its dangerousness; namely, that the cicatrice of a wound occasioned upon my cutting of the stone, without hearing anything of it in all this time, should[,] after more than 40 years' perfect cure, break out again.

After Pepys' death, the post-mortem examination showed that his left kidney was completely ulcerated; seven stones, weighing four and a half ounces (130 g), also were found. His bladder was gangrenous, and the old wound was broken open again. Post-mortem, postmortem and post mortem redirect here. ...


Pepysiana

  • The phantom Pepys Island, alleged to be near South Georgia, was named after him in 1684, being first discovered during his tenure at the Admiralty.
  • The refectory building at the British Civil Service College has been named in his honour.
  • There is a probability problem, called the "Newton–Pepys Problem", that arose out of correspondence between Newton and Pepys about whether one was more likely to roll a six with six dice or two sixes with twelve dice.[7]
  • In December 2003 a weblog run by Phil Gyford that serialises the diary won an award in The Guardian's Best of British Blogs, in the specialist-blog category.[8]
  • Pepys is a character in the film Stage Beauty. In a scene with the female lead Maria he is asked by her why he is taking notes. He admits that this taking of notes is a particular pleasure he would want to miss.
  • The Goon Show episode titled "The Flea" was loosely based upon Pepys, with Seagoon appearing as Pepys himself, regularly writing in his diary.

Pepys Island was a phantom island, said to lie about 230 miles north of the Falkland Islands. ... South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ... Admiral Sir William Penn, 1621–1670 by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... For other uses, see William Penn (disambiguation). ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... A refectory is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools and academic institutions. ... Probability is the likelihood that something is the case or will happen. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... A weblog (now more commonly known as a blog) is a web-based publication consisting primarily of periodic articles (normally, but not always, in reverse chronological order). ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer, known primarily for his science fiction works in the postcyberpunk genre with a penchant for explorations of society, mathematics, currency, and the history of science. ... The Baroque Cycle, a series of books written by Neal Stephenson, appeared in print in 2003 and 2004. ... Stage Beauty is a 2004 romantic drama film set in the 1660s, starring Claire Danes and Billy Crudup. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... This article is about the district in London. ... Addey and Stanhope School is a voluntary-aided, comprehensive co-educational school located in New Cross, London, United Kingdom. ... This article is about the district in London. ... Giants: Citizen Kabuto was developed by Planet Moon and released by Interplay in 2000 on the PC after many delays. ... The Goon Show was a popular and influential British radio comedy programme, originally produced and broadcast by the BBC from 1951 to 1960 on the BBC Home Service. ...

References

The Diary

The complete and definitive edition of Pepys's diary by Robert Latham and William Matthews was published by Bell & Hyman, London, in 1970–1983. The Introduction in volume I provides a scholarly but readable account of "The Diarist", "The Diary" ("The Manuscript", "The Shorthand", and "The Text"), "History of Previous Editions", "The Diary as Literature", and "The Diary as History". The Companion provides a long series of detailed essays about Pepys and his world. Robert Latham could refer to: Robert Gordon Latham (1812–1888) English ethnologist and philologist. ...

  • Volume I. Introduction and 1660. ISBN 0-7135-1551-1
  • Volume II. 1661. ISBN 0-7135-1552-X
  • Volume III. 1662. ISBN 0-7135-1553-8
  • Volume IV. 1663. ISBN 0-7135-1554-6
  • Volume V. 1664. ISBN 0-7135-1555-4
  • Volume VI. 1665. ISBN 0-7135-1556-2
  • Volume VII. 1666. ISBN 0-7135-1557-0
  • Volume VIII. 1667. ISBN 0-7135-1558-9
  • Volume IX. 1668–9. ISBN 0-7135-1559-7
  • Volume X. Companion. ISBN 0-7135-1993-2
  • Volume XI. Index. ISBN 0-7135-1994-0

Biographical studies

There are several detailed studies of Pepys' life available. Arthur Bryant published his three-volume study in 1933–1938, long before the definitive edition of the diary, but, thanks to Bryant's lively style, it is still of interest. In 1974 Richard Ollard produced a new biography that drew on Latham's and Matthew's work on the text, and benefited from the author's deep knowledge of Restoration politics. The most recent general study is by Claire Tomalin. Her book won the 2002 Whitbread Book of the Year award, and the judges called it a "rich, thoughtful and deeply satisfying" account that "unearth[s] a wealth of material about the uncharted life of Samuel Pepys". Sir Arthur Bryant, CH, (18 February 1899 - 22 January 1985), was a widely popular British historian, and columnist for the Illustrated London News. ... Richard Ollard (1923– ) is a British historian and biographer. ... Claire Tomalin (born June 20, 1933) is an English biographer and journalist. ... The Whitbread Book Awards are among the United Kingdoms most prestigious literary awards. ...

