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Encyclopedia > Sampling (music)

In music, sampling is the act of taking a portion, or sample, of one sound recording and reusing it as an instrument or element of a new recording. This is typically done with a sampler, which can be a piece of hardware or a computer program on a digital computer. Sampling is also possible with tape loops or with vinyl records on a phonograph. Sample can refer to any of the following. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... An AKAI MPC2000 sampler Playing a Yamaha SU10 Sampler A sampler is an electronic music instrument closely related to a synthesizer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Computer program. ... Tape loops are loops of prerecorded magnetic tape used to create repetitive, rhythmic musical patterns. ... A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ... “Tonearm” redirects here. ...


Often "samples" consist of one part of a song, such as a break, used in another, for instance the use of the drum introduction from Led Zeppelin's "When the Levee Breaks" in songs by the Beastie Boys, Dr. Dre, Eminem, Mike Oldfield and Erasure, and the guitar riffs from Foreigner's "Hot Blooded" in Tone-Loc's "Funky Cold Medina". "Samples" in this sense occur often in industrial, often using spoken words from movies and TV shows, as well as electronic music (which developed out of musique concrète, based almost entirely on samples and sample-like parts), hip hop, developed from DJs repeating the breaks from songs (Schloss 2004, p.36), and Contemporary R&B, but are becoming more common in other music as well, such as by Slipknot's sample player Craig Jones. In popular music a break is an instrumental or percussion section or interlude during a song derived from or related to stop-time – being a break from the main parts of the song or piece. ... For the bands 1969 self-titled debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... When the Levee Breaks is a blues song written and first recorded by husband and wife Kansas Joe McCoy and Memphis Minnie in 1929. ... Beastie Boys is a hip hop musical group from New York City, consisting of Michael Mike D Diamond, Adam MCA Yauch and Adam Ad-Rock Horovitz. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972), better known as Eminem or Slim Shady, is a Grammy and Academy Award-winning American rapper, record producer and actor from the Detroit, Michigan area. ... Michael Gordon Oldfield (born May 15, 1953 in Reading, England) is a multi-instrumentalist musician and composer, working a style that blends progressive rock, folk, ethnic or world music, classical music, electronic music and more recently dance. ... This article is about the a musical group Erasure. ... Foreigner is a hard rock band formed in New York City in 1976 by veteran musicians Mick Jones and ex-King Crimson member Ian McDonald, along with then unknown vocalist Lou Gramm (Louis Grammatico). ... Hot Blooded is the title of a 1978 song by American Rock band Foreigner, from their album Double Vision. ... Tone Loc (born Anthony Terrell Smith on March 3, 1966) is an American hip hop artist turned actor, most well-known for his 1989 hit singles Wild Thing and Funky Cold Medina. He is also known for his deep, gravelly, almost hoarse voice. ... Funky Cold Medina is a hip hop song written by Young MC and performed by Tone Lōc, and was the second single from his album Loced After Dark (1989). ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... Musique concrète (French; literally, concrete music), is a style of avant-garde music that relies on natural environmental sounds and other non-musical noises to create music. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... For other uses, see Rhythm and blues (disambiguation). ... Slipknot (sometimes typeset as SlipKnoT to fit their logo) is a Grammy winning American metal band from Des Moines, Iowa. ... Craig 133 Jones (born Craig Michael Jones on February 11, 1972) is a musician best known as the sampler/keyboardist of the band Slipknot. ...

Contents

Samplers

An AKAI MPC2000 sampler Playing a Yamaha SU10 Sampler A sampler is an electronic music instrument closely related to a synthesizer. ...

Legal issues

Sampling has been an area of contention from a legal perspective. Early sampling artists simply used portions of other artists' recordings, without permission; once rap and other music incorporating samples began to make significant money the original artists began to take legal action, claiming copyright infringement. Some sampling artists fought back, claiming their samples were fair use (a legal doctrine in the USA that is not universal). Not to be confused with copywriting. ... For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ...


