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Encyclopedia > Samuel P. Huntington
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Samuel Phillips Huntington
Doctor Samuel Phillips Huntington on August 17, 1985
Born April 18, 1927 (age 79)
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Occupation Academic

Samuel Phillips Huntington (born April 18, 1927) is a controversial conservative US political scientist known for his analysis of the relationship between the military and the civil government, his investigation of coups d'etat, his thesis that the central political actors of the 21st century will be civilizations rather than nation-states and, most recently, for his views on US immigration. He graduated from Yale and received his Ph.D. from Harvard. As an advisor to Lyndon Johnson and in an influential 1968 article, he justified heavy bombardment of the countryside of South Vietnam as a means to drive the peasants and supporters of the Viet Cong into urban areas. Huntington also served as co-author on the report, "The Governability of Democracies", that was issued by the Trilateral Commission in 1976. More recently, he garnered widespread attention for his analysis of threats posed to the United States by modern-day immigration. He is a professor at Harvard University. Huntington came to prominence as a scholar in the 1960s with the publication of Political Order in Changing Societies, a work that challenged the conventional view of modernization theorists that economic and social progress would bring about stable democracies in recently decolonized countries. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Image File history File links P-1985Huntington. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nickname: City of Lakes Motto: En Avant Location in Hennepin County and the state of Minnesota. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Political science is the field of the social sciences concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The 21st century is the present century of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... YALE (Yet Another Learning Environment) is an environment for machine learning experiments and data mining. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809 km² N/A Population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) , is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Founded in 1636,[1] Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning still operating in the United States. ... Modernization is closely linked to classical liberalism. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ...

Contents

Notable arguments

Political Order in Changing Societies

Main article: Political Order in Changing Societies

In Political Order in Changing Societies Huntington argues that order is the most important characteristic of states. Order is threatened when the level of mobilization exceeds the level of institutionalization within a society. Huntington is concerned that, as a result of economic development, political mobilization will increase faster than the appropriate institutions can arise, thus leading to instability. As a solution he advocates a stronger emphasis on institution building in development, most importantly the establishment of stable party systems. He remains highly skeptical of less institutionalized political mobilization and protest, which made him the target of heated criticism by student activists at the time of the book's publication in 1968. Political Order is widely considered one of the classic works in post-war political science and is still required reading for most graduate students in political science in the U.S. During 1977 and 1978 he worked at the White House as coordinator of security planning for the National Security Council. Political Order in Changing Societies is a book by Samuel P. Huntington dealing with changes in the political systems and political institutions. ... A party system is a concept in political science concerning the system of government in a state where political parties exist. ... Students occupying Sheffield town hall over the introduction of higher education fees Student activism is work done by students to effect political, environmental, economic, or social change. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Political science is the field of the social sciences concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ...


In the 1970s, Huntington applied his theoretical insights as an adviser to several governments, democracies as well as dictatorships. In 1972 he discussed with representatives of the Medici government in Brazil that had approached him and one year later he produced a paper entitled "Approaches to Political Decompression", in which he warned against the risks of a rapid liberalization and proposed gradual steps and a strong party state after the image of the Mexican PRI. After a drawn-out transition process, Brazil became fully democratic in 1985. Huntington has frequently cited Brazil as a success and alluded to his own role in his 1988 presidential address to the American Political Science Association, commenting that political science had "played a modest role in this process". Critics such as the British political scientist Alan Hooper point to the fact that Brazil today has an especially unstable party system, in which the best institutionalized party, Lula da Silva's Partido dos Trabalhadores, emerged in opposition to the controlled transition process. Moreover, Hooper claims that the lack of civil participation in today's Brazil goes back to the top-down transition process. Emílio Garrastazú Médici (December 4, 1905–October 9, 1985) was a Brazilian military leader and politician. ... PRI may refer to: Partido Revolucionario Institucional, a major political party in Mexico Public Radio International Primary rate interface Precision Reflex, Inc. ... In telecommunication, a transition is the change from one signal state to another signal state. ... The American Political Science Association, founded in 1903, serves more than 15,000 members in more than 80 countries, bringing a variety of services to political scientists both inside and outside academic institutions. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born October 6, 1945) is a left-wing Brazilian politician. ... Brazilian Workers Party flag. ...


