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Encyclopedia > Samuel Johnson
Samuel Johnson LLD MA

Samuel Johnson circa 1772,
painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds.
Born September 18 [O.S. September 7] 1709
Lichfield, England
Died 13 December 1784 (age 75)
London, England
Occupation essayist, lexicographer
biographer, poet

Samuel Johnson (September 18 [O.S. September 7] 170913 December 1784), regularly referred to simply as Dr Johnson, is among England's best known literary figures.[1] Dr Johnson was an essayist, poet, biographer, lexicographer and a critic of English Literature. Also considered to be a great wit and prose stylist, he was well known for his aphorisms. The single most quoted English writer after Shakespeare,[2] Dr Johnson has been described as being among the most outstanding figures of 18th-century England.[3] Samuel Johnson is the name of: Dr Samuel Johnson (1709–1784), English literary figure and compiler of A Dictionary of the English Language. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... In the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, the degree of Master of Arts (MA) is awarded to Bachelors of Arts of those universities on application after seven years seniority as members of the university. ... Image File history File links Samuel_Johnson_by_Joshua_Reynolds. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds in a self-portrait Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney, The Archers, 1769. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Not to be confused with Litchfield. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... A lexicographer is a person devoted to the study of lexicography, especially an author of a dictionary. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A lexicographer is a person devoted to the study of lexicography, especially an author of a dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... The word aphorism (literally distinction or definition, from Greek: ) denotes an original thought, spoken or written in a laconic and easily memorable form. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life and education

Johnson's birthplace in Market Square, Lichfield
Dr Johnson's House, 17 Gough Square, London
Dr Johnson's House, 17 Gough Square, London
Johnson had rooms as an undergraduate on the second floor above the entrance of Pembroke College, Oxford
250th anniversary of the publication of Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language commemorated on a British 50 pence coin
250th anniversary of the publication of Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language commemorated on a British 50 pence coin

The son of a poor bookseller, Michael Johnson, and his wife, Sarah Ford, Johnson was born in Lichfield, Staffordshire. He attended Lichfield Grammar School. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with Litchfield. ... Download high resolution version (457x640, 69 KB)photo by lonpicman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (457x640, 69 KB)photo by lonpicman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dr Johnsons House, 17 Gough Square, London Dr Johnsons House in the City of London is a former home of the 18th century English writer Samuel Johnson. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1872x2816, 2083 KB) Summary Description: Pembroke College Entrance Source: self-made Date: created 5. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1872x2816, 2083 KB) Summary Description: Pembroke College Entrance Source: self-made Date: created 5. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with Litchfield. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ... King Edward VI School is situated near the heart of the city of Lichfield, Staffordshire, just a five minute walk from local amenities. ...


On 31 October 1728, a few weeks after he turned nineteen, he entered Pembroke College, Oxford, as a fellow-commoner. After thirteen months, however, poverty forced him to leave Oxford without taking a degree and he returned to Lichfield. Just before the publication of his Dictionary in 1755, Oxford University awarded Johnson the degree of Master of Arts. He was awarded an honorary doctorate in 1765 by Trinity College Dublin and in 1775 by Oxford University. is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala The founding of the University of Havana (Universidad de la Habana), Cubas most well-established university. ... College name Pembroke College Collegium Pembrochianum Named after The Earl of Pembroke Established 1624 Sister College Queens College Master Giles Henderson JCR President Dawn Rennie Undergraduates 408 MCR President Ross Nicolson Graduates 119 College Homepage Boat Club The lodge and the entrance to Pembroke College in Pembroke Square. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin or more commonly Trinity College, Dublin (TCD) was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I, is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


He attempted to work as a teacher and schoolmaster, initially being turned down by the headmaster of Adams' Grammar School, Rev Samuel Lea, but then finding work at a school in Stourbridge. Aged twenty-five, he married Elizabeth "Tetty" Porter, a widow twenty-one years his elder. His first work published in 1735 was a translation from the French of Lobo's A Voyage to Abyssinia. For university teachers, see professor. ... Adams Grammar School is a state grammar school in Newport, Shropshire. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... , Stourbridge is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley, in the West Midlands of England. ... Elizabeth Jervis Porter (1689-1752) was the wife of Samuel Johnson. ... Jerónimo Lobo (1593 - 29 January 1678) was a Portuguese Jesuit missionary. ...


