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Encyclopedia > Samuel (Bible)
The Prophet Samuel, fresco painting from the Mikhailovskr monastery of Kiev, c. 1112

Samuel or Shmu'el (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל, Standard Šəmuʼel Tiberian Šəmûʼēl) is an important leader of ancient Israel in the Book(s) of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ...


His status, as viewed by rabbinical literature, is that he was the last of the Hebrew Judges and the first of the major prophets who began to prophesize inside the Land of Israel. He was thus at the cusp between two eras. Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... Biblical judges are not to be confused with modern legal judges. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of the Land of Israel in January 2003. ...


According to the text of the Book(s) of Samuel, he also selected/anointed the first two kings of the Kingdom of Israel: King Saul and King David. 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Standard Tiberian  ; asked for or borrowed) is a figure identified in the Books of Samuel and Quran as having been the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ...

Contents

Name

According to 1 Samuel 1:20, Hannah was the mother of Samuel and named him in memory of her requesting a child from God and God listening. However, this position is disputed by some textual scholars who consider that the passage originally referred to Saul, and was later doctored. For the suggested etymology of the passage to work for the name Samuel requires it to be translated as Heard of God ('Shama', heard; 'El', god/El (a god)), or possibly as a sentence "God has heard", with "Shama" as the verb and "El" as the subject.[1] Saul on the other hand means asked, and so certain scholars think an anti-monarchial editor changed the narrative so that Saul would no longer appear to have a divinely appointed birth.[2] Hannah (or Chana) (Hebrew: חנה - Grace [of God]) was a wife of Elkanah and the mother of the prophet Samuel as recorded in the Book of Samuel. ... Carmina Cantabrigiensia, Manuscript C, folio 436v, 11th century Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts and manuscripts. ... Ēl (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ...


Another conceivable translation of Hebrew (Shmu'el in Hebrew) is Name of God (from Shem, meaning name), a reference to the Tetragrammaton. However, in some contexts, Shem can also mean son, and hence Samuel might mean son of El or son of God (translating El). While son of El (or Name of God) could imply that Samuel is a cipher for Yahweh (considered by some Biblical scholars to have been a son of El, in the Canaanite pantheon), the term son of God was simply a generic term for someone who was seen as particularly holy (in particular a senior priest), and hence may only have been a description not his name. [2] It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the academic treatment of the bible as a historical document. ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of...


Another possible translation is "His name is El".


Calling

Judges in the Bible
In the Book of Judges
Othniel
Ehud
Shamgar
Deborah and Barak
Gideon
Abimelech
Tola
Jair
Jephthah
Ibzan
Elon
Abdon
Samson
In the First Book of Samuel
Eli
Samuel
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At maturity (probably around the age of 12), according to the text, during a certain night Samuel began to hear a voice calling his name; he initially assumed it was coming from Eli and went to Eli to ask what he wished to say. Eli, however, sent Samuel back to sleep. After a few times Eli told Samuel that the voice was God's, and instructed Samuel on how to respond. Once Samuel responded God told him that the wickedness of the sons of Eli had resulted in their dynasty being condemned to destruction (despite having been previously promised by God that it would last forever). Eli asked Samuel to honestly recount to him what he had been told, and upon receiving the communication merely said that God should do what seems right to Himself. Biblical judges are not to be confused with modern legal judges. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... Othniel Ben Kenaz (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; lion of God) is the first of the Judges. ... For other people named Ehud, see Ehud (disambiguation). ... The Philistines from the maritime plain had made incursions into the Hebrew upland for the purposes of plunder, when Shamgar, the son of Anath, otherwise unknown, headed an uprising for the purpose of freeing the land from this oppression. ... For information on the name Deborah, see Debbie For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Bee) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... Barak (בָּרָק Lightning, Standard Hebrew Barak, Tiberian Hebrew Bārāq) is one of the Judges from the Book of Judges in the Bible. ... Gideon (גִּדְעוֹן, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ), also known as Jerub-Baal, is a judge appearing in the Book of Judges, in the Bible. ... In the Tanakh or Old Testament, Abimelech was a son of the great judge Gideon (Judges 9:1). ... For other uses, see Tola. ... JAIR: Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (ISSN 1076-9757) covers all areas of artificial intelligence (AI), publishing refereed research articles, survey articles, and technical notes. ... Jephtha יפתח -- one of the so called Judges in Israel between the conquest of Canaan and the first king. ... In the Bible, Ibzan was one of the Judges of Israel. ... For other uses, see Elon (disambiguation). ... Abdon the son of Hillel, a Pirathonite, the tenth judge of Israel mentioned in the Book of Judges. ... Samson and Delilah, by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) This article is about Biblical figure. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... Eli (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Ascent) was, according to the Books of Samuel, the name of a priest of Shiloh, and one of the last Israelite Judges before the rule of kings in ancient Israel. ...