Early cases

Though sampling existing (copyrighted) recordings using manipulation with tape recorders goes back at least as far as 1961, when James Tenney created Collage #1 ("Blue Suede") from samples of Elvis Presley's recording of the song "Blue Suede Shoes" sampling did not take off in popular music until the early eighties when pioneering hip hop producers, such as Marley Marl, started to produce Rap records using sampled breaks rather than drum machines or live studio bands, which had until then been the norm. The first rap single to feature sampling was "Rapper's Delight" by Sugar Hill Gang on their own independent Sugar Hill Label in 1979. They used the guitar riff from the song "Good Times" by the disco group Chic. James Tenney (August 10, 1934 in Silver City, NM) is an American composer and influential music theorist. ... “Elvis” redirects here. ... Blue Suede Shoes is a rock and roll standard written and first recorded by Carl Perkins in 1955. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... {{Infobox musical artist 2 |Name = John Dixon |Img = JohnDixon. ... RAP may mean: the IATA airport code for Rapid City Regional Airport Rassemblement pour lalternative progressiste, a Québecois political party. ... Look up Break in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Early examples of this practice include the West Street Mob's - Break Dance (Electric Boogie) (1983) (which used the "Apache" break by the Incredible Bongo Bong Band), Brother D and the Collective Effort's "How We Gonna Make The Black Nation Rise" (1984) (which sampled the beat and bass line from Cheryl Lynn's 1981 hit "Got to be Real") and UTFO's "Roxanne Roxanne" (1984). Bill Holt's Dreamies (1974)is often cited as one of the earliest examples of sampling in popular music. Another early example of sampling was Big Audio Dynamite and their 1985 album This Is Big Audio Dynamite and the single E=MC² which Mick Jones (the bands main creative force, formerly of The Clash) sampled snippets of audio from various films including works by Nicolas Roeg which make up the Roeg homage E=MC². Cheryl Lynn (born Lynda Cheryl Smith, 11 March 1957, in Los Angeles, California) is a known disco, R&B and soul singer, who scored fame then success beginning in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. ... In the early 1970s, Bill Holt produced a recording called Dreamies - a collage of songs performed on guitar and synthesizer (a Moog Sonic 6) combined with snippets of found sound. ... Big Audio Dynamite (later known as Big Audio Dynamite II and Big Audio, and often abbreviated BAD) was a British musical group formed in 1984 by the ex-guitarist and singer of The Clash, Mick Jones. ... This is Big Audio Dynamite album cover This Is Big Audio Dynamite was the debut album by the 1980s band Big Audio Dynamite, lead by former Clash band member Mick Jones. ... E=MC² is a song written by Mick Jones, the guitarist and singer of The Clash and performed by his post-Clash band Big Audio Dynamite. ... Mick Jones on stage with The Clash Michael Geoffrey Jones (born June 26, 1955) is an English guitarist and singer best known for his work as lead guitarist with The Clash. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nicolas Jack Roeg, born on August 15, 1928 in London, is an internationally-known cinematographer and film director. ... E=MC² is a song written by Mick Jones, the guitarist and singer of The Clash and performed by his post-Clash band Big Audio Dynamite. ...


One of the first major legal cases regarding sampling was with UK dance act M/A/R/R/S "Pump Up the Volume". As the record reached the UK top ten, producers Stock Aitken Waterman obtained an injunction against the record due to the unauthorized use of a sample from their hit single "Roadblock". The dispute was settled out of court, with the injunction being lifted in return for an undertaking that overseas releases would not contain the "Roadblock" sample, and the disc went on to top the UK singles chart. Ironically, the sample in question had been so distorted as to be virtually unrecognizable, and SAW didn't realize their record had been used until they heard co-producer Dave Dorrell mention it in a radio interview. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stock, Aitken & Waterman, sometimes known as SAW, are a British songwriting and record producing trio who had great success during the mid-late 1980s and early 1990s with many of their productions. ...


2 Live Crew, a hip-hop group not unfamiliar with controversy, was often in the spotlight for their ‘obscene’ and sexually explicit lyrics. They sparked many debates about censorship in the music industry. However, it was their 1989 album As Clean as They Wanna Be (a re-tooling of As Nasty As They Wanna Be) that began the prolonged legal debate over sampling. The album contained a track entitled “Pretty Woman,” based off of the well known Roy Orbison song of the same name. 2 Live Crew’s version sampled the guitar, bass, and drums from the original, without permission. While the opening lines are the same, the two songs split ways immediately following.[1]

For example: 2 Live Crew is a rap group. ... Roy Kelton Orbison (April 23, 1936 – December 6, 1988), nicknamed The Big O, was an influential American singer-songwriter, guitarist and a pioneer of rock and roll whose recording career spanned more than four decades. ...

