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Encyclopedia > Samuel Beckett
Samuel Beckett

Louis le Brocquy, Image of Samuel Beckett (detail), 1979, oil on canvas, 80 x 80 cm
Born Samuel Barclay Beckett
13 April 1906(1906-04-13)
Foxrock, Dublin, Ireland
Died 22 December 1989 (aged 83)
Paris, France
Pen name Andrew Belis (Recent Irish Poetry)[1]
Occupation novelist, short story writer, playwright, poet, essayist
Nationality Irish
Genres Drama, fictional prose, poetry
Literary movement High Modernism
Notable award(s) Nobel Prize in Literature
1969

Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 190622 December 1989) was an Irish writer, dramatist and poet. This article is about the TV show. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Foxrock (Carraig an tSionnaigh in Irish) is a suburb, formerly a separate village, in Dublin, Ireland, in Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, in postal district Dublin 18. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... This article is about work. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart... Dante redirects here. ... Arnold Geulincx (January 31, 1624 - November 1669), Flemish philosopher and logician. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Proust redirects here. ... Jean Racine, in an engraving by Pierre Savart. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... Edmund John Millington Synge (IPA: ) (April 16, 1871 – March 24, 1909) was an Irish dramatist, poet, prose writer, and collector of folklore. ... A 1907 engraving of Yeats. ... Sean OCasey Sean OCasey (March 30, 1880 - September 18, 1964) was a major Irish dramatist and memorist. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Donatien Alphonse François de Sade (Marquis de Sade) (June 2, 1740 – December 2, 1814) (pronounced IPA: ) was a French aristocrat, french revolutionary and writer of philosophy-laden and often violent pornography. ... René Descartes (French IPA:  Latin:Renatus Cartesius) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Irish-born English novelist and an Anglican clergyman. ... ‎ Democritus (Greek: ) was a pre-Socratic Greek materialist philosopher (born at Abdera in Thrace ca. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Kant redirects here. ... Bishop George Berkeley George Berkeley (bark-lee) (March 12, 1685–January 14, 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley, was an influential Irish philosopher whose primary philosophical achievement is the advancement of what has come to be called subjective idealism, summed up in his dictum, Esse est percipi (To be is... Edward Franklin Albee III (born March 12, 1928) is an American playwright known for works including Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, The Zoo Story, The Sandbox and The American Dream. ... Paul Auster Paul Benjamin Auster (born February 3, 1947, Newark, New Jersey) is a Brooklyn-based author. ... John Banville (born 8 December 1945) is an Irish novelist and journalist. ... Donald Barthelme (April 7, 1931 - July 23, 1989) was an American author of short fiction and novels. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) — August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... Italo Calvino, on the cover of Lezioni americane: Sei proposte per il prossimo millennio Italo Calvino (October 15, 1923 – September 19, 1985) (pronounced ) was an Italian writer and novelist. ... Marina Carr (b. ... John Maxwell Coetzee John Maxwell Coetzee (pronounced kut-SAY-uh) (born 9 February 1940) is a South African/Australian author, having emigrated from South Africa in 2002, and having been granted Australian citizenship on 6 March 2006. ... Don DeLillo (born November 20, 1936) is an American author best known for his novels, which paint detailed portraits of American life in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. ... Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. ... Václav Havel, GCB, CC, (IPA: ) (born October 5, 1936 in Prague) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ... Eugène Ionesco (Romanian spelling: Eugen Ionescu) (November 26, 1912 - March 28, 1994) was one of the foremost playwrights of the theater of the absurd. ... B. S. Johnson (Bryan Stanley Johnson) (5 February 1933 - 13 November 1973) was an English experimental novelist, poet, literary critic and film-maker. ... Sarah Kane (February 3, 1971 – February 20, 1999) was an English playwright. ... Derek Mahon Derek Mahon (born 23 November 1941) is an Irish poet. ... David Alan Mamet (born November 30, 1947) is an American author, essayist, playwright, screenwriter, and film director. ... Bruce Nauman (born December 6, 1941, in Fort Wayne, Indiana) is a contemporary American artist. ... Edna OBrien (born December 15, 1930) is an Irish novelist and short story writer whose works often revolve around the inner feelings of women, and their problems in relating to men. ... Jamie ONeill Jamie ONeill (born 1962 in Dun Laoghaire, Ireland) is an Irish author who lived and worked in England for two decades; he now lives in Gortachalla, in County Galway, Ireland. ... Damian Pettigrew (born in Quebec) is a Canadian filmmaker and multimedia artist, best known for his cinematic portraits of Balthus and Federico Fellini. ... Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (born 10 October 1930) is an English playwright, screenwriter, poet, actor, director, author, and political activist. ... Alberto Ruy-Sánchez Lacy, is a Mexican Writer and Editor born in Mexico City on December the 7th, 1951. ... Sam Shepard (born November 5, 1943) is a unique American artist whose talents have been expressed in many different areas. ... Sir Tom Stoppard, OM, CBE (born as Tomáš Straussler on July 3, 1937)[1] is an Academy Award winning British playwright of more than 24 plays. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... A poet is a person who writes poetry. ...


Beckett's work is stark and fundamentally minimalist. As a student, assistant, and friend of James Joyce, Beckett is considered by many one of the last modernists; as an inspiration to many later writers, he is sometimes considered one of the first postmodernists. He is also considered one of the key writers in what Martin Esslin called "Theatre of the Absurd". For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history of the modern novel and modern poetry as one. ... The term Postmodern literature is used to describe certain tendencies in post-World War II literature. ... Martin Julius Esslin (born Julius Pereszlenyi on June 6, 1918–died February 24, 2002) was a Hungarian born English playwright and critic best known for coining the term the theatre of the absurd in his work of that name (1962). ... The Theatre of the Absurd, or Theater of the Absurd (French: Le Théâtre de lAbsurde) is a designation for particular plays written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, as well as to the style of theatre which has evolved from...