Leader

According to the text, during Samuel's youth at Shiloh, decades before the nation began to be ruled by a king, the Philistines had inflicted a heavy defeat against the Israelites at Eben-Ezer (1 Sam. 4:1,2), and placed the land under Philistine oppression. In the process taken the sanctuary's Ark for themselves. Some modern scholars consider that the Song of Moses, which textual scholars believe was originally distinct from the surrounding text of Deuteronomy (and not written by Moses), may in reality have been written in response to the theological implications of this particular disastrous defeat, possibly by Samuel himself. Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Eben-ezer - stone of help, the memorial stone set up by Samuel after a signal defeat of the Philistines, as a memorial of the help received on the occasion from God (1 Sam. ... A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels. ... The Song of Moses is a poem that appears in Deuteronomy at 32:1-43. ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


Seemingly, after 20 years of such oppression, Samuel, who had gained national prominence as a prophet, summoned the people to Mizpah (one of the highest hills in the land), where he organized them into an army, and led them against the Philistines. The Philistines, having marched to Mizpah to attack the newly amassed Israelite army, were utterly defeated, fleeing in terror. The fleeing Philistines were slaughtered by the Israelites, which the Biblical text portrays positively. The text goes on to state that Samuel erected a large stone at the battle site, named Eben-Ezer, as a memorial, and there was a long period of peace thereafter. Mizpah (watch-tower; the look-out) was a city of Benjamin. ...


However, according to textual scholars, this latter battle (1 Samuel 7:2-16), in which Samuel led the Israelites to victory, is actually a redaction dating from the 7th century. It was probably added by the Deuteronomist to conform to a theocratical worldview in which religious figures have greater prominence, and Israel only loses to its enemies when it is being punished by God; the passage essentially acting as a counterbalance to the earlier Israelite defeat. In reality it is considered more likely that, if there is any historical basis for the Israelite victory, it was one of those due to military leadership by Saul.[3] Redaction generally refers to the editing of text to turn it into a form suitable for publication, or to the result of such an effort. ... The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ...


National prophet, local seer

Some authors see the biblical Samuel as combining descriptions of two distinct roles:

  • A seer, based at Ramah, and seemingly known scarcely beyond the immediate neighbourhood of Ramah (Saul, for example, not having heard of him, with his servant informing him of his existence instead). In this role, Samuel is associated with the bands of musical ecstatic roaming prophets (shouters - neb'im) at Gibeah, Bethel, and Gilgal, and some traditional scholars have argued that Samuel was the founder of these groups. At Ramah, Samuel secretly anoints Saul, after having met him for the first time, while Saul was looking for his father's flock, and treated him to a meal.
  • A prophet, based at Shiloh, who went throughout the land, from place to place, with unwearied zeal, reproving, rebuking, and exhorting the people to repentance. In this role, Samuel acted as a (biblical) judge, publicly advising the nation, and also giving private advice to individuals. Eventually Samuel delegates this role to his sons, based at Beersheba, but they behave corruptly and so the people, facing invasion from the Ammonites, persuade Samuel to appoint a king. Samuel reluctantly does so, and anoints Saul in front of the entire nation, who had gathered to see him.