The Clash of Civilizations

For more details on this topic, see Clash of Civilizations.

In 1993, Huntington ignited a major debate amongst international relations theorists with the publication in Foreign Affairs of an extremely influential and often-cited article entitled "The Clash of Civilizations?" The article contrasted with another political thesis regarding the core dynamics of post-Cold War geopolitics expressed by Francis Fukuyama in The End of History. Huntington later expanded the article into a full-length book, published in 1996 by Simon and Schuster, entitled The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. The article and the book articulated his views that post-Cold War conflict would occur most frequently and violently along cultural (often civilizational, e.g., Western, Islam, Sinic, Hindu, etc.) instead of ideological lines, as under the Cold War and the bulk of the 20th century. Huntington believes that this cultural organization better describes the world than the classical notion of variegated sovereign states. He surmised that to understand conflict in our age and in the future, cultural rifts must be understood, and culture (instead of the state) must be accepted as the locus of war. Thus, he warned that Western nations may lose their predominance if they fail to recognize the irreconcilable nature of this brewing tension. Cover of The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order The Clash of Civilizations is a controversial theory that peoples cultural/religious identity will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... International relations (IR), a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... This article is about a journal. ... Geopolitics is the study which analyses geography, history and social science with reference to international politics. ... Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952 in Chicago) is an influential American philosopher, political economist and author. ... The End of History and the Last Man is a 1992 book by Francis Fukuyama, expanding on his 1989 essay The End of History?, in which he argues the controversial thesis that the end of the Cold War signals the end of the progression of human history: What we may... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... The term Western World or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Prehistory The prehistory of India goes back to the old Stone age (Palaeolithic). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Critics (see Le Monde diplomatique articles) call Clash of Civilizations the theoretical basis to legitimize aggression by the US-led West against China and the world of Islam. However, Huntington has also argued that this shift in geopolitical structure requires the West to strengthen itself internally, abandoning democratic universalism and incessant interventionism. Other critics have argued that his taxonomy is simplistic and arbitrary, and does not take account of internal dynamics and tensions within civilizations. The influence of Huntington's ideas on US policy has been likened to that of British historian A.J. Toynbee's controversial religious theories of the early 20th century on Asian leaders. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ... Arnold Joseph Toynbee (April 14, 1889 - October 22, 1975) was a British historian whose twelve-volume analysis of the rise and fall of civilizations, A Study of History, 1934-1961, was a synthesis of world history, a metahistory based on universal rhythms of rise, flowering and decline. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Asian people. ...


Who Are We and immigration

The latest book by Huntington, Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity was released in May 2004. The subject is the meaning of American national identity and the possible threat posed to it by large-scale Latino immigration, which Huntington warns could "divide the United States into two peoples, two cultures, and two languages." Like The Clash of Civilizations, this book has also stirred controversy, and some have accused Huntington of xenophobia for insisting on defining the American nation in terms of Anglo-Protestant culture (a concept distinct from race) and reducing the dynamics of immigrant adaptation to a binary of assimilation versus non-assimilation, brushing aside huge volumes of scholarship that show far more complexity. It has also been noted that, while he writes approvingly of the achievements of the civil rights movement, he seems to show far greater concern for the preservation of Anglo-Protestant culture than for racial equality and the citizenship rights of non-whites. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For publications of this name, see also Nation (disambiguation) A nation is a community of people who live together in an area (or, more broadly, of their descendants who may now be dispersed); and who regard themselves, or are regarded by others, as sharing some common identity, to which certain... A Latino (Latina for females, often), in American English, is a United States citizen or resident of Latin American descent. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Suborder Symphyta Apocrita See text for families. ...