He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1969 "for his writing, which—in new forms for the novel and drama—in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation".[2] Beckett was elected Saoi of Aosdána in 1984. He died in Paris of respiratory problems. René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart... Saoi, (pronounced See) (pl. ... Aosdána (IPA: ; from aos dána, Irish people of the arts) is an association of people in Ireland who have achieved distinction in the arts. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life and education

The Beckett family (originally Becquet) were rumoured to be of Huguenot stock and to have moved to Ireland from France after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, though this theory has been criticised as unlikely.[3] The Becketts were members of the Church of Ireland. The family home, Cooldrinagh in the Dublin suburb of Foxrock, was a large house and garden complete with tennis court that was built in 1903 by Samuel's father William. The house and garden, together with the surrounding countryside where he often went walking with his father, the nearby Leopardstown Racecourse, the Foxrock railway station and Harcourt Street station at the city terminus of the line, all feature in his prose and plays. Beckett's father was a quantity surveyor and his mother a nurse.[4] At the age of five, Beckett attended a local playschool, where he started to learn music, and then moved to Earlsford House School in the city centre near Harcourt Street. In 1919, Beckett went to Portora Royal School in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh—the school Oscar Wilde attended. A natural athlete, Beckett excelled at cricket as a left-handed batsman and a right-arm medium-pace bowler. Later, he was to play for Dublin University and played two first-class games against Northamptonshire. As a result, he became the only Nobel laureate to have an entry in Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, the "bible" of cricket.[5] From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Foxrock (Carraig an tSionnaigh in Irish) is a suburb, formerly a separate village, in Dublin, Ireland, in Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, in postal district Dublin 18. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Portora Royal School for boys, located in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, is one of a number of free English-medium schools founded by Royal Charter in 1608, by James I. Originally called Enniskillen Royal School and located outside Enniskillen, the school moved to its present location on Portora Hill... For other uses, see Enniskillen (disambiguation). ... Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Enniskillen Area: 1,691 km² Population (est. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... This article is about the sport. ... Andrew Strauss batting for England during the 2005 NatWest Series In the sport of cricket, batting is the act or skill of hitting the cricket ball with a cricket bat in order to score runs without getting out. ... One of the worlds leading off-spin bowlers Muttiah Muralitharan sends down another delivery A bowler in the sport of cricket is usually a player whose speciality is bowling, analogous to a pitcher in baseball. ... The University of Dublin, corporately designated the Chancellor, Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin located in Dublin, Ireland, was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I, making it Irelands oldest university. ... A first-class cricket match is one of three or more days duration between two sides of eleven players officially adjudged first-class. ... Northamptonshire County Cricket Club is one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English domestic cricket structure, representing the historic county of Northamptonshire. ... Wisden is the main publisher of information on cricket in the United Kingdom. ...


Early writings

Beckett studied French, Italian, and English at Trinity College, Dublin from 1923 to 1927. While at Trinity, one of his tutors was the eminent Berkeley scholar and Berkelian Dr. A. A. Luce. Beckett graduated with a B.A., and—after teaching briefly at Campbell College in Belfast—took up the post of lecteur d'anglais in the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. While there, he was introduced to renowned Irish author James Joyce by Thomas MacGreevy, a poet and close confidant of Beckett who also worked there. This meeting was soon to have a profound effect on the young man, and Beckett assisted Joyce in various ways, most particularly by helping him research the book that would eventually become Finnegans Wake.[6] For other institutions named Trinity College, see Trinity College. ... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... Campbell College is a voluntary grammar school in Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the capital city of Northern Ireland. ... The quadrangle at the main ENS building on rue dUlm is known as the Cour aux Ernests – the Ernests being the goldfish in the pond. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... This article is about the poet, also spelled McGreevy. For the Canadian politician, see Thomas McGreevy. ... For the street ballad which the novel is named after, see Finnegans Wake. ...


In 1929, Beckett published his first work, a critical essay entitled Dante...Bruno. Vico..Joyce. The essay defends Joyce's work and method, chiefly from allegations of wanton obscurity and dimness, and was Beckett's contribution to Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress, a book of essays on Joyce which also included contributions by Eugene Jolas, Robert McAlmon, and William Carlos Williams, among others. Beckett's close relationship with Joyce and his family, however, cooled when he rejected the advances of Joyce's daughter Lucia. It was also during this period that Beckett's first short story, "Assumption", was published in Jolas' periodical transition. The next year he won a small literary prize with his hastily composed poem "Whoroscope", which draws from a biography of René Descartes that Beckett happened to be reading when he was encouraged to submit. Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress is a collection of critical essays on the subject of James Joyces Finnegans Wake. ... Eugene Jolas (1894-1952) was a writer, translator and literary critic. ... Robert Menzies McAlmon (March 9, 1896 - February 2, 1956) was an American author, poet and publisher. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... The journal transition was founded in 1927 by poet Eugene Jolas and his wife Maria McDonald along with editors Elliot Paul, Robert Sage & Stuart Gilbert, Caresse Crosby & Harry Crosby did some editing as well. ... René Descartes (French IPA:  Latin:Renatus Cartesius) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ...


In 1930, Beckett returned to Trinity College as a lecturer. He soon became disillusioned with his chosen academic vocation, however. He expressed his aversion by playing a trick on the Modern Language Society of Dublin, reading a learned paper in French on a Toulouse author named Jean du Chas, founder of a movement called Concentrism; Chas and Concentrism, however, were pure fiction, having been invented by Beckett to mock pedantry. New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Look up pedant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Beckett resigned from Trinity at the end of 1931, terminating his brief academic career. He commemorated this turning point in his life by composing the poem "Gnome", inspired by his reading of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship and eventually published in the Dublin Magazine in 1934: Goethe redirects here. ... Wilhelm Meisters Apprenticeship (in German, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre) is the second novel by Goethe, published in 1795. ...

Spend the years of learning squandering
Courage for the years of wandering
Through a world politely turning
From the loutishness of learning.[7]

After leaving Trinity, Beckett began to travel in Europe. He also spent some time in London, where in 1931 he published Proust, his critical study of French author Marcel Proust. Two years later, in the wake of his father's death, he began two years' treatment with Tavistock Clinic psychotherapist, Dr. Wilfred Bion, who took him to hear Carl Jung's third Tavistock lecture, an event which Beckett would still recall many years later. The lecture focused on the subject of the "never properly born," and aspects of it would become evident in Beckett's later works including Watt and Waiting for Godot.[8] In 1932, he wrote his first novel, Dream of Fair to Middling Women, but after many rejections from publishers decided to abandon it; the book would eventually be published in 1993. Despite his inability to get it published, however, the novel did serve as a source for many of Beckett's early poems, as well as for his first full-length book, the 1933 short-story collection More Pricks Than Kicks. Samuel Beckett wrote his essay Proust in the summer of 1930, in response to a commission precipitated by Thomas MacGreevy, Charles Prentice, and Richard Aldington, during his stay at École Normale in Paris. ... Proust redirects here. ... The Tavistock Clinic is a noted centre for mental health therapy in the British NHS. It offers outpatient clinical services in London and provides many postgraduate training and academic courses for the mental health and social care professions. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jung redirects here. ... Waiting for Godot is a play by Samuel Beckett, in which the characters wait for Godot, who never arrives. ... This article is in need of attention. ... More Pricks Than Kicks is a collection of short prose by Samuel Beckett, first published in 1934. ...