Roy Orbison’s version – “Pretty woman, walking down the street/ Pretty woman, the kind I’d like to meet.”
2 Live Crew’s version – “Big hairy woman, all that hair ain’t legit,/ Cause you look like Cousin Itt.”[2] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

In addition to this, while the music is identifiable as the Orbison song, there were changes implemented by the group. The new version contained interposed scraper notes, overlays of solos in different keys, and an altered drum beat.[3]

The group was sued by the song’s copyright owners Acuff-Rose. The company claimed that 2 Live Crew’s unauthorized use of the samples devalued the original, and was thus a case of copyright infringement. The group claimed they were protected under the fair use doctrine. The case of Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music came to the Supreme Court in 1994.
In reviewing the case, the Supreme Court didn’t consider previous ruling in which any commercial use (and economic gain) was considered copyright infringement. Instead they re-evaluated the original frame of copyright as set forth in the Constitution. The opinion that resulted from Emerson v. Davies played a major role in the decision.[4]

"[In] truth, in literature, in science and in art, there are, and can be, few, if any, things, which in an abstract sense, are strictly new and original throughout. Every book in literature, science and art, borrows, and must necessarily borrow, and use much which was well known and used before." Emerson v. Davies,8 F.Cas. 615, 619 (No. 4,436) (CCD Mass. 1845)[5]

Perhaps what played a larger role was the result from the Folsom v. Marsh case:

"look to the nature and objects of the selections made, the quantity and value of the materials used, and the degree in which the use may prejudice the sale, or diminish the profits, or supersede the objects, of the original work." Folsom v. Marsh, 9 F.Cas. 342, 348 (No. 4,901) (CCD Mass. 1841)[6]

The court ruled that any financial gain 2 Live Crew received from their version did not infringe upon Acuff-Rose because the two songs were targeted at very different audiences. 2 Live Crew’s use of copyrighted material was protected under the fair use doctrine, as a parody, even though it was released commercially.[7]


1990s

In the early 1990s, Vanilla Ice came under criticism for the unauthorised use of a sample from the Queen/David Bowie hit "Under Pressure". Vanilla Ice's case rested on the addition of one grace note not present in the original. No lawsuit was filed, but it is conjectured that Vanilla Ice agreed to pay Queen and Bowie if they agreed not to sue. Robert Matthew Van Winkle (born October 31, 1968), better known as Vanilla Ice, is a Grammy Award nominated, American Music Award winning American rapper and actor known mostly for the 1990 single Ice Ice Baby. ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, singer Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ... David Bowie (IPA: []) (born David Robert Jones on 1947 January 8) is an English singer, songwriter, actor, multi-instrumentalist, producer, arranger and audio engineer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A grace note is a kind of music notation used to denote several kinds of musical ornaments. ...


More dramatically, Biz Markie's album I Need a Haircut was withdrawn in 1992 following a US federal court ruling (Grand Upright Music, Ltd. v. Warner Brothers Records, Inc.) that his use of a sample from Gilbert O'Sullivan's "Alone Again (Naturally)" was willful infringement. This case had a powerful effect on the record industry, with record companies becoming very much concerned with the legalities of sampling, and demanding that artists make full declarations of all samples used in their work. On the other hand, the ruling also made it more attractive to artists and record labels to allow others to sample their work, knowing that they would be paid—often handsomely—for their contribution. Biz Markie (born Marcel Hall April 8, 1964 in Harlem, New York) is a rapper and DJ, best known for humorous singles such as Just a Friend. He has been labeled The Clown Prince of Hip-Hop. ... Presiding judge Kevin Thomas Duffy Holding That the Defendants had tried to secure a license from plaintiff prior to sampling its copyrighted song helped establish that their copyright infringement was knowing and intentional and that plaintiff was the valid copyright holder. ... Gilbert OSullivan Raymond Edward OSullivan, known professionally as Gilbert OSullivan (born 1 December 1946, Waterford, County Waterford, Ireland) is an Irish singer-songwriter, best known for his early 1970s hits Alone Again (Naturally), Clair and Get Down. // Early in his life, his family moved to Swindon, Wiltshire... Alone Again (Naturally) is a song by the Irish singer-songwriter Gilbert OSullivan. ...