In 1736, Johnson established a private academy at Edial, near Lichfield. He had only three pupils, but one of them was David Garrick, who remained his friend, while becoming the most famous actor of his day. He began the writing of his first major work there, the historical tragedy Irene, which was later produced by Garrick in 1749. Edial Hall School was a school established in 1735 by Samuel Johnson at Edial near Lichfield. ... The hamlet of Edial lies to the east of Burntwood in Staffordshire. ... David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ...


Early career

In 1737, penniless Johnson left for London with his former pupil David Garrick. There he found employment with Edward Cave, writing for The Gentleman's Magazine. For the next three decades, Johnson wrote biographies, poetry, essays, pamphlets and parliamentary reports. These were presented as if they had been recorded verbatim, but were actually second-hand reports based on interviews with witnesses. He also prepared a catalogue for the sale of the Harleian Library. He continued to live in poverty for much of this time. The poem London (1738) and the Life of Savage (1745; a biography of Johnson's friend and fellow writer Richard Savage, who had shared in Johnson's poverty and died in 1744) are important works from this period. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Edward Cave (1691-1754) was a printer, editor and publisher. ... The Gentlemans Magazine was the first general-interest magazine, and the most influential periodical of its time. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


The Dictionary

Between 1745 and 1755, Johnson wrote perhaps his best-known work, A Dictionary of the English Language. During King Henry VIII's rule, England broke away from the Roman Catholic Church. The Protestant emphasis on sola scriptura led William Tyndale to translate the Bible into English, and many people began to study scripture for themselves. This contributed to a significant rise in literacy rates, requiring a compilation of standard grammatical and spelling formats. A Dictionary of the English Language, one of the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language, was prepared by Samuel Johnson and published on April 15, 1755. ... William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tyndale,Tindall or Tyndall) (ca. ...


On the morning of June 18, 1746, Johnson, over breakfast at the Golden Anchor tavern in London, signed a contract with the booksellers/publishers William Strahan and associates to produce an authoritative dictionary of the English language. The contract stated that Johnson was to be paid 1500 Guineas (£1,575)[4] in instalments based on delivery of manuscript pages; all expenses relating to the project, ie ink, paper, assistants, etc to be at Johnson's cost and responsibility. It was assumed by Johnson himself that the project would take approximately three years. It would take, in fact, nearly ten years. is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Catharine de Ricci (born 1522) canonized. ... William Strahan (1715 - 1785) was a printer who ran a highly important and successful business in the eighteenth century, at one time employing 50 men. ...


During the decade he worked on "the Dictionary", Johnson, needing to augment his precarious income, also wrote a series of semi-weekly essays under the title The Rambler. These essays, often on moral and religious topics, tended to be more grave than the title of the series would suggest. They ran until 1752. Initially they were not popular, but once collected as a volume they found a large audience. Johnson's wife died shortly after the final issue appeared. The Rambler was a periodical by Samuel Johnson published on Tuesdays and Saturdays from 1750 to 1752. ...


During his work on the dictionary, Johnson made many appeals for financial help in the form of subscriptions: patrons would get a copy of the first edition as soon as it was printed in compensation for their support during its compilation.


Despite common assumptions, Johnson's was not the first dictionary of the English language. In the preceding 150 years there had been about twenty "English" dictionaries. The first, published in 1538, was a small Latin-English dictionary by Sir Thomas Elyot. Robert Cawdrey's Table Alphabeticall, published in 1604, was the first monolingual English dictionary.[4] Sir Thomas Elyot (c. ... Robert Cawdrey (ca. ...


The published dictionary was a huge book: with pages nearly 1½ feet (46 cm) tall and 20 inches (51 cm) wide, it contained 42,773 words; it also sold for the huge price of £4/10s.. It would be years before "Johnson's Dictionary", as it came to be known, would ever turn a profit. Authors' royalties were unknown at that time. So Johnson, once his contract to deliver the book was fulfilled, received no further monies connected to the book.


Work after the Dictionary

In 1755, after completion of the Dictionary, Johnson was once again a freelance writer. Among the patrons to whom Johnson appealed in vain for support during the writing of the dictionary had been Lord Chesterfield. After the dictionary was finally published, Chesterfield sent Johnson a large cheque. Johnson returned it with his now famous Letter to Chesterfield, in which he compares himself to a drowning man who calls for help vainly, then slowly swims to shore and crawls up on the beach, only to be offered a belated assistance. Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield (22 September 1694 – 24 March 1773) was a British statesman and man of letters. ... Illustration of Dr Johnson leaving Lord Chesterfields residence. ...