Beckett also published a number of essays and reviews around the time, including "Recent Irish Poetry" (in The Bookman, August 1934) and "Humanistic Quietism", a review of his friend Thomas MacGreevy's Poems (in The Dublin Magazine, July–September 1934). These two reviews focused on the work of MacGreevy, Brian Coffey, Denis Devlin and Blanaid Salkeld, despite their slender achievements at the time, comparing them favourably with their Celtic Revival contemporaries and invoking Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot and the French symbolists as their precursors. In describing these poets as forming 'the nucleus of a living poetic in Ireland',[9] Beckett was tracing the outlines of an Irish poetic modernist canon. The Bookman was a magazine that was published in London from the 1890s until the 1930s by Hodder and Stoughton. ... The Dublin Magazine was an Irish literary journal founded and edited by the poet Seamus OSullivan (real name James Sullivan Starkey) and published by New Square Publications, Dublin, Eire It ran from August 1923 to August 1925 as a monthly and then from January 1926 to June 1958 as... Brian Coffey (June 8, 1905 - April 14, 1995) was an Irish poet and publisher. ... Denis Devlin (April 15, 1908 - August 21, 1959) was, along with Samuel Beckett and Brian Coffey, one of the generation of Irish modernist poets to emerge at the end of the 1920s. ... Blanaid Salkeld (1880-1959) was an Irish poet, dramatist, and actor, whose well-known literary salon was attended by, among others, Patrick Kavanagh and Flann OBrien. ... The Celtic Revival, also known as the Irish Literary Revival, was begun by Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn and William Butler Yeats in Ireland in 1896. ... Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (Hailey, Idaho Territory, United States, October 30, 1885 – Venice, Italy, November 1, 1972) was an American expatriate poet, critic and intellectual who was a major figure of the Modernist movement in early-to-mid 20th century poetry. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... La mort du fossoyeur (The death of the gravedigger) by Carlos Schwabe is a visual compendium of Symbolist motifs. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ...


In 1935—the year that Beckett successfully published a book of his poetry, Echo's Bones and Other Precipitates—he was also working on his novel Murphy. In May of that year, he wrote to MacGreevy that he had been reading about film and wished to go to Moscow to study with Sergei Eisenstein at the Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography in Moscow. In mid-1936, he wrote to Sergei Eisenstein and Vsevolod Pudovkin, offering to become their apprentices. Nothing came of this, however, as Beckett's letter was lost due to Eisenstein's quarantine during the smallpox outbreak, as well as his focus on a script re-write of his postponed film production. Beckett, meanwhile, finished Murphy, and then in 1936 departed for extensive travel around Germany, during which time he filled several notebooks with lists of noteworthy artwork that he had seen, also noting his distaste for the Nazi savagery which was then overtaking the country. Returning to Ireland briefly in 1937, he oversaw the publishing of Murphy (1938), which he himself translated into French the next year. He also had a falling-out with his mother, which contributed to his decision to settle permanently in Paris (where he would return for good following the outbreak of World War II in 1939, preferring—in his own words—'France at war to Ireland at peace').[10] Sometime around December 1937, Beckett had a brief affair with Peggy Guggenheim. The novel Murphy (1938) was Samuel Becketts third work of prose fiction. ... Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet Russian film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober. ... The All-Russian State Institute of Cinematography is the worlds oldest educational institution in Cinematography, founded in 1919. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet Russian film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober. ... Vsevolod Illarionovich Pudovkin (Russian: ) (February 16, 1893–June 20, 1953) was a Russian film director who developed influential theories of montage. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Peggy Guggenheim (August 26, 1898 – December 23, 1979) was an American art collector. ...


In Paris, in January 1938, while refusing the solicitations of a notorious pimp who ironically went by the name of Prudent, Beckett was stabbed in the chest and nearly killed. James Joyce arranged a private room for the injured Beckett at the hospital. The publicity surrounding the stabbing attracted the attention of Suzanne Deschevaux-Dumesnil, who knew Beckett slightly from his first stay in Paris; this time, however, the two would begin a lifelong companionship. At a preliminary hearing, Beckett asked his attacker for the motive behind the stabbing, and Prudent casually replied, "Je ne sais pas, Monsieur. Je m'excuse" ("I do not know, sir. I'm sorry").[11] Beckett occasionally recounted the incident in jest, and eventually dropped the charges against his attacker—partially to avoid further formalities, but also because he found Prudent to be personally likeable and well-mannered. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


World War II

Beckett joined the French Resistance after the 1940 occupation by Germany, working as a courier, and on several occasions over the next two years was nearly caught by the Gestapo. The Croix de Lorraine, chosen by General de Gaulle as the symbol of the resistance. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


In August 1942, his unit was betrayed and he and Suzanne fled south on foot to the safety of the small village of Roussillon, in the Vaucluse département in the Provence Alpes Cote d'Azur region. Here he continued to assist the Resistance by storing armaments in the back yard of his home. During the two years that Beckett stayed in Roussillon he indirectly helped the Maquis sabotage the German army in the Vaucluse mountains,[12] though he rarely spoke about his wartime work. Roussillon is a village and commune in the Vaucluse département of southern France. ... The Vaucluse is a département in the southeast of France. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Capital Marseilles Area 31,400 km² Regional President Michel Vauzelle (PS) (since 1998) Population   - 2004 estimate   - 1999 census   - Density (Ranked 3rd) 4,666,000 4,506,151 149/km² (2004) Arrondissements 18 Cantons 237 Communes 963 Départements Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Alpes-Maritimes Bouches-du-Rhône Hautes-Alpes... Members of the Maquis in La Tresorerie For other uses, see Maquis. ...


Beckett was awarded the Croix de guerre and the Médaille de la Résistance by the French government for his efforts in fighting the German occupation; to the end of his life, however, Beckett would refer to his work with the French Resistance as 'boy scout stuff'.[13] '[I]n order to keep in touch',[14] he continued work on the novel Watt (begun in 1941 and completed in 1945, but not published until 1953) while in hiding in Roussillon. The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... The french Médaille de la Résistance (Resistance Medal) was awarded by General Charles de Gaulle to recognise the remarkable acts of faith and of courage that, in France, in the empire and abroad, have contributed to the resistance of the French people against the enemy and against its... Polish Boy Scouts fighting in the Warsaw Uprising Boy Scouts originally denoted the organization that developed and rapidly grew up during 1908 in the wake of the publication by Lord Robert Baden-Powell of his book Scouting for Boys. ... Watt was Samuel Becketts second published novel in English, largely written on the run in the south of France during the Second World War and published by Maurice Girodiass Olympia Press in 1953. ...


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In 1945, Beckett returned to Dublin for a brief visit. During his stay, he had a revelation in his mother’s room in which his entire future literary direction appeared to him. This experience was later fictionalized in the 1958 play Krapp's Last Tape. In the play, Krapp’s revelation is set on the East Pier in Dún Laoghaire during a stormy night, and some critics have identified Beckett with Krapp to the point of presuming Beckett's own artistic epiphany was at the same location, in the same weather. Throughout the play, Krapp is listening to a tape he made earlier in his life; at one point he hears his younger self saying this: “...clear to me at last that the dark I have always struggled to keep under is in reality my most...” However, Krapp fast-forwards the tape before the audience can discover the complete revelation. Krapps Last Tape and Embers. ... This article is about the town of Dún Laoghaire . ...