A notable case in the early 1990s involved the dispute between the group Negativland and Casey Kasem over the band's use of un-aired vocal snippets from Kasem's radio program America's Top 40 on the Negativland single "U2". For the album, see Negativland (album). ... Casey Kasem in 1989 Casey Kasem (born Kemal Amin Kasem on April 27, 1932, in Detroit, Michigan, USA, of Palestinian and Lebanese heritage) is an American radio personality and voice actor. ... For the album, see Negativland (album). ...


Cases have still emerged since then involving uncleared samples. In the late 1990s, The Verve was forced to pay 100% of their royalties from their hit "Bitter Sweet Symphony" for the use of an unlicensed sample from an orchestral cover version of The Rolling Stones' hit "The Last Time". The Rolling Stones' catalogue is one of the most litigiously protected in the world of popular music—to some extent the case mirrored the legal difficulties encountered by Carter the Unstoppable Sex Machine when they quoted from the song "Ruby Tuesday" in their song "After the Watershed" some years earlier. In both cases, the issue at stake was not the use of the recording, but the use of the song itself—the section from "The Last Time" used by the Verve was not even part of the original composition, but because it derived from a cover version of it, Mick Jagger and Keith Richards were still entitled to royalties and credit on the derivative work. This illustrates an important legal point: even if a sample is used legally, it may open the artist up to other problems. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bitter Sweet Symphony is a song by the rock band The Verve, and is the lead track on their third album Urban Hymns. ... “Rolling Stones” redirects here. ... Carter The Unstoppable Sex Machine (frequently shortened to Carter USM) was a British indie band formed in 1987 by singer Jim Jim Bob Morrison and guitarist Les Fruitbat Carter. ... Ruby Tuesday is a song recorded by The Rolling Stones in 1966, written by Brian Jones with some bits by Keith Richards concerning lyrics and texture, but credited to Jagger and Richards instead. ... Michael Phillip Mick Jagger CBE (born July 26, 1943) is an English rock musician, actor, songwriter, record and film producer and businessman. ... Keith Richards (born 18 December 1943) is an English guitarist, songwriter, singer and a founding member of The Rolling Stones in 1962. ...


2000

In the summer of 2001, Mariah Carey released her first single from Glitter entitled "Loverboy" which featured a sample of "Firecracker" by Yellow Magic Orchestra, no less than a month afterwards, Jennifer Lopez released "I'm Real" with the same "Firecracker" sample, Mariah quickly discarded it and replaced it with "Candy" by Cameo. The controversy here is that it is rumoured that Tommy Matolla, Carey's ex-husband, gave specific instruction to Lopez's producer to make the two songs as identical as possible. No one is sure if this is true, or why, possibly after Carey's departure from Columbia to Virgin, but only the parties involved know for sure. Mariah Carey (born March 27, 1970) is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, music video director, and actress. ... Yellow Magic Orchestra is a Japanese electropop band, formed in 1978. ... For the meteorologist of The Weather Channel, see The Weather Channel (United States). ... Im Real is the name of two songs by Jennifer Lopez. ... Cameo may refer to: Cameo, a method of carving, or an item of jewelry made in this manner (the opposite of Intaglio (jewellery)) Cameo lighting, a spotlight that accentuates a single person in a scene Cameo appearance, a brief, often uncredited appearance in a play, movie, television show, video game...


In 2001, Armen Boladian and his company Bridgeport Music Inc. filed over 500 copyright infringement suits against 800 artists using samples from George Clinton's catalogue. Armen Boladian is a former record producer, founder of Detroit-based Westbound Records in 1970. ... George Clinton is the name of several notable people: George Clinton (royal governor) (c. ...


Public Enemy recorded a track entitled "Psycho of Greed" (2002) for their album Revolverlution that contained a continuous looping sample from The Beatles' track "Tomorrow Never Knows". However, the clearance fee demanded by Capitol Records and the surviving Beatles was so high that the group decided to pull the track from the album. Public Enemy, also known as PE, is a hip hop group from Long Island, New York, known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media, and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ... Revolverlution is a rap album by Public Enemy. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Tomorrow Never Knows is the final track of The Beatles 1966 studio album Revolver, but it was the first to be recorded for the album. ... Capitol Records is a major United States-based record label, owned by EMI. // The Capitol Records company was founded by the songwriter Johnny Mercer in 1942, with the financial help of movie producer Buddy DeSylva and the business acumen of Glenn Wallichs, (1910-1971) (owner of Music City, at the...