In 1758, Johnson began another series, The Idler. These were shorter and lighter than The Rambler and ran weekly for two years. Unlike his independent publication of The Rambler, The Idler was published in a weekly news journal.


In 1759, Johnson published his philosophical novella Rasselas, written in one week to pay for his mother's funeral and settle her debts. Some years later, however, Johnson gained a notoriety for dilatory writing; contemporary poet Charles Churchill teased Johnson for the delay in producing his long-promised edition of Shakespeare: "He for subscribers baits his hook / and takes your cash, but where's the book?"[5] The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia, often abbreviated to Rasselas, is a short story by Samuel Johnson, which he wrote in 1759 to help pay for his mothers funeral. ... Charles Churchill Charles Churchill (February, 1731 - November 4, 1764), was an English poet and satirist. ...


Status achieved

In July 1762 the twenty-four year old King George III granted Johnson an annual pension of £300.[citation needed]. While not making Johnson rich, it allowed him a modest yet comfortable independence for the remaining twenty-two years of his life. The award came largely through the efforts of Thomas Sheridan and the Earl of Bute. George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738–29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ... Thomas Sheridan (1719 - 1788) was a stage actor and a major proponent of the elocution movement. ... John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (May 25, 1713 - March 10, 1792), was a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762-1763) under George III. A close relative of the Campbell clan (his mother was a daughter of the First Duke of Argyll), Bute succeeded to...


A few months later, Johnson met James Boswell, later to become his biographer, for the first time. James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck and 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Around the same time, Johnson formed "The Club", a social group that included his friends Joshua Reynolds, Edmund Burke, David Garrick and Oliver Goldsmith. The Club was a London dining club founded in 1764 by essayist Samuel Johnson, and Joshua Reynolds, the painter. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds in a self-portrait Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney, The Archers, 1769. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ... Oliver Goldsmith Oliver Goldsmith (November 10, 1730 or 1728 – April 4, 1774) was an Irish writer and physician known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766), his pastoral poem The Deserted Village (1770) (written in memory of his brother), and his plays The Good-naturd Man (1768) and...


By now, Johnson was a celebrated figure. He received an honorary doctorate from Trinity College, Dublin in 1765, followed by one from Oxford ten years later. An Honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum) is a degree awarded to someone by an institution that he or she may have never attended, it may be a bachelors, masters or doctorate degree - however, the latter is most common. ... For other institutions named Trinity College, see Trinity College. ...


Dr Johnson - Dictionary writer Boswell - Biographer Sir Joshua Reynolds - Host David Garrick - actor Edmund Burke - statesman Pasqual Paoli - Corsican independent Charles Burney - music historian Thomas Warton - poet laureate Oliver Goldsmith - writer prob.The Infant Academy 1782 unknown painting An unknown portrait servant - poss. Dr Johnson's hier Use button to enlarge or use hyperlinks

A literary party at Sir Joshua Reynolds - 1781. The painting shows the friends of Reynolds - many of whom were members of "The Club" - use cursor to identify.
A literary party at Sir Joshua Reynolds - 1781. The painting shows the friends of Reynolds - many of whom were members of "The Club" - use cursor to identify.

In 1765, Johnson met Henry Thrale, a wealthy brewer and Member of Parliament, and his wife, Hester. They quickly became friends and soon Johnson became a member of the family. He stayed with the Thrales for fifteen years until Henry's death in 1781, sometimes staying in rooms at Thrale's Anchor Brewery in Southwark. Hester Thrale's reminiscences of Johnson, together with her diaries and correspondence, are second only to Boswell as a source of biographical information on Johnson. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Henry Thrale by Sir Joshua Reynolds Henry Thrale (born 1724-30, at the Alehouse in Harrow Corner, Southwark, died 4 April 1781, London) was an 18th century English MP and a close friend of Samuel Johnson. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Hester Lynch Thrale by Sir Joshua Reynolds Hester Lynch Thrale (born Hester Lynch Salusbury and after her second marriage, Hester Lynch Piozzi ) (16 January 1741 (she mistakenly celebrated her own birthday on 27 January) - May 2, 1821) was a British diarist, author, and a friend and confidante of Samuel Johnson. ... The Anchor Brewery, Southwark, was situated off Southwark Bridge Road and had its main entrance on Park Street, Southwark. ... For other places with the same name, see Southwark (disambiguation). ...