Textual scholars suggest that these two roles come from different source, which later were spliced together to form the Book(s) of Samuel. The oldest is considered to be that which marks Samuel as the local seer of Ramah, who willingly anoints Saul as King in secret, while the latter is that which presents Samuel as a national figure, who begrudgingly anoints Saul as King in front of a national assembly. This later source is generally known as the republican source, since here, and elsewhere, it denigrates the actions and role of the monarchy (particularly those of Saul) and favours religious figures, in contrast to the other main source - the monarchial source - which treats the monarchy favourably. Theoretically if we had the monarchial source we would see Saul appointed king by public acclamation, due to his military victories, and not by cleromancy involving Samuel. Another difference between the sources is that the republican source treats the shouters as somewhat independent from Samuel (1 Samuel 9) rather than having been led by him (1 Samuel 19:18ff). The passage (1 Samuel 7:15-16) in which Samuel is described as having exercised the functions of a (biblical) judge, during an annual circuit from Ramah to Bethel to Gilgal (the Gilgal between Ebal and Gerizim) to Mizpah and back to Ramah, is thought by textual scholars to be a redaction aimed at harmonising the two portrayals of Samuel.[2] Seer has several possible meanings: A fortune teller or prophet The fictional character on the television series Charmed The Seasonal energy efficiency ratio standard for air conditioning appliances This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ramathaim-Zophim, a town that has been identified with the modern Neby Samwil (the prophet Samuel), about 4 or 5 miles north-west of Jerusalem. ... Shouters is the literal translation of the Hebrew term Nebim. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Biblical judges are not to be confused with modern legal judges. ... Beersheba (Hebrew: ‎, Beer Sheva, Arabic: ‎, Bir as-Sabi, Turkish: ) is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel, often being referred to as the Capital of the Negev. ... For the extinct mollusc see Ammonite. ... Cleromancy, sortilege, casting lots or casting bones is a form of divination in which an outcome is determined by random means, such as the rolling of a die. ... Bethel (בית אל), also written as Beth El or Beth-El, is a Semitic word that has acquired various meanings. ... Gilgal is a place name in the Hebrew Bible. ... Mount Ebal, a mountain peak 940 meters above sea level just north of the West Bank city of Nablus. ... Mount Gerizim (Samaritan Hebrew Ar-garízim) is a mountain in the West Bank near Nablus which is sacred to the Samaritan sect; it plays a role in their religion analogous to that of Jerusalem in orthodox Judaism. ... In international law, harmonisation refers to the process by which different states adopt the same laws. ...


The Book(s) of Samuel variously describe Samuel as having carried out sacrifices at sanctuaries, and having constructed and sanctified altars. According to the Mitzvot only Aaronic priests and/or Levites (depending on the Mitzvah) were permitted to perform these actions, and simply being a nazarite or prophet was insufficient. The books of Samuel and Kings offer numerous examples where this rule is not followed by kings and prophets, but some textual scholars look elsewhere seeking a harmonization of the issues. In the Book of Chronicles, Samuel is described as a Levite, rectifying this situation; however textual scholars widely see the Book of Chronicles as an attempt to redact the Book(s) of Samuel and of Kings to conform to later religious sensibilities. Since many of the Mitzvot themselves are thought to postdate the Book(s) of Samuel (according to the documentary hypothesis), Chronicles is probably making its claim based on religious bias. The Levitical genealogy of 1 Chronicles 4 is not historical, according to modern scholarship.[2] Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mitzvah מצוה is Hebrew for commandment (plural mitzvot; from צוה, tzavah - command). ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), or Aaron the Levite (flourished about 1200 B.C.), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לוי Attached, Standard Hebrew Levi, Tiberian Hebrew Lēwî) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... The Books of Kings (‎) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ...