Danger Mouse with the release of The Grey Album in 2004, which is a remix of The Beatles' 'White Album' and rapper Jay-Z's The Black Album has been embroiled in a similar situation with the record label EMI issuing cease and desist orders over uncleared Beatles samples. Brian Joseph Burton, better known by his stage name Danger Mouse, is an American artist and producer. ... The Grey Album is an album by Danger Mouse released in 2004 (see 2004 in music). ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... “The White Album” redirects here. ... Jay-Z (aka the Jigga, HOV and Hova, born Shawn Carter on December 4, 1970 in Brooklyn, New York) is an African American rapper/hip hop artist and record label executive; one of the most popular and successful rappers of the late 1990s and early 2000s. ... The Black Album was a 2003 hip hop music album by rapper Jay-Z. It is supposedly his last studio album and has generally been well received by the critics. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The EMI Group (LSE: EMI) is a British music company comprising of the major record company EMI Music which operates several labels, based in Kensington in London, England, and EMI Music Publishing, based in New York. ... Cease-and-desist is a legal term meaning essentially stop: It is used in demands for a person or organization to stop doing something (to cease and desist from doing it). ...


On March 19, 2006, a judge ordered that sales of The Notorious B.I.G.'s album Ready to Die be halted because the title track sampled a 1992 song by the Ohio Players, "Singing in the Morning", without permission. is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ready to Die is the debut album by East Coast rapper The Notorious B.I.G., released on September 13, 1994 (see 1994 in music). ... The Ohio Players are a funk and R&B band whose heyday was in the mid- to late 1970s. ...


Legal issues in practice

The most recent significant copyright case involving sampling held that even sampling three notes could constitute copyright infringement. Bridgeport Music Inc. v. Dimension Films, 410 F.3d 792 (6th Cir. 2005). This case was roundly criticised by many in the music industry, including the RIAA. This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... The RIAA Logo. ...


There has been a second important US case on music sampling involving the Beastie Boys who sampled the sound recording of a flute track by James Newton in their song "Pass the Mic". The Beastie Boys properly obtained a license to use the sound recording but did not clear the use of the song (the composition on which the recording is based including any music and lyrics). In Newton v. Diamond and Others 349 F.3d 591 (9th Cir. 2003) the US Appeals Court held that the use of the looped sample of a flute did not constitute copyright infringement as the core of the song itself had not been used. It seems that the position in law now is that with use of the sound recording any use without permission will constitute an infringement; however with the composition there must be some substantial use—the 'heart' of the song itself must be at least recognizable. This extends to both the music and the lyrics: a June 2006 case involving Ludacris and Kanye West held that their use of the phrases "like that" and "straight like that" which had been used on an earlier hip-hop track by another artist was not infringing use. Beastie Boys is a hip hop musical group from New York City, consisting of Michael Mike D Diamond, Adam MCA Yauch and Adam Ad-Rock Horovitz. ... James W. Newton (b. ... “Luda” redirects here. ... Kanye Omari West (pronounced /kÉ‘n. ...


The New Orleans based company, Cash Money Records and former rapper Juvenile were taken to court by local performer DJ Jubilee (signed to Take Fo' Record Label) for using chants from his song titled Back That Ass Up. Both artist had used the same chant in each song, but Juvenile won the case because of the title's name change to Back That Azz Up, which sold 2 million copies. Because of the name change, Jubilee lacked evidence that Juvenile had stolen from him, and Jubilee could not earn Juvenile's income from his song.[citation needed]


Today, most mainstream acts obtain prior authorization to use samples, a process known as "clearing" (gaining permission to use the sample and, usually, paying an up-front fee and/or a cut of the royalties to the original artist). Independent bands, lacking the funds and legal assistance to clear samples, are at a disadvantage.


Recently, a movement—started mainly by Lawrence Lessig — of free culture has prompted many audio works to be licensed under a Creative Commons license that allows for legal sampling of the work provided the resulting work(s) are licensed under the same terms. Not to be confused with Lawrence Lessing. ... The Free Culture Movement is a student led movement that supports freedom of speech on the Internet and objects to overly restrictive copyright laws, which, members of the movement argue, hinders creativity. ... The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ...