Beckett later revealed to James Knowlson (which Knowlson relates in the biography Damned to Fame) that the missing word on the tape is "ally". He told Knowlson this revelation was inspired in part by his relationship to James Joyce. Beckett claimed he was faced with the possibility of being eternally in the shadow of Joyce, certain to never best him at his own game. Then he had a revelation, as Knowlson says, which “has rightly been regarded as a pivotal moment in his entire career." Knowlson goes on to explain the revelation as told to him by Beckett himself: "In speaking of his own revelation, Beckett tended to focus on the recognition of his own stupidity ... and on his concern with impotence and ignorance. He reformulated this for me, while attempting to define his debt to James Joyce: 'I realized that Joyce had gone as far as one could in the direction of knowing more, [being] in control of one’s material. He was always adding to it; you only have to look at his proofs to see that. I realized that my own way was in impoverishment, in lack of knowledge and in taking away, in subtracting rather than in adding.'" Knowlson explains: "Beckett was rejecting the Joycean principle that knowing more was a way of creatively understanding the world and controlling it ... In future, his work would focus on poverty, failure, exile and loss -- as he put it, on man as a 'non-knower' and as a 'non-can-er.'"


In 1946, Jean-Paul Sartre’s magazine Les Temps Modernes published the first part of Beckett’s short story "Suite" (later to be called "La fin", or "The End"), not realizing that Beckett had only submitted the first half of the story; Simone de Beauvoir refused to publish the second part. Beckett also began to write his fourth novel, Mercier et Camier, which was not to be published until 1970. The novel, in many ways, presaged his most famous work, the play Waiting for Godot, written not long afterwards, but more importantly, it was Beckett’s first long work to be written directly in French, the language of most of his subsequent works, including the trilogy of novels he was soon to write: Molloy, Malone Dies and The Unnamable. Despite being a native English speaker, Beckett chose to write in French because—as he himself claimed—in French it was easier for him to write 'without style'.[15] Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... La Beauvoir redirects here; also see: Beauvoir (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Waiting for Godot is a play by Samuel Beckett, in which the characters wait for Godot, who never arrives. ... Molloy (1951) is a novel by Samuel Beckett, the first of the sequence of novels which includes Malone Dies and The Unnamable. ... Malone Dies is the second novel in Samuel Becketts so called Trilogy of novels that began with Molloy, and ended with the Unnamable. ... The Unnamable is a novel by Samuel Beckett. ...


Beckett is publicly most famous for the play Waiting for Godot. In a much-quoted article, the critic Vivian Mercier wrote that Beckett "has achieved a theoretical impossibility—a play in which nothing happens, that yet keeps audiences glued to their seats. What's more, since the second act is a subtly different reprise of the first, he has written a play in which nothing happens, twice." (Irish Times, 18 February 1956, p. 6.) Like most of his works after 1947, the play was first written in French with the title En attendant Godot. Beckett worked on the play between October 1948 and January 1949.[16] He published it in 1952, and premiered it in 1953. The English translation appeared two years later. The play was a critical, popular, and controversial success in Paris. It opened in London in 1955 to mainly negative reviews, but the tide turned with positive reactions by Harold Hobson in The Sunday Times and, later, Kenneth Tynan. In the United States, it flopped in Miami, and had a qualified success in New York City. After this, the play became extremely popular, with highly successful performances in the U.S. and Germany. It is still frequently performed today. Waiting for Godot is a play by Samuel Beckett, in which the characters wait for Godot, who never arrives. ... Vivian Mercier Vivian Mercier (1919 - 1989) was an Irish literary critic. ... The Irish Times is Irelands newspaper of record, launched in the late 1850s. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... Kenneth Peacock Tynan (April 2, 1927 - July 26, 1980), was an influential and often controversial British theatre critic and writer. ... Miami redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


As noted, Beckett was now writing mainly in French. He translated all of his works into the English language himself, with the exception of Molloy, whose translation was collaborative with Patrick Bowles. The success of Waiting for Godot opened up a career in theatre for its author. Beckett went on to write a number of successful full-length plays, including 1957's Endgame, the aforementioned Krapp's Last Tape (written in English), 1960's Happy Days (also written in English), and 1963's Play. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Endgame is a one-act play for four characters by Samuel Beckett. ... The first English edition of Happy Days. ... Play is a play by Samuel Beckett. ...


In 1961, in recognition for his work, Beckett received the International Publishers' Formentor Prize, which he shared that year with Jorge Luis Borges. Borges redirects here. ...


Later life and work

The 1960s were a period of change, both on a personal level and as a writer. In 1961, in a secret civil ceremony in England, he married Suzanne, mainly for reasons relating to French inheritance law. The success of his plays led to invitations to attend rehearsals and productions around the world, leading eventually to a new career as a theatre director. In 1956, he had his first commission from the BBC Third Programme for a radio play, All That Fall. He was to continue writing sporadically for radio, and ultimately for film and television as well. He also started to write in English again, though he continued to do some work in French until the end of his life. The BBC Third Programme was the third national radio network broadcast by the BBC, has since become Radio 3, but was originally known (at least within the BBC) as C. The other two were the Home Service (mainly speech based) and the Light Programme, dedicated to light music, usually cover...

Tomb of Samuel Beckett at the Cimetière de Montparnasse [1]
Tomb of Samuel Beckett at the Cimetière de Montparnasse [1]

Actor Cary Elwes explains in his video diary of The Princess Bride that Beckett was a neighbour of the Roussimoff family, and used to give one of the Roussimoff sons, André René, a lift to school every day, since the boy was unable to take the school bus owing to his large size. André René Roussimoff would, in later years, go on to become professional wrestler André the Giant.[2] The Montparnasse Tower, which at 209m was the tallest building in Western Europe when it was built. ... Ivan Simon Cary Elwes (born October 26, 1962) is an English actor credited as Cary Elwes, best known for his performances in The Princess Bride, Robin Hood: Men in Tights and Saw. ... The Princess Bride is a 1987 film, based on the 1973 novel The Princess Bride by William Goldman, combining comedy, adventure, romance and fantasy. ... For the NES video game, see Pro Wrestling (video game). ... André René Roussimoff (May 19, 1946 – January 27, 1993), best known as André the Giant, was a French professional wrestler and actor. ...


In 1969, Beckett, on holiday in Tunis with Suzanne, learned he had won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Suzanne, who saw that her intensely private husband would be, from that moment forth, saddled with fame, called the award a "catastrophe.".[17] While Beckett did not devote much time to interviews, he would still sometimes personally meet the artists, scholars, and admirers who sought him out in the anonymous lobby of Paris' Hotel PLM, which was near his Montparnasse home[18] The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes...


Suzanne died on 17 July 1989. Beckett, suffering from emphysema and possibly Parkinson's disease and confined to a nursing home, died on December 22 of the same year. The two were interred together in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris, and share a simple marble gravestone which follows Beckett's directive that it be "any colour, so long as it's grey." is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cimetière du Montparnasse is a famous cemetery in the Montparnasse quarter of Paris, France. ... Headstones in the Japanese Cemetry in Broome, Western Australia A cemetery in rural Spain A typical late 20th century headstone in the United States A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a marker, normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the site of a burial. ...