Boswell, Johnson and the "Journey"

In 1773, eleven years after Johnson had met Boswell, the two of them set out on A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland, the title Johnson used for his account of their travels published in 1775. (Boswell's account, The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, was published in 1786, as a preliminary to his Life of Johnson.) Their visit to the Scottish Highlands and the Hebrides took place while the post-Jacobite pacification was crushing the Scottish clan system, at a moment when the romanticisation of Gaelic culture was accelerating. Johnson proceeded to attack the claims that James Macpherson's Ossian poems were translations of ancient Scottish literature, on the grounds that "in those times nothing had been written in the Earse language."[6] However, Johnson also aided Scottish Gaelic culture by calling for a Bible translation, which was produced soon afterward. Until then, Scottish Gaels had only Bedell's Irish translation. James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck and 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland (1775) is a travel narrative by Samuel Johnson about an eighty-three day journey through Scotland, in particular the islands of the Hebrides, in the late summer and autumn of 1773. ... Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides with Samuel Johnson, LL.D. is a travel journal by Scotsman James Boswell published in 1785. ... In English literature, The Life of Samuel Johnson, L.L.D. was a biography of Dr. Samuel Johnson by James Boswell, published in 1791. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which... Romantics redirects here. ... “Gael” redirects here. ... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oisín. ... This article is about the Gaelic language of Scotland. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ...


Final works

In the 1770s, Johnson, who had tended to be an opponent of the government early in life, published a series of pamphlets in favour of various government policies. In 1770 he produced The False Alarm, a political pamphlet attacking John Wilkes. In 1771, his Thoughts on the Late Transactions Respecting Falkland's Islands appeared, cautioning against war with Spain.[7] In 1774 he printed The Patriot, a critique of what he viewed as false patriotism. The last of these pamphlets, Taxation No Tyranny,[8] 1775, made the case against American colonists, then clamouring loudly for independence. Upon hearing that the Colonies had gone independent, he announced that Cornwall and the Cornish people had more claim to independence.[9] On the evening of April 7, 1775, he is believed to have made the famous statement, "Patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel." To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... The Cornish people are a British ethnic group originating in Cornwall. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Johnson's final major work was the Lives of the English Poets, a project commissioned by a consortium of London booksellers. The Lives, which were critical as well as biographical studies, appeared as prefaces to selections of each poet's work. Johnson died in 1784 and was buried at Westminster Abbey. Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets (1781) was a work by Samuel Johnson, comprising short biographies of about 50 poets, most of whom were alive in the eighteenth century. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Character sketch

A portrait of Johnson from 1775 by Joshua Reynolds showing Johnson's intense concentration and the weakness of his eyes. Johnson complained that he did not want to be depicted as "Blinking Sam"
A portrait of Johnson from 1775 by Joshua Reynolds showing Johnson's intense concentration and the weakness of his eyes. Johnson complained that he did not want to be depicted as "Blinking Sam"[10]

Large and powerfully built, Johnson had poor eyesight, was hard of hearing and had a scarred face as a result of childhood scrofula. At the age of two, he was brought to "royal touch" ceremony with Queen Anne, although this practice was fading into obsolescence. He also had a number of tics and other involuntary movements; the symptoms described by Boswell suggest that Johnson had Tourette syndrome[11] and obsessive-compulsive disorder.[12] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (832x1119, 534 KB) Summary A portrait of Samuel Johnson by Joshua Reynolds showing Johnson pulling a books cover back and concentrating intensely on its words. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (832x1119, 534 KB) Summary A portrait of Samuel Johnson by Joshua Reynolds showing Johnson pulling a books cover back and concentrating intensely on its words. ... Year 1775 (MDCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... King Henry IV of France touching a number of sufferers of scrofula who are gathered about him in a circle. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... Not to be confused with Tick. ... Tourette redirects here. ...