Samuel's retirement and death

In 1 Samuel 12, just before his retirement, Samuel gathers the people to an assembly at Gilgal, and gives them a farewell speech, in which he emphasises how prophets and judges were more important than kings, how kings should be held to account, and how the people should not fall into idol worship, or worship of Asherah or of Baal; Samuel threatens that God would subject the people to foreign invaders should they disobey. This, however, is seen by textual scholars as a deuteronomic redaction;[2] archaeologically it is clear that Asherah was still worshipped in Israelite households well into the 6th century, which was obviously likely to have been a concern in regard to the deuteronomist's view of correct religion.[4] Gilgal is a place name in the Hebrew Bible. ... For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ... For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Redaction generally refers to the editing of text to turn it into a form suitable for publication, or to the result of such an effort. ...

Apparition of the spirit of Samuel to Saul, by Salvator Rosa, 1668.

Samuel then went into retirement, though he reappears briefly in the two accounts of why Saul's dynasty lost divine favour (parts of 1 Samuel 13 and 15), essentially acting, according to scholars, as the narrator's mouthpiece.[citation needed] Apart from being the individual who anoints David as king, a role Samuel is abruptly summoned to take, he does not appear any further in the text until his own death at his hometown Ramah (1 Samuel 25:1, 28:3), where he is buried (cf. 2 Kings 21:18, 2 Chronicles 33:20, and John 19:41). According to classical rabbinical sources, this was at the age of fifty-two. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (663 × 898 pixel, file size: 494 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 442 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (663 × 898 pixel, file size: 494 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... self-portrait by Salvator Rosa, 1640. ... As a literary technique, an author surrogate is a character who expresses the ideas, questions, personality and morality of the author. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... Ramah - height - is the name of several places in ancient Israel: The same as Ramathaim- Zophim. ...


Samuel's death, however, is not completely the end of his appearance in the narrative. In the passage concerning Saul's visit to the Witch of Endor, ascribed by textual scholars to the republican source, Samuel is temporarily raised from the dead so that he can tell Saul his future. Although Christian interpretations of this event portray the Witch and Saul as having been frightened by his appearance, and Samuel as having been composed, classical rabbinical sources argue that Samuel was terrified by the ordeal, having expected to be appearing to face God's judgement, and had therefore brought Moses with him (to the land of the living) as a witness to his adherence to the mitzvot.[2] The Witch of Endor: from the frontispiece to Sadducismus Triumphatus by Joseph Glanvill In the Hebrew Bible, the Witch of Endor of the First book of Samuel, chapter 28:4–25, was a witch, a woman who possesses a talisman, through which she called up the ghost of the recently... In Hebrew, ²² Sheol (שאול, Shol) is the abode of the dead, the underworld, the common grave of humankind or pit.[1] In the Hebrew Bible, it is a place beneath the earth, beyond gates, where both the bad and the good, slave and king, pious and wicked must go at... Image:Michelangelo - Fresco of the Last Judgment. ...


Some archeological sources claim that Samuel's tomb is located in Iran about 30 KM outside Saveh City.[citation needed]


Perspectives on Samuel

Judaism

According to the Book of Jeremiah, and one of the Psalms (99), Samuel had a high devotion to God, which was mutual. Classical Rabbinical literature adds that he was more than an equal to Moses, God speaking directly to Samuel, rather than Samuel having to attend the tabernacle to hear God.[5] Samuel is also described by the Rabbis as having been extremely intelligent; he argued that it was legitimate for laymen to slaughter sacrifices, since the Halakha only insisted that the priests bring the blood (cf Leviticus 1:5, Zebediah 32a).[6] Eli, who was viewed negatively by many Classical Rabbis, is said to have reacted to this logic of Samuel by arguing that it was technically true, but Samuel should be put to death for making legal statements while Eli (his mentor) was present.[6] The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ YirmÉ™yāhÅ« in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible included in the collected works known as the Writings or Ketuvim. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ...