  • Bryant, Arthur (1933). Samuel Pepys (I: The man in the making. II: The years of peril. III: The saviour of the navy), Revised 1948. Reprinted 1934, 1961, etc., Cambridge: University Press. LCC DA447.P4 B8. 
  • Ollard, Richard (1984). Pepys : a biography, First published 1974, Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-281466-4. 
  • Tomalin, Claire (2002). Samuel Pepys : the unequalled self. London: Viking. ISBN 0-670-88568-1. 

Sir Arthur Bryant, CH, (18 February 1899 - 22 January 1985), was a widely popular British historian, and columnist for the Illustrated London News. ... Library of Congress reading room The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. ... Richard Ollard (1923– ) is a British historian and biographer. ... Claire Tomalin (born June 20, 1933) is an English biographer and journalist. ...

Editions of letters and other publications by Pepys

  • Pepys, Samuel (2004). in C. S. Knighton (ed).: Pepys's later diaries. Stroud: Sutton. ISBN 0-7509-3656-8. 
  • Pepys, Samuel (2005). in Guy de la Bedoyere (ed).: Particular friends : the correspondence of Samuel Pepys and John Evelyn, 2nd edition, Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 1-84383-134-1. 
  • Pepys, Samuel (2006). in Guy de la Bedoyere (ed).: The letters of Samuel Pepys, 1656-1703. Woodbridge: Boydell. ISBN 1-84383-197-X. 

Web references

This article is about the British television station. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ C. S. Knighton, ‘Pepys, Samuel (1633–1703)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (Oxford University Press, 2004)
  2. ^ Samuel Pepys and the building of the British navy Channel 4 Weck Detectives
  3. ^ Guardian article Can you trust Wikipedia?, 24 October 2005
  4. ^ Samuel Pepys Diary
  5. ^ Mystery of Pepys' affair solved BBC News 24 14 October 2006
  6. ^ Diary of Samuel Pepys — Complete by Samuel Pepys Project Gutenberg
  7. ^ Eric W. Weisstein. Newton-Pepys Problem. From MathWorld—A Wolfram Web Resource
  8. ^ Pepys' blog wins an award

is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Samuel Sewall (March 28, 1652 - January 1, 1730). ...

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Samuel Pepys

Some of the older editions of the diary are available online. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

There are also two encyclopedic sites about Pepys based on these free editions Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

As well as other sites about Pepys.

Persondata
NAME Pepys, Samuel
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 17th century British diarist and civil servant
DATE OF BIRTH 23 February 1633
PLACE OF BIRTH London, England
DATE OF DEATH 26 May 1703
PLACE OF DEATH Clapham, England

  Results from FactBites:
 
Samuel Pepys - definition of Samuel Pepys in Encyclopedia (907 words)
Pepys was born in London in 1633, the son of a tailor.
Pepys was a lifelong bibliophile and carefully nurtured his large collection of books, manuscripts and prints, which totalled exactly 3,000 volumes at his death.
Pepys made elaborate provisions in his will for the preservation of the library, and since 1724 it has been kept intact in Pepys' original bookcases as The Pepys Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, carefully following Pepys' instruction that "the placing as to heighth be strictly reviewed and where found requiring it more nicely adjusted".
Samuel Pepys. Robert Louis Stevenson. 1909-14. Essays: English and American. The Harvard Classics (5707 words)
Pepys was a young man for his age, came slowly to himself in the world, sowed his wild oats late, took late to industry, and preserved till nearly forty the headlong gusto of a boy.
Pepys was not such an ass, but he must have perceived, as he went on, the extraordinary nature of the work he was producing.
For the difference between Pepys and Shelley, to return to that half whimsical approximation, is one of quality but not one of degree; in his sphere, Pepys felt as keenly, and his is the true prose of poetry—prose because the spirit of the man was narrow and earthly, but poetry because he was delightedly alive.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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