Johnson was a devout, conservative Anglican, a staunch Tory and a compassionate man, supporting a number of poor friends under his own roof. He was an opponent of slavery and once proposed a toast to the "next rebellion of the negroes in the West Indies".[13] He had a black manservant, Francis Barber (Frank), whom Johnson made his heir.[14] He admitted to sympathies for the Jacobite cause but by the reign of George III he had come to accept the Hanoverian Succession. He remained a fiercely independent and original thinker, which may explain his deep affinity for John Milton's work despite Milton's intensely radical — and, for Johnson, intolerable — political and religious outlook. This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... Francis Barber (c. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... George III redirects here. ... Act of Settlement Sophia of the Palatine, later Electress of Hanover Portrait by her sister Louise Hollandine, c. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ...


Many out-of-context humorous quotations and asides have created a popular impression that Johnson despised the Scots. However, careful reading of Boswell and of Johnson shows that, while Johnson cited ignorance and laziness as a primary cause for the degraded conditions under which most Scots lived, he frequently tempered his censure with a measure of empathy. He undertook a lengthy tour of Scotland with his great friend, himself a Lowland Scot, James Boswell. While Johnson's record of these travels tended toward social commentary and amateur ethnography, Boswell's account is primarily a study of Johnson, whom he would more thoroughly cover after the latter's death. The first conversation between Johnson and Boswell is frequently quoted: In physical geography, a lowland is any broad expanse of land with a general low level. ... James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck and 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...

[Boswell:] "Mr Johnson, I do indeed come from Scotland, but I cannot help it."
[Johnson:] "That, Sir, I find, is what a very great many of your countrymen cannot help."[15]

Among students of philosophy, Dr Johnson is perhaps best known for his "refutation" of Bishop Berkeley's idealism. During a conversation with his biographer, Johnson became infuriated at the suggestion that Berkeley's idealism could not be refuted. In his anger, Johnson powerfully stomped a nearby stone and proclaimed of Berkeley's theory, "I refute it thus!".[16] For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP). ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ...


Johnson used a curious form of shorthand when writing poetry: he would compose a line in his head, then only write down the first half. It appears that he would remember the second half by the rhyme. Then, when he had more time, he would go back through the manuscript and complete each line. Scholars have often noted[citation needed] that the ink colour is consistent between all the beginning half-lines and between all the ending halflines, but that it frequently differs between the first half of a line and the second half. This method is reminiscent of the feats of memory that enabled a Celtic bard to remember over a hundred long tales or Homer to recite the Iliad and the Odyssey. title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ...


Legacy

Johnson (right) and Prince George portrayed in the Blackadder episode "Ink and Incapability"
Johnson (right) and Prince George portrayed in the Blackadder episode "Ink and Incapability"

Johnson's fame in the wider world is due in large part to the enormous success of Boswell's Life of Johnson. Boswell, however, first met Johnson in 1763 when the older man had already achieved a degree of fame and stability, leading Boswell's biography to emphasise the latter part of Johnson's life. Consequently, Johnson has been seen more as a gruff but lovable society figure than as the struggling and poverty-stricken writer he was for much of his life. Image File history File links Blackadder_III_-_Ink_and_Incapability. ... Image File history File links Blackadder_III_-_Ink_and_Incapability. ... In English literature, The Life of Samuel Johnson, L.L.D. was a biography of Dr. Samuel Johnson by James Boswell, published in 1791. ...


Before arriving in London, Johnson stayed in Birmingham, where he is remembered in a frieze within the Old Square. Birmingham Central Library holds a Johnson collection, containing around two thousand volumes of his works (including many first editions) and literary periodicals and books about him. This article is about the British city. ... Frieze of the Tower of the Winds. ... Birmingham Central Library is the main library in Birmingham, England. ...


In popular culture, Johnson (played by Robbie Coltrane) was featured in the third series of Blackadder (in the episode titled Ink and Incapability), presenting his dictionary to Prince George for his patronage, whereupon it is thrown on the fire by the servant Baldrick to serve as kindling. Johnson was also played by Coltrane in the film Boswell and Johnson's Tour of the Western Islands. For the jazz saxophonist, see Ravi Coltrane. ... For other uses, see Blackadder (disambiguation). ... Ink and Incapability is an episode of the BBC sitcom Blackadder. ... For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ... Prince George Prince George (1762-1816) was a fictional caricature of the historical figure HRH The Prince George, Prince of Wales, played by Hugh Laurie in the third series of the popular BBC sitcom Blackadder. ... Baldrick is a fictional character featured in the television series Blackadder. ...