Works

Beckett's career as a writer can be roughly divided into three periods: his early works, up until the end of World War II in 1945; his middle period, stretching from 1945 until the early 1960s, during which period he wrote what are probably his most well-known works; and his late period, from the early 1960s until Beckett's death in 1989, during which his works tended to become shorter and shorter and his style more and more minimalist.


Early works

Beckett's earliest works are generally considered to have been strongly influenced by the work of his friend James Joyce: they are deeply erudite, seeming to display the author's learning merely for its own sake, resulting in several obscure passages. The opening phrases of the short-story collection More Pricks than Kicks (1934) affords an representative sample of this style: More Pricks Than Kicks is a collection of short prose by Samuel Beckett, first published in 1934. ...

It was morning and Belacqua was stuck in the first of the canti in the moon. He was so bogged that he could move neither backward nor forward. Blissful Beatrice was there, Dante also, and she explained the spots on the moon to him. She shewed him in the first place where he was at fault, then she put up her own explanation. She had it from God, therefore he could rely on its being accurate in every particular.[19]

The passage is rife with references to Dante Alighieri's Commedia, which can serve to confuse readers not familiar with that work. At the same time, however, there are many portents of Beckett's later work: the physical inactivity of the character Belacqua; the character's immersion in his own head and thoughts; the somewhat irreverent comedy of the final sentence. Dante redirects here. ... For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino...


Similar elements are present in Beckett's first published novel, Murphy (1938), which also to some extent explores the themes of insanity and chess, both of which would be recurrent elements in Beckett's later works. The novel's opening sentence also hints at the somewhat pessimistic undertones and black humour that animate many of Beckett's works: 'The sun shone, having no alternative, on the nothing new'.[20] Watt, written while Beckett was in hiding in Roussillon during World War II, is similar in terms of themes, but less exuberant in its style. This novel also, at certain points, explores human movement as if it were a mathematical permutation, presaging Beckett's later preoccupation—in both his novels and dramatic works—with precise movement. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... Permutation is the rearrangement of objects or symbols into distinguishable sequences. ...


It was also during this early period that Beckett first began to write creatively in the French language. In the late 1930s, he wrote a number of short poems in that language, and these poems' spareness—in contrast to the density of his English poems of roughly the same period, collected in Echo's Bones and Other Precipitates (1935)—seems to show that Beckett, albeit through the medium of another language, was in process of simplifying his style somewhat, a change also evidenced in Watt.


Middle period

After World War II, Beckett turned definitively to the French language as a vehicle. It was this, together with the aforementioned "revelation" experienced in his mother's room in Dublin—in which, basically, he realized that his art must be subjective and drawn wholly from his own inner world—that would result in the works for which Beckett is probably best remembered today.


During the 15 years subsequent to the war, Beckett produced four major full-length stage plays: En attendant Godot (written 1948–1949; Waiting for Godot), Fin de partie (1955–1957; Endgame), Krapp's Last Tape (1958), and Happy Days (1960). These plays—which are often considered, rightly or wrongly, to have been instrumental in the so-called "Theatre of the Absurd"—deal in a very blackly humorous way with themes similar to those of the roughly contemporary existentialist thinkers, though Beckett himself cannot be pigeonholed as an existentialist. The term "Theatre of the Absurd" was coined by Martin Esslin in a book of the same name; Beckett and Godot were centerpieces of the book. Esslin claimed these plays were the fulfillment of Albert Camus's concept of "the absurd";[21] this is one reason Beckett is often falsely labeled as an existentialist. Though many of the themes are similar, Beckett had little affinity for existentialism as a whole.[22] Waiting for Godot is a play by Samuel Beckett, in which the characters wait for Godot, who never arrives. ... Endgame is a one-act play for four characters by Samuel Beckett. ... Krapps Last Tape and Embers. ... The first English edition of Happy Days. ... The Theatre of the Absurd, or Theater of the Absurd (French: Le Théâtre de lAbsurde) is a designation for particular plays written by a number of primarily European playwrights in the late 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, as well as to the style of theatre which has evolved from... This article is about the tone of comedy. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... For other uses, see Camus. ...


Broadly speaking, the plays deal with the subject of despair and the will to survive in spite of that despair, in the face of an uncomprehending and, indeed, incomprehensible world. The words of Nell—one of the two characters in Endgame who are trapped in ashbins, from which they occasionally peek their heads to speak—can best summarize the themes of the plays of Beckett's middle period:

Nothing is funnier than unhappiness, I grant you that. ... Yes, yes, it's the most comical thing in the world. And we laugh, we laugh, with a will, in the beginning. But it's always the same thing. Yes, it's like the funny story we have heard too often, we still find it funny, but we don't laugh any more.[23]

Beckett's outstanding achievements in prose during the period was the trilogy of novels Molloy (1951), Malone meurt (1951; Malone Dies) and L'innommable (1953; The Unnamable). In these novels, the reader can trace the development of Beckett's mature style and themes, as the novels become more and more stripped down, barer and barer. Molloy, for instance, still retains many of the characteristics of a conventional novel—time, place, movement and plot—and is indeed, on one level, a detective novel. In Malone Dies, however, movement and plot are largely dispensed with, though there is still some indication of place and the passage of time; the "action" of the book takes the form of an interior monologue. Finally, in The Unnamable, all sense of place and time are done away with, and the essential theme seems to be the conflict between the voice's drive to continue speaking so as to continue existing and its almost equally strong urge to find silence and oblivion. It is tempting to see in this a reflection of Beckett's experience and understanding of what the war had done to the world. Despite the widely-held view that Beckett's work, as exemplified by the novels of this period, is essentially pessimistic, the will to live seems to win out in the end; witness, for instance, the famous final phrase of The Unnamable: 'I can't go on, I'll go on'.[24]


Subsequent to these three novels, Beckett struggled for many years to produce a sustained work of prose, a struggle evidenced by the brief "stories" later collected as Texts for Nothing. In the late 1950s, however, he managed to create one of his most radical prose works, Comment c'est (1961; How It Is). This work relates the adventures of an unnamed narrator crawling through the mud whilst dragging a sack of canned food, and was written as a sequence of unpunctuated paragraphs in a style approaching telegraphese: Telegraphese is a style of writing in which unimportant words are omitted, and abbreviations and code words are used to compress the meaning of phrases into a small set of chartacters. ...

you are there somewhere alive somewhere vast stretch of time then it's over you are there no more alive no more then again you are there again alive again it wasn't over an error you begin again all over more or less in the same place or in another as when another image above in the light you come to in hospital in the dark[25]

Following this work, it would be almost another decade before Beckett produced a work of non-dramatic prose, and indeed How It Is is generally considered to mark the end of his middle period as a writer.