Samuel is also treated by the Classical Rabbis as a much more sympathetic character than he appears at face value in the Bible; his annual circuit is explained as being due to his wish to spare people the task of having to journey to him; Samuel is said to have been very rich, taking his entire household with him on the circuit so that he didn't need to impose himself on anyone's hospitality; when Saul fell out of God's favour, Samuel is described as having grieved copiously and having prematurely aged.[7]


Christianity

On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, his feast day is August 20. He is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 30. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar describes and dictates the rhythm of the life of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... // 1 Third Day of the Fast of the Nativity 2 Fourth Day of the Fast of the Nativity 3 Fifth Day of the Fast of the Nativity 4 Sixth Day of the Fast of the Nativity 5 Eve of the Nativity and Theophany of our Lord Jesus Christ 6 Feast... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


For Evangelical Christians he is considered to be a Prophet, Judge, and wise Leader of Israel. He is a great example of how commitments to the Lord are fullfilled. Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. ...


Islam

In Islam, Samuel is regarded as a revered prophet who is mentioned in the Quran at Chapter 2 Verse 246: "Hast thou not turned thy vision to the Chiefs of the Children of Israel after (the time of) Moses? They said to a prophet (That was) among them: 'Appoint for us a King, that we May fight in the cause of God.' He said: 'Is it not possible, if ye were commanded to fight, that that ye will not fight?' They said: 'How could we refuse to fight in the cause of God, seeing that we were turned out of our homes and our families?' But when they were commanded to fight, they turned back, except a small band among them. But God has full knowledge of those who do wrong." The Quran refers to him as a knowledgeable prophet (as mentioned in the above verse) who holds an argument with the Israelites, who asked of him to appoint a king for them for they would otherwise fail to fight in the cause of God. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Of all Biblical personages Moses has been chosen most frequently as the subject of later legends; and his life has been recounted in full detail in the poetic haggadah. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), or Aaron the Levite (flourished about 1200 B.C.), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... Miriam (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; meaning either wished for child, bitter or rebellious, but it might be derived originally from an Egyptian name, myr beloved or mr love[1]) was the sister of Moses and Aaron, and the daughter of Amram and Jochebed. ... Joshua, Jehoshuah or Yehoshua. ... Phinehas or Pinhas - פִּינְחָס, Standard Hebrew Pinəḥas, Tiberian Hebrew Pînəħās is a name shared by two characters in the Hebrew Bible. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For information on the name Deborah, see Debbie For information on the nurse of Rebeccah, mentioned in Genesis, see Deborah (Genesis) Deborah or Dvora (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Bee) was a prophetess and the fourth Judge and only female Judge of pre-monarchic Israel in the Old Testament (Tanakh). ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; asked for) is identified in the Books of Samuel, 1 Chronicles and the Quran as the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... Jeduthun - lauder; praising - the name of two men in the Bible. ... This article is about the Biblical jhhhhnn . ... Gad was a seer or more commonly understood, a prophet in the Bible. ... Nathan the Prophet was a court prophet who lived in the time of King David and his wife Bathsheba. ... Ahijah HaShiloni, also known as Ahijah the Shilonite, was a prophet of Shiloh (1 Kings 11:29; 14:2). ... Elijah, 1638, by José de Ribera This article is about the prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Not to be confused with Elishah. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... Isaiah in rabbinic literature. ... For other uses, see Jeremiah (disambiguation). ... Ezekiel, , IPA: , God will strengthen, from , chazaq, [ xazaq ], literally to fasten upon, figuratively strong, and , el, [ el ], literally strength, figuratively Almighty. He is a prophet and priest in the Bible who prophesied for 22 years sometime in the 500s BCE while in the form of visions exiled in... See also Hoshea, who has the same name in Biblical Hebrew. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Book of Joel. ... Amos (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Burden) is one of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and putative author of the speeches reported in the Book of Amos. ... This article is about people named Obadiah in the Old Testament. ... For other uses, see Jonah (disambiguation). ... Jonah in rabbinic literature. ... Micah the titular prophet of the Book of Micah, also called The Morasthite He is not the same as another prophet , Micaiah son of Imlah. ... Nahum (נחום) was a minor prophet whose prophecy is recorded in the Hebrew Bible. ... Habakkuk or Havakuk (חֲבַקּוּק, Standard Hebrew Ḥavaqquq, Tiberian Hebrew Ḥăḇaqqûq) was a prophet in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Zephaniah or Tzfanya (צְפַנְיָה Concealed of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew Ẓəfanya, Tiberian Hebrew ṢəpÌ„anyāh) is the name of several people in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... An 18th century Russian icon of the prophet Haggai For the prophetic book, see Book of Haggai. ... Zechariah as depicted on Michelangelos ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Zechariah or Zecharya (זְכַרְיָה Renowned/Remembered of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... For the Northern Irish singer songwriter, see Malachi Cush. ... Image File history File links Christian_cross. ... Shemaiah was a prophet in the reign of Rehoboam (I Kings 12:22-24). ... Iddo (עדו also יעדו) was a minor biblical prophet, who appears to have lived during the reigns of King Solomon and his heirs, Rehoboam and Abijah in the Kingdom of Judah. ... Hanani was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Jehu was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Micah or Micha (מִיכָה, Standard Hebrew Miḫa, Tiberian Hebrew Mîḵāh) is the name of several people in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Jahaziel or Chaziel the Levite was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible. ... Eliezer (אֱלִיעֶזֶר / אֱלִיעָזֶר Help/Court of my God, Standard Hebrew Eliʿézer / Eliʿázer, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔlîʿézer / ʾĔlîʿāzer) was Moses and Zipporahs second son. ... Zechariah Ben Jehoida was the son or grandson of Jehoiada, the high priest in the times of Ahaziah and Jehoash (Joash). ... In the Bible, there were two prophets called Oded. ... Huldah was a prophetess mentioned briefly in the Second Book of Kings, Chapter 22. ... Engraving of Sarah by Hans Collaert from c. ... Sarah in rabbinic literature // Sarah was the niece of Abraham, being the daughter of his brother Haran. ... This article is about the Biblical character. ... Rebecca by Johannes Takanen, 1877. ... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ... Eli (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Ascent) was, according to the Books of Samuel, the name of a priest of Shiloh, and one of the last Israelite Judges before the rule of kings in ancient Israel. ... Elkanah was, according to the Books of Samuel, the husband of Hannah, and the father of her children including her first - either Samuel or Saul depending on whether it is those who take the Bible at face value or textual scholars (respectively) that are to be trusted[1]. Elkanah is... Hannah (or Chana) (Hebrew: ×—× ×” - Grace [of God]) was a wife of Elkanah and the mother of the prophet Samuel as recorded in the Book of Samuel. ... Abigail (אֲבִיגַיִל / אֲבִיגָיִל her Fathers joy or, fountain of joy ;leader of/is dance/, Standard Hebrew Avigáyil, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĂḇîḡáyil / ʾĂḇîḡāyil), once Abigal (Samuel 2 3:3), is a female character in the Bible. ... Categories: Hebrew Bible/Tanakh-related stubs | Hebrew Bible/Tanakh people ... Beeri, is the father of the prophet Hosea. ... Hilkiah was a Hebrew Priest at the time of King Josiah. ... Buzi (my contempt) was the father of the prophet Ezekiel. ... For other uses, see Mordecai (disambiguation). ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... Baruch ben Neriah was a Jewish aristocrat and scribe of the sixth century BCE. He was the disciple, secretary, and devoted friend of the Biblical prophet Jeremiah. ... In the Book of Genesis, Abel (Hebrew הֶבֶל / הָבֶל, Standard Hebrew Hével / Hável, Tiberian Hebrew Héḇel / Hāḇel; Arabic هابيل HābÄ«l) was the second son of Adam. ... Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ; Tiberian: , Standard: ) is a name occurring twice in the generations of Adam. ... This article is about the Biblical figure called Daniel. ... Daniel in rabbinic literature // According to rabbinical tradition Daniel was of royal descent; and his fate, together with that of his three friends, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, was foretold by the prophet Isaiah to King Hezekiah in these words, and they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king... Kenan or Qenan (Cainan seems to be an improper rendering of this word; it is separate from the word transliterated Cainan later in the Torah; the rendering Cainan is based off the Greek renderings, Kaïvav as found in Luke 3:36, 37) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; possession; smith) was a... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... Noah in rabbinic literature. ... Eber (עֵבֶר, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic: هود) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ... Edwin Longs 1886 painting of Batya finding the baby Moses Bithiah, in Hebrew Batya (בִּתְיָה, literally daughter of God), is the name given to a character in the account of the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt in Rabbinic Midrash, as she is not named in the text. ... Beor is the father of Balaam and is considered a prophet by Judaism because the Talmud says in Baba Bathra 15b Seven prophets prophesied to the heathen, namely, Balaam and his father, Job, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite, Zophar the Naamathite, and Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite... Balaam (Hebrew בִּלְעָם, Standard Hebrew BilÊ»am, Tiberian Hebrew Bilʻām; could mean glutton or foreigner, but this etymology is uncertain), is a prophet in the Bible, his story occurring in the Book of Numbers. ... Balak was king of Moab around 1200 BC. Revelations 2:12 - 2:14 says about Balak: 12 `And to the messenger of the assembly in Pergamos write: These things saith he who is having the sharp two-edged sword: 13 I have known thy works, and where thou dost dwell... William Blakes imagining of Satan inflicting boils on Job. ... one of Jobs friends, probably a descendant of Eliphaz, son of Esau (Job 4:1). ... Bildad the Shuhite was one of Jobs three friends. ... In the Book of Job, Zophar or Tzófar (צוֹפַר Chirping; rising early, Standard Hebrew Ẓófar, Tiberian Hebrew ṢôpÌ„ar) is one of the friends of Job who visits to comfort him during his illness. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ...