American author Lillian de la Torre wrote a series of detective stories featuring Johnson and Boswell as early versions of Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson, most of which were published in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine. This article is about Arthur Conan Doyles fictional detective. ... Dr Watson (left) and Sherlock Holmes, by Sidney Paget. ... Ellery Queens Mystery Magazine is a monthly digest size fiction magazine specializing in crime fiction, particularly detective fiction. ...


His quote, "He who makes a beast of himself gets rid of the pain of being a man" serves as epigraph to Hunter S. Thompson's Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, and also in the Avenged Sevenfold song "Bat Country". Hunter Stockton Thompson (18 July 1937 – 20 February 2005) was an American journalist and author, famous for his novel Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. ... The hard cover version of the book. ...


Major works

Essays, pamphlets, periodicals

1747 Plan for a Dictionary of the English Language
1750–1752   The Rambler
1753–1754 The Adventurer
1755 Preface to a Dictionary of the English Language
1758–1760 The Idler (1758-1760)
1765 Preface to the Plays of William Shakespeare
1770 The False Alarm
1771 Thoughts on the Late Transactions Respecting Falkland's Islands
1774 The Patriot
1775 Taxation No Tyranny

Poetry

1738 London
1747 Prologue at the Opening of the Theatre in Drury Lane
1749 The Vanity of Human Wishes
Irene, a Tragedy

Biography

1779–1781 Lives of the Poets

Criticism

1765 The Plays of William Shakespeare

Dictionary

1755 A Dictionary of the English Language

Novellas

1759 The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia

The Rambler was a periodical by Samuel Johnson published on Tuesdays and Saturdays from 1750 to 1752. ... The Idler was a series of 103 essays, all but twelve of them by Samuel Johnson, published in the London weekly the Universal Chronicle between 1758 and 1760. ... Cover of 1976 Penguin English Library edition of Rasselas The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia, often abbreviated to Rasselas, is a novella by Samuel Johnson. ...

See also

Dr Johnsons House, 17 Gough Square, London Dr. Johnsons House in the City of London is a former home of the 18th century English writer Samuel Johnson. ... The Samuel Johnson Prize is one of the worlds most prestigious awards for non-fiction writing. ... Touch Pieces are coins and medalets that have attracted superstitious beliefs, such as those with holes in them or those with particular designs. ... Hodge is the name of one of Samuel Johnsons cats, immortalized in a characteristically whimsical passage in James Boswells Life of Johnson: 1 The latter paragraph is used as the epigraph to Vladimir Nabokovs acclaimed poem/novel Pale Fire. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Dr. Johnson", Websters Dictionary, retrieved 14 July 2007.[1]
  2. ^ "Samuel Johnson", Encyclopedia Britannica 15th Edition, Retrieved on 14 June 2007.
  3. ^ "Samuel Johnson", Britannica Concise, retrieved 14 June 2007.[2]
  4. ^ a b Hitchings, Henry, Defining the World, (Farrar,Straus, & Giroux, NY 2005)
  5. ^ Charles Churchill (1731-1764) biography jamesbowell.info Retrieved 1 December 2006.
  6. ^ Johnson's "Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland" and Boswell’s "Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides" ed. Chapman, 104-5.
  7. ^ Thoughts on the Late Transactions Respecting Falkland's Islands Retrieved 9 December 2006.
  8. ^ Taxation No Tyranny. Retrieved December 5, 2006.
  9. ^ Taxation No Tyranny. 2006.
  10. ^ Kai Kin Yung, Samuel Johnson, 1984, Herbert Press, p.14
  11. ^ Tourette Syndrome Association. Samuel Johnson Accessed 10 February 2005.
  12. ^ Sharma, Vijai P. Obsessive Thinking, Compulsive Behaviors. Mind Publications (1996). Accessed January 30, 2007.
  13. ^ Boswell, James The Life of Johnson, 23 September 1777: "Upon one occasion, when in company with some very grave men at Oxford, his toast was, 'Here's to the next insurrection of the negroes in the West Indies.'"
  14. ^ Boswell, James The Life of Johnson, Aetat.75 transcribes Johnson's will.
  15. ^ James Boswell The Life of Samuel Johnson, [1992] Everyman ed., p247.
  16. ^ James Boswell, "Life of Johnson"