Late works

Throughout the 1960s and into the 1970s, Beckett's works exhibited an increasing tendency—already evident in much of his work of the 1950s—towards compactness that has led to his work sometimes being described as minimalist. The extreme example of this, among his dramatic works, is the 1969 piece Breath, which lasts for only 35 seconds and has no characters (though it was likely intended to offer ironic comment on Oh! Calcutta!, the theatrical revue for which it served as an introductory piece[26]). For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... Breath is also a short stage work by Samuel Beckett. ... Oh! Calcutta! was a long-running theatrical revue, debuting off-Broadway in 1969, created by British critic Kenneth Tynan. ... A revue is a type of theatrical entertainment that combines music, dance and sketches that satirize contemporary figures, news, or literature. ...


In the dramas of the late period, Beckett's characters—already few in number in the earlier plays—are whittled down to essential elements. The ironically titled 1962 Play, for instance, consists of three characters stuck to their necks in large funeral urns, while the 1963 television drama Eh Joe—written for the actor Jack MacGowran—is animated by a camera that steadily closes in to a tight focus upon the face of the title character, and the 1972 play Not I consists almost solely of, in Beckett's words, 'a moving mouth with the rest of the stage in darkness'.[27] Many of these late plays, taking a cue from Krapp's Last Tape, were concerned to a great extent with memory, or more particularly, with the often forced recollection of haunting past events in a moment of stillness in the present. Moreover, as often as not these late plays dealt with the theme of the self confined and observed insofar as a voice either comes from outside into the protagonist's head, as in Eh Joe, or else the protagonist is silently commented upon by another character, as in Not I. Such themes also led to Beckett's most politically charged play, 1982's Catastrophe, dedicated to Václav Havel, which dealt relatively explicitly with the idea of dictatorship. After a long period of inactivity, Beckett's poetry experienced a revival during this period in the ultra-terse French poems of mirlitonnades, some as short as six words long. These defied Beckett's usual scrupulous concern to translate his work from its original into the other of his two languages; several writers, including Derek Mahon, have attempted translations, but no complete version of the sequence has been published in English. Jack MacGowran Jack MacGowran, (October 13, 1918 - January 31, 1973) was an Irish-born character actor. ... Catastrophe is a short play by Samuel Beckett, written in 1982. ... Václav Havel, GCB, CC, (IPA: ) (born October 5, 1936 in Prague) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Derek Mahon Derek Mahon (born 23 November 1941) is an Irish poet. ...


Though Beckett's writing of prose during the late period was not so prolific as his writing of drama—as hinted at by the title of the 1976 collection of short prose texts entitled Fizzles, which was illustrated by American artist Jasper Johns—he did experience something of a renaissance in this regard beginning with the 1979 novella Company, and continuing on through 1982's Ill Seen Ill Said and 1984's Worstward Ho, later collected in Nohow On. In the prose medium of these three so-called '"closed space" stories',[28] Beckett continued his preoccupation with memory and its effect on the confined and observed self, as well as with the positioning of bodies in space, as the opening phrases of Company make clear: Short prose is a generic term for various kinds of very short fictional prose; short prose may or may not be narrative. ... Jasper Johnss Map, 1961 Jasper Johnss Flag, Encaustic, oil and collage on fabric mounted on plywood,1954-55 Detail of Flag (1954-55). ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... Samuel Beckett Samuel Barclay Beckett (April 13, 1906 – December 22, 1989) was an Irish playwright, novelist and poet. ... Ill Seen Ill Said is a short story by Samuel Beckett. ... Worstward Ho is a prose piece by Samuel Beckett. ... Nohow on is a collection of three prose pieces by Samuel Beckett, comprising Company, Ill Seen Ill Said, and Worstward Ho. ...

A voice comes to one in the dark. Imagine.

To one on his back in the dark. This he can tell by the pressure on his hind parts and by how the dark changes when he shuts his eyes and again when he opens them again. Only a small part of what is said can be verified. As for example when he hears, You are on your back in the dark. Then he must acknowledge the truth of what is said.[29]

Beckett's final work, the 1988 poem "What is the Word", was written in bed in the nursing home where he spent the last days of his life, and also exists in a French version, comment dire.


Legacy

Samuel Beckett depicted on an Irish commemorative coin celebrating the 100th Anniversary of his birth.
Samuel Beckett depicted on an Irish commemorative coin celebrating the 100th Anniversary of his birth.

Of all the English-language modernists, Beckett's work represents the most sustained attack on the realist tradition. He, more than anyone else, opened up the possibility of drama and fiction that dispense with conventional plot and the unities of place and time in order to focus on essential components of the human condition. Writers like Václav Havel, John Banville, Aidan Higgins and Harold Pinter [30] have publicly stated their indebtedness to Beckett's example, but he has had a much wider influence on experimental writing since the 1950s, from the Beat generation to the happenings of the 1960s and beyond. In an Irish context, he has exerted great influence on poets such as John Banville, Derek Mahon, Thomas Kinsella, as well as writers like Trevor Joyce and Catherine Walsh who proclaim their adherence to the modernist tradition as an alternative to the dominant realist mainstream. For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Václav Havel, GCB, CC, (IPA: ) (born October 5, 1936 in Prague) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ... John Banville (born 8 December 1945) is an Irish novelist and journalist. ... Aidan Higgins (born March 3, 1927) is an Irish writer. ... Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (born 10 October 1930) is an English playwright, screenwriter, poet, actor, director, author, and political activist. ... Experimental literature are written works - often novels or magazines - that place great emphasis on innovations regarding technique and style . ... Beats redirects here. ... John Banville (born 8 December 1945) is an Irish novelist and journalist. ... Derek Mahon Derek Mahon (born 23 November 1941) is an Irish poet. ... Thomas Kinsella (born May 4, 1928) is an Irish poet, translator, editor and publisher. ... Trevor Joyce (born October 26, 1947) is an Irish poet, born in Dublin. ...


Many major 20th-century composers, including Luciano Berio, György Kurtág, Morton Feldman, Pascal Dusapin, Philip Glass and Heinz Holliger, have created musical works based on his texts. Beckett's work was also an influence on many visual artists, including Bruce Nauman, Alexander Arotin, and Avigdor Arikha; Arikha, in addition to being inspired by Beckett's literary world, also drew a number of portraits of Beckett and illustrated several of his works. Luciano Berio (October 24, 1925 – May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer. ... György Kurtág (born February 19, 1926) is a Hungarian composer of contemporary music. ... Morton Feldman (January 12, 1926 – September 3, 1987) was an American composer, born in New York City. ... Pascal Dusapin (29th May, 1955), is a French composer born in Nancy. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... Heinz Holliger (born May 21, 1939) is a Swiss oboist and composer. ... Bruce Nauman (born December 6, 1941, in Fort Wayne, Indiana) is a contemporary American artist. ... Alexander Arotin Alexander Arotin (born 20 April 1970 in Vienna) is an Austrian visual artist , director and designer currently based in Barcelona, Paris, Berlin and Venice. ... Avigdor Arikha (born 1929) was a Jewish, Israelian artist, born in Romania, notable for detailed drawing and painting of objects of familiarity. ...