See also

The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Book of Samuel the Seer is a lost text that was probably written by the Biblical Judge/Prophet Samuel. ... Many given names in the English language refer to El, a Hebrew word meaning God, and have their origin in the Bible. ... Biblical judges are not to be confused with modern legal judges. ...

References

  1. ^ Behind the Name: Meaning, Origin and History of the Name Samuel
  2. ^ a b c d e f Jewish Encyclopedia, Samuel, Saul, Book of Samuel, et al.
  3. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia, Samuel, Book of Samuel, Eben-Ezer.
  4. ^ Israel Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed; Richard Elliott Friedman, Who wrote the Bible?
  5. ^ Berakot 31b, Ta'anit 5b, Exodus Rashi 14:4
  6. ^ a b Berakot 31b
  7. ^ Berakot 10b, Nedarim 38a, Ta'anit 5b
Preceded by
Eli
Judge of Israel Saul
Anointed king

This entry incorporates text from the public domain Easton's Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. ... The Bible Unearthed: Archaeologys New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts (Free Press, New York, 2001, 385 pp. ... Richard Elliot Friedman is a writer and Professor of Hebrew and Comparative Literature at UCSD. He is also Katzin Professor of Jewish Civilization: Hebrew Bible; Near Eastern Languages and Literatures. ... Berakhot (Hebrew: ברכות, Benedictions) is the first masekhet (tractate) of Seder Zeraim (Order of Seeds) of the Mishnah, the first major text of Jewish law. ... Nashim (Women) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Taanit is a fast in the Jewish religion. ... Eli (Hebrew: עֵלִי, Standard Tiberian  ; Ascent) was, according to the Books of Samuel, the name of a priest of Shiloh, and one of the last Israelite Judges before the rule of kings in ancient Israel. ... Biblical judges are not to be confused with modern legal judges. ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Standard Tiberian  ; asked for or borrowed) is a figure identified in the Books of Samuel and Quran as having been the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... Eastons Bible Dictionary generally refers to the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by Matthew George Easton M.A., D.D. (1823-1894), published three years after Eastons death in 1897 by Thomas Nelson. ...


 
 

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