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References

  • Bate, Walter Jackson. The Achievement of Samuel Johnson (1978), and Samuel Johnson (1977).
  • Hibbert, Christopher. The personal history of Samuel Johnson (Penguin, 1984).
  • Hitchings, Henry. Defining the World (Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2005).
  • Parrott, T. M. Samuel Johnson, Philosopher and Autocrat (1903).
  • Baldwin, Barry. The Latin & Greek Poems of Samuel Johnson (1995).
  • Quinney, Laura. "Chapter 2: Johnson in Mourning" in Literary Power and the Criteria of Truth (1995).
  • Reddick, Alan. The Making of Johnson's Dictionary (Cambridge, 1990).
  • Redford, Bruce (ed.). The letters of Samuel Johnson: the Hyde edition (5 volumes, Oxford, 1994).
  • Wain, John (ed.). Johnson on Johnson (Dent 1976)
  • Watkins, W. B. C. Perilous Balance: The Tragic Genius of Swift, Johnson, and Sterne (1939).
  • Wharton, T. F. Samuel Johnson and the Theme of Hope (1984).
  • Hunter S. Thompson, "Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas" ("He Who Makes A beast Out of Himself, Gets Rid of The Pain Of Being A Man) (1971).
  • Avenged Sevenfold, Bat Country ("He Who Makes A beast Out of Himself, Gets Rid of The Pain Of Being A Man").
  • James Boswell, The Life of Samuel Johnson, Facsimile Reprint of First Issue of the First Edition, bound with The Principal Corrections and Additions to the First Edition, 2 volumes (ISBN 978-4-901481-69-4) www.aplink.co.jp/synapse/4-901481-69-X.htm

Walter Jackson Bate (May 23, 1918 - July 26, 1999) was an American literary critic and biographer. ... Christopher Hibbert, MC, (born 1924) is an English writer and popular historian and biographer. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Thomas Marc Parrott (1866 – 1960) was a prominent twentieth-century literary scholar, long a member of the faculty of Princeton University in New Jersey. ... Barry Baldwin (born in England in 1937) is a classicist, journalist and author of mystery fiction. ... John Wain (born John Barrington Wain, March 14, 1925 - May 24, 1994) was an English poet, novelist, and critic, associated with the literary group The Movement. ... For the self-titled album, see Avenged Sevenfold (album). ... Bat Country is a single by an American metalcore band Avenged Sevenfold from their 2005 album, City of Evil. ...