Beckett is one of the most widely discussed and highly prized of twentieth century authors, inspiring a critical industry to rival that which has sprung up around James Joyce. He has divided critical opinion. Some early philosophical critics, such as Sartre and Theodor Adorno, praised him, one for his revelation of absurdity, the other for his works' critical refusal of simplicities; others such as Georg Lukacs condemn for 'decadent' lack of realism.[31] Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... Georg Lukács (April 13, 1885 - June 4, 1971) was a Hegelian and Marxist philosopher and literary critic. ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ...


Since Beckett's death, all rights for performance of his plays are handled by the Beckett estate, currently managed by Edward Beckett, the author's nephew. The estate has a controversial reputation for maintaining firm control over how Beckett's plays are performed and does not grant licences to productions that do not strictly adhere to the writer's stage directions. Historians interested in tracing Beckett's blood line were, in 2004, granted access to confirmed trace samples of his DNA to conduct molecular genealogical studies to facilitate precise lineage determination. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


Some of the best known pictures of Beckett were taken by photographer John Minihan, who photographed him between 1980 and 1985 and developed such a good relationship with the writer that he became, in effect, his official photographer. Some consider one of these to be among the top three photographs of the 20th century.[32] However, it was the theatre photographer John Haynes[33] who took possibly the most widely reproduced image of Beckett: it is used on the cover of the Knowlson biography, for instance. This portrait was taken during rehearsals at the Royal Court Theatre in London, where Haynes photographed many productions of Beckett's work. John Minihan was born in Dublin in 1946 and raised in Athy, County Kildare. ...


Christopher Guest adapted Waiting for Godot into Waiting for Guffman. For the Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, see Christopher Guest, Baron Guest. ... Waiting for Guffman is a mockumentary written,starring, and directed by Christopher Guest that was released in 1997. ...


Selected bibliography

Dramatic works

Theatre Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ...

Radio Eleutheria is a play by Samuel Beckett, written in French in 1947. ... Waiting for Godot is a play by Samuel Beckett, in which the characters wait for Godot, who never arrives. ... Act Without Words I is a short play by Samuel Beckett. ... Act Without Words II is a short play by Samuel Beckett. ... Endgame is a one-act play for four characters by Samuel Beckett. ... Krapps Last Tape and Embers. ... Rough for Theatre I is a short play by Samuel Beckett. ... Rough for Theatre II is a short play by Samuel Beckett. ... The first English edition of Happy Days. ... Play is a play by Samuel Beckett. ... Come and Go is a short play, (described as a dramaticule), written by Samuel Beckett. ... Breath is also a short stage work by Samuel Beckett. ... Not I is a short one-woman play by Samuel Beckett. ... That Time is a short play by Samuel Beckett. ... Footfalls is a play by Samuel Beckett. ... A Piece of Monologue is a short play by Samuel Beckett. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Ohio Impromptu is a monologue/play by Samuel Beckett. ... Catastrophe is a short play by Samuel Beckett, written in 1982. ... What Where is the last play written by Samuel Beckett. ...

Television All That Fall: A Play for Radio, London: Faber and Faber, 1957 All That Fall is a one-act radio play by Samuel Beckett produced on commission for the BBC. It was written in English and completed in September 1956. ... Paperback Faber, 1958 First Edition From An Abandoned Work, a “meditation[2] for radio”[1] by Samuel Beckett, was first broadcast on BBC Radio 3’s Third Programme on Saturday 14th December 1957 along with a selection from Molloy. ... 1959 French edition of Cendres (published along with La Dernière bande – Krapp’s Last Tape) © Les Éditions de Minuit Embers is a radio play by Samuel Beckett. ... John Tilbury Plays Samuel Beckett, Matchless Recordings (UK). ... Paperback Faber, 1977 First UK Edition Rough for Radio II is a radio play by Samuel Beckett. ... Words and Music (1962)is a play written for radio by Samuel Beckett. ... First American edition of Becketts translation from the French of his radio play, Cascando. ...

Cinema Eh Joe is a one-act, thirty-minute play written by Samuel Beckett. ... Journal of Beckett Studies No 1 Ghost Trio is a television play, written in English by Samuel Beckett. ... Still of Klaus Herm from the 1977 German broadcast Samuel Beckett wrote his television play . ... Quad is a short dramatic work by Samuel Beckett, described as a piece for four players, light, and percussion. ... Helfrid Foron in the Süddeutscher Rundfunk production, 1983 Nacht und Träume (Night and Dreams) is the last television play written and directed by Samuel Beckett. ...

Film is a film written by Samuel Beckett, his only screenplay. ...

Prose

Novels

Novellas Dream of Fair to Middling Women is Samuel Beckett’s first novel. ... The novel Murphy (1938) was Samuel Becketts third work of prose fiction. ... Watt was Samuel Becketts second published novel in English, largely written on the run in the south of France during the Second World War and published by Maurice Girodiass Olympia Press in 1953. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Molloy (1951) is a novel by Samuel Beckett, the first of the sequence of novels which includes Malone Dies and The Unnamable. ... Malone Dies is the second novel in Samuel Becketts so called Trilogy of novels that began with Molloy, and ended with the Unnamable. ... The Unnamable is a novel by Samuel Beckett. ... How It Is is a novel by Samuel Beckett published in 1964. ...

Stories The Lost Ones is a short written work by Samuel Beckett. ... Samuel Beckett Samuel Barclay Beckett (April 13, 1906 – December 22, 1989) was an Irish playwright, novelist and poet. ... Ill Seen Ill Said is a short story by Samuel Beckett. ... Worstward Ho is a prose piece by Samuel Beckett. ...

Non-fiction More Pricks Than Kicks is a collection of short prose by Samuel Beckett, first published in 1934. ... Stories and Texts for Nothing is a collection of stories by Samuel Beckett. ... First Love is a short story by Samuel Beckett published in 1973. ... Samuel Beckett used the word fizzles to describe eight short prose pieces: For to end yet again, Still, He is barehead, Horn came always, Afar a Bird, I gave up before birth, Closed place, and Old earth. ... Stirrings Still is a prose piece by Samuel Beckett. ...