The National Academy of Sciences controversy

In 1986, Huntington was nominated for membership in the National Academy of Sciences. Nominations are voted on by the entire academy, but most votes, which are by scientists who are mainly unfamiliar with the nominee, are token votes. This status quo was disturbed when Serge Lang, a Yale University mathematician, began challenging Huntington's nomination. Lang campaigned for others to deny Huntington membership and was eventually successful, with Huntington being nominated and rejected twice. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... Serge Lang (May 19, 1927–September 12, 2005) was a French-born American mathematician. ... Yale redirects here. ... Leonhard Euler is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is the person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ...


Huntington's prominence as a Harvard professor and (at the time) director of Harvard's Center for International Studies contributed to the coverage by publications such as The New York Times and The New Republic.


Lang was largely inspired by the writings of Neal Koblitz, another mathematician, who accused Huntington of misusing mathematics and engaging in pseudo-science. Lang's accusations included claims that Huntington had distorted the historical record and used pseudo-mathematics to make his conclusions appear more convincing. Lang's side of the controversy is covered in his book Challenges. Neal Koblitz is a Professor of Mathematics in the University of Washington in the Department of Mathematics. ... A pseudoscience is any body of knowledge purported to be scientific or supported by science but which fails to comply with the scientific method. ...


Huntington's supporters included Herbert Simon, a 1978 Bank of Sweden Nobel Laureate in Economics. The Mathematical Intelligencer offered Simon and Koblitz an opportunity to engage in a written debate, which they accepted. Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American political scientist whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, computer science, public administration, economics, management, and philosophy of science and a professor, most notably, at Carnegie Mellon University. ... The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (in Swedish Sveriges Riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics. ... The Mathematical Intelligencer is a mathematical journal published by Springer Verlag that aims at a conversational and scholarly tone, rather than the technical and specialist tone more common amongst such journals. ...


Quotes

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Samuel P. Huntington
  • "It is my hypothesis that the fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic. The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural. Nation-states will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principal conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilizations. The clash of civilizations will dominate global politics. The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future."
  • "The West won the world not by the superiority of its ideas or values or religion but rather by its superiority in applying organized violence. Westerners often forget this fact, non-Westerners never do."
  • Hypocrisy, double standards, and "but nots" are the price of universalist pretensions. Democracy is promoted but not if it brings Islamic fundamentalists to power; nonproliferation is preached for Iran and Iraq but not for Israel; free trade is the elixer of economic growth but not for agriculture; human rights are an issue for China but not with Saudi Arabia; aggression against oil-owning Kuwaitis is massively repulsed but not against non-oil-owning Bosnians. Double standards in practice are the unavoidable price of universal standards of principle. (The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, p. 184)
  • "In the emerging world of ethnic conflict and civilizational clash, Western belief in the universality of Western culture suffers three problems: it is false; it is immoral; and it is dangerous...Imperialism is the necessary logical consequence of universalism." (The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, p. 310)
  • "In Eurasia the great historic fault lines between civilizations are once more aflame. This is particularly true along the boundaries of the crescent-shaped Islamic bloc of nations from the bulge of Africa to central Asia. Violence also occurs between Muslims, on the one hand, and Orthodox Serbs in the Balkans, Jews in Israel, Hindus in India, Buddhists in Burma and Catholics in the Philippines. Islam has bloody borders." (Clash of Civilizations, original 1993 Foreign Affairs article)
  • "Cultural America is under siege. And as the Soviet experience illustrates, ideology is a weak glue to hold together people otherwise lacking racial, ethnic, and cultural sources of community." (Who Are We? America's Great Debate, p. 12)

Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Selected publications

Political Order in Changing Societies is a book by Samuel P. Huntington dealing with changes in the political systems and political institutions. ... The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order cover The clash of civilizations is a controversial theory in international relations. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

See also

Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... Spanish language spread in the United States. ... Cover of The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order The Clash of Civilizations is a controversial theory that peoples cultural/religious identity will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. ... Modernization theory is a socio-economic theory, sometimes known as (or as being encompassed within) development theory, which highlights the positive role played by the developed world in modernizing and facilitating sustainable development in underdeveloped nations, often contrasted with dependency theory. ... Fareed Zakaria Fareed Zakaria (born January 20, 1964, Mumbai, India) is a writer and journalist specializing in international relations. ...

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