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NAME Johnson, Samuel
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English poet, biographer,, essayist, lexicographer
DATE OF BIRTH September 18 [O.S. September 7] 1709
PLACE OF BIRTH Lichfield, England
DATE OF DEATH December 13, 1784
PLACE OF DEATH London, England
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This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Jens Schielderup Sneedorff Jens Schielderup Sneedorff (22 August 1724–5 June 1764) was a Danish author, professor of political science and royal teacher and a central figure in Denmark-Norway in the Age of Enlightenment. ... Johann Friedrich Struensee By Jens Juel, 1771, Collection of Bomann Museum, Celle, Germany. ... {{unreferenced|article|date=March 2007]] Copper engraving depicting Eggert Ólafssons death. ... Anders Chydenius Anders Chydenius (26 February 1729 – 1 February 1803) was the leading classical liberal of Nordic history. ... Peter ForsskÃ¥l (sometimes also Pehr ForsskÃ¥l, Peter Forskaol, Petrus ForskÃ¥l or Pehr ForsskÃ¥hl) (born in Helsinki, 11 January 1732, died in Yemen, 11 July 1763), Swedish explorer, orientalist and naturalist. ... Gustav III, King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends, etc. ... Field Marshal and Count Arvid Bernhard Horn (April 6, 1664 â€“ April 17, 1742) was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish empire during the period of Sweden-Finland). ... Johan Henrik Kellgren Johan Henrik Kellgren (1 December 1751-1795), Swedish poet and critic, was born at Floby in West Gothland. ... Emanuel Swedenborg, 75, holding the manuscript of Apocalypsis Revelata (1766). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... For the current in the 19th century German idealism, see Naturphilosophie Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. ... Rationality as a term is related to the idea of reason, a word which following Websters may be derived as much from older terms referring to thinking itself as from giving an account or an explanation. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about secularism. ... The Encyclopédistes were a group of 18th century writers in France who compiled the Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia) edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond dAlembert. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ... Tourette redirects here. ... Causes and origins of Tourette syndrome have not been fully elucidated. ... Tourette syndrome is an inherited neurological disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. ... Tourette syndrome (also Tourettes syndrome, Tourettes or TS) is an inherited neurological disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of motor and phonic tics. ... Tourette syndrome (also Tourettes syndrome or TS) is an inherited neurological disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of motor and phonic tics. ... Coprolalia is involuntary swearing or the involuntary utterance of obscene words or socially inappropriate and derogatory remarks. ... Etymology: Greek copro feces and praxia (action). Copropraxia is involuntarily performing obscene or forbidden gestures. ... Echolalia is the repetition or echoing of verbal utterances made by another person. ... Etymology: Greek echo (repetition) and praxia (action). Echopraxia is the involuntary repetition or imitation of the observed movements of another. ... Palilalia is the repetition or echoing of ones own spoken words. ... Sensory phenomena are general feelings, urges or bodily sensations that precede or accompany repetitive behaviors[1] associated with Tourette syndrome and tic disorders. ... Not to be confused with Tick. ... A tic is a repeated, impulsive action, almost reflexive in nature, which the actor feels powerless to control or avoid. ... Tourettism refers to tics associated with conditions other than Tourette syndrome. ... Categories: People stubs | French physicians | 1825 births | 1893 deaths | History of medicine ... Georges Gilles de la Tourette (1857-1904) was a French neurologist who first described the symptoms of Tourette syndrome. ... Jean Marc Gaspard Itard (April 24, 1774 – 1838) was a French physician born in Provence. ... Arthur K. Shapiro (1923-1995), was a psychiatrist and expert on Tourette syndrome. ... The Tourette Syndrome Association (TSA), based in Bayside, New York, United States, is a non-profit voluntary organization, founded in 1972 by a group of parents of children with Tourette syndrome. ... The Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada (or TSFC) is a Canadian voluntary organization based in Toronto, Ontario. ... I Have Tourettes But Tourettes Doesnt Have Me is an Emmy Award-winning documentary film featuring children between the ages of six and thirteen with Tourette syndrome. ... Johns Not Mad was a QED documentary made by the BBC in 1989. ... The Tic Code is a 1999 drama film starring Christopher Marquette, Carol Kane and Polly Draper. ... Le Petit Tourette ( The Little Tourette) is episode 1108 (#161) of Comedy Centrals South Park. ... Motherless Brooklyn is a Jonathan Lethem novel published in 1999. ... Tourette syndrome (also Tourettes syndrome, Tourettes or TS) is an inherited neurological disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of motor and phonic tics. ... Mahmoud Abdul-Rauf (born Chris Wayne Jackson on March 9, 1969 in Gulfport, Mississippi) is an American former professional basketball player. ... Howard Ahmanson, Jr. ... Peter Alexander Bennett[1] (born March 22, 1982 in Camberwell, London to Mark Bennett and Anne Stephenson), better known as Pete, was the winner of Big Brother 7. ... Brad Cohen is a motivational speaker and an award-winning teacher and author. ... James Michael Eisenreich (born April 18, 1959 St. ... For other persons named Tim Howard, see Tim Howard (disambiguation). ... Andr Malraux, French author, adventurer and statesman Andr Malraux (November 3, 1901 - November 23, 1976) was a French author, adventurer and statesman. ... Tobias Picker (b. ... Michael Wolff is an American jazz pianist, composer and actor. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... This article needs cleanup. ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... A lexicographer is a person devoted to the study of lexicography, especially an author of a dictionary. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style redirects here. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Not to be confused with Litchfield. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

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BBC - BBC Four - Samuel Johnson Prize 2008 (197 words)
BBC - BBC Four - Samuel Johnson Prize 2008
This year marks the 10th anniversary of the Samuel Johnson Prize.
BBC Four will also broadcast The Contenders, a compilation of short films about each of the shortlisted books, which will include interviews with the authors.
Samuel Johnson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1532 words)
Johnson, was one of England's greatest literary figures: a poet, essayist, biographer, lexicographer and often considered the finest critic of English literature.
Johnson proceeded to attack the claims that James Macpherson's Ossian poems were translations of ancient Scottish literature, on the false basis that the Scottish Gaelic language "never was a written language." However, Johnson also aided Scottish Gaelic by calling for a Bible translation, which was produced soon afterward.
The Achievement of Samuel Johnson (1978), and Samuel Johnson (1977).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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