Poetry

  • Whoroscope (1930)
  • Echo's Bones and other Precipitates (1935)
  • Collected Poems in English (1961)
  • Collected Poems in English and French (1977)
  • What is the Word (1989)

Translations

  • Negro: an Anthology (Nancy Cunard, editor) (1934)
  • Anna Livia Plurabelle (James Joyce, French translation by Beckett and others) (1931)
  • Anthology of Mexican Poems (Octavio Paz, editor) (1958)
  • The Old Tune (Robert Pinget) (1963)
  • What Is Surrealism?: Selected Essays (André Breton) (various short pieces in the collection)

Samuel Beckett wrote his essay Proust in the summer of 1930, in response to a commission precipitated by Thomas MacGreevy, Charles Prentice, and Richard Aldington, during his stay at École Normale in Paris. ... Originally published in transition 49 in 1949, Three Dialogues represents a small part (fewer than 3000 words) of a correspondence between Samuel Beckett and Georges Duthuit about the nature of contemporary art, with particular reference to the work of Pierre Tal-Coat, André Masson and Bram van Velde. ... Disjecta: Miscellaneous Writings and a Dramatic Fragment is a collection of previously uncollected writings by Samuel Beckett, spanning his entire career. ... Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican writer, poet, and diplomat, and the winner of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Robert Pinget (Geneva, July 19, 1919 - Tours, August 25, 1997) was a major avant-garde French writer, born in Switzerland, who wrote several difficult novels and other prose pieces that drew comparison to Beckett and other major Modernist writers. ... André Breton André Breton (French IPA: ) (February 19, 1896 – September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and surrealist theorist, and is best known as the main founder of surrealism. ...

Sources

Print

Primary sources

  • Beckett, Samuel. Collected Poems in English and French. New York: Grove Press, 1977.
  • —. Endgame and Act Without Words. New York: Grove Press, 1958.
  • —. How It Is. New York: Grove Press, 1964.
  • —. More Pricks than Kicks. New York: Grove Press, 1972.
  • —. Murphy. New York: Grove Press, 1957.
  • —. Nohow On: Company, Ill Seen Ill Said, Worstward Ho. Ed. S.E. Gontarski. New York: Grove Press, 1996.
  • —. Three Novels: Molloy, Malone Dies, The Unnamable. New York: Grove Press, 1995.
  • —. Waiting for Godot: A Tragicomedy in Two Acts. New York: Grove Press, 1954.

Secondary sources

  • Fletcher, John. About Beckett. Faber and Faber, London, 2006. ISBN 978-057-1-23011-2.
  • Bair, Deirdre. Samuel Beckett: A Biography. Vintage/Ebury, 1978. ISBN 0-09-980070-5.
  • Caselli, Daniela. Beckett's Dantes: Intertextuality in the Fiction and Criticism. ISBN 0-7190-7156-9.
  • Cronin, Anthony. Samuel Beckett: The Last Modernist. New York: Da Capo Press, 1997.
  • Kelleter, Frank. Die Moderne und der Tod: Edgar Allan Poe–T. S. Eliot–Samuel Beckett. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang, 1998.
  • Igoe, Vivien. A Literary Guide to Dublin. Methuen Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-413-69120-9.
  • Burnt Piano, by Justin Fleming, Xlibris, 2004 (Coup d'État & Other Plays)
  • Knowlson, James. Damned to Fame: The Life of Samuel Beckett. New York: Grove Press, 1996.
  • Mercier, Vivian. Beckett/Beckett. Oxford University Press, 1977. ISBN 0-19-281269-6.
  • O'Brien, Eoin. The Beckett Country. ISBN 0-571-14667-8.
  • Ricks, Christopher. Beckett's Dying Words. Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-19-282407-4.
  • Ackerley, C. J. and S. E. Gontarski, ed. The Grove Companion to Samuel Beckett. New York: Grove Press, 2004.
  • Esslin, Martin. The Theatre of the Absurd. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1969.

Grove Press is an American publishing imprint that was founded in 1951. ... Deirdre Bair is an American biographer who has gained acclaim for her biographies of Samuel Beckett, Anais Nin, and Carl Jung. ... Anthony Cronin (born 1925 in County Wexford) is an Irish poet. ... Justin Fleming (1953- ) is a playwright and writer. ...

Online

References

  1. ^ Fathoms from Anywhere - A Samuel Beckett Centenary Exhibition
  2. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature 1969
  3. ^ Cronin, 3–4
  4. ^ Samuel Beckett - 1906-1989
  5. ^ Beckett's Athletics - paper by Steven O'Connor
  6. ^ Knowlson, 106
  7. ^ Collected Poems, 9
  8. ^ Beckett, Samuel. (1906 - 1989) - Literary Encyclopedia
  9. ^ Disjecta, 76
  10. ^ Israel Shenker, 'Moody Man of Letters', The New York Times, 5 May 1956; quoted in Cronin, 310
  11. ^ Knowlson, 261
  12. ^ Knowlson, 304–305
  13. ^ The Modern Word
  14. ^ Quoted in Knowlson, 303
  15. ^ Knowlson, 324
  16. ^ Knowlson, 342
  17. ^ Knowlson, 505
  18. ^ Happiest moment of the past half million: Beckett Biography - themodernword.com
  19. ^ More Pricks than Kicks, 9
  20. ^ Murphy, 1
  21. ^ Esslin, Martin. The Theatre of the Absurd. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1969.
  22. ^ Ackerley, C. J. and S. E. Gontarski, ed. The Grove Companion to Samuel Beckett. New York: Grove Press, 2004.
  23. ^ Endgame, 18–19
  24. ^ Three Novels, 414
  25. ^ How It Is, 22
  26. ^ Knowlson, 501
  27. ^ Quoted in Knowlson, 522
  28. ^ Nohow On, vii
  29. ^ Nohow On, 3
  30. ^ Chequer, Brad. Beginning to End - Ending to Begin - or, Some Brilliance and Bullshit on Samuel Beckett. The Cutting Ball.
  31. ^ Adorno, Theodor W. Trying to Understand Endgame [1961], The New German Critique, no. 26, (Spring-Summer 1982) pp.119–150. In The Adorno Reader ed. Brian O'Connor. Blackwell Publishers. 2000
  32. ^ 1998 edition of The Royal Academy Magazine, the "Image of the century"
  33. ^ Photographer John Haynes's website

The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This is a list of people on the postage stamps of the Republic of Ireland, including the years when they appeared on a stamp. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Persondata
NAME Beckett, Samuel
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Beckett, Sam
SHORT DESCRIPTION Irish novelist, playwright and poet
DATE OF BIRTH 13 April 1906
PLACE OF BIRTH Foxrock, Dublin, Ireland
DATE OF DEATH 22 December 1989
PLACE OF DEATH Paris, France

is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Foxrock (Carraig an tSionnaigh in Irish) is a suburb, formerly a separate village, in Dublin, Ireland, in Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, in postal district Dublin 18. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Samuel Beckett - MSN Encarta (995 words)
Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 22 December 1989) was an Irish writer, dramatist and poet.
Beckett went through a period of family conflict and self-doubt, especially after his father’s death in June 1933, which further strained Beckett’s difficult relationship with his mother.
At his death, Beckett was hailed as the most innovative and influential dramatist of the 20th century for his unconventional approach to language and plot and his uncompromising, often shocking dramatizations of human relationships.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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