Producers on sampling

  • "[Samples have] a certain reality. It doesn't just take the sound, it takes the whole way it was recorded. The ambient sounds, the little bits of reverb left off crashes that happened a couple of bars ago. There's a lot of things in the sample, just like when you take a picture—it's got a lot more levels than say, the kick-drum or the drum machine, I think. [...] Looking at a sampler the way it was used first—to try and simulate real instruments—you didn't have to get a session guitarist and you could just be like, 'Hey, I can have an orchestra in my track, and I can have a guitar, and it sounds real!' And I think that's the wrong way to use sampling. The right way is to get the guitar, and go, 'Right, that's a guitar. Let's make it into something that a guitar could never possibly be.' You know, take it away from the source and try to make it something else. Might as well just get a bloody guitarist if you want a guitarist. There's plenty of them." —Amon Tobin dead link, view archive here
  • "Producers like Organized Noize mix samples and live instruments really well, but for me, it almost feels like a cop-out, because I'm a collage artist. It's like, 'Damn, if only I could find this one part. Well, maybe if I just had somebody paint it, and then I'll put it out.' That almost feels like cheating. Lots of times, I have trouble finding bass lines, because it's not very often on a record that there are good open bass lines. Sometimes I wish I could just have somebody come in and do what I want him to do on a bass line. It would be so easy. But what I do just keeps things much more challenging, I guess." —DJ Shadow [1]
  • "Cutting and pasting is the essence of what hip-hop culture is all about for me. It's about drawing from what's around you, and subverting it and de-contextualizing it." —DJ Shadow [2]
  • "When I sample something, it's because there's something ingenious about it. And if it isn't the group as a whole, it's that song. Or, even if it isn't the song as a whole, it's a genius moment, or an accident or something that makes it just utterly unique to the other trillions of hours of records that I've plowed through" —DJ Shadow, 33 1/3 Volume 24: DJ Shadow's Endtroducing..., 2005
  • "A lot of people still don't recognize the sampler as a musical instrument. I can see why. A lot of rap hits over the years used the sampler more like a Xerox machine. If you take four whole bars that are identifiable, you're just biting that shit. But I've always been into using the sampler more like a painter's palette than a Xerox. Then again, I might use it as a Xerox if I find rare beats that nobody had in their crates yet. If I find a certain sample that's just incredible—like the one on 'Liquid Swords'—I have to zap that! That was from an old Willie Mitchell song that I was pretty sure most people didn't have. But on every album I try to make sure that I only have 20 to 25 percent [of that kind of] sampling. Everything else is going to be me putting together a synthesis of sounds. You listen to a song like "Knowledge God" by Raekwon: it took at least five to seven different records chopped up to make one two-bar phrase. That's how I usually work." —RZA, The Wu-Tang Manual, 2004
  • "For hip hop, the main thing is to have a good trained ear, to hear the most obscure loop or sound or rhythm inside of a song. If you can hear the obscureness of it, and capture that and loop it at the right tempo, you're going to have some nice music man, you're going to have a nice hip hop track." —RZA
  • "Modern recorded music has evolved from focusing principally on musicianship and performance into an auditory collage where no sound is off limits. Sampling is simply another color on our palettes. Whether we're sampling old records, using advanced multi-sampling, or recording sounds ourselves, the final artistic product is paramount and should not be compromised in the face of any corporate legalities." —Sono
  • "Let’s say I find a loop or something that I want to use—you attach yourself to a particular aspect or emotion that you find in it—part of it is looking for like-minded sounds and part of it is just laying things out in a way that kind of helps accomplish what you want. It’s what you can hear in a particular sound." —RJD2 [3]
  • "I look at all the different parts and see how I can organize them in a way. It’s like mathematics. Very mathematic. It’s like graphs! You’re always searching for the combination that sounds best. It’s kind you set back, and feel the thing. If you want something to come in, you have to search for it, listen to it." —Blockhead [4]
  • "Sampling artistry is a very misunderstood form of music. A lot of people think sampling is thievery but it can take more time to find the right sample than to make up a riff." —Prince Be Softly of PM Dawn
  • "Sampling's not a lazy man's way. We learn a lot from sampling, it's like school for us. When we sample a portion of a song and repeat it over and over we can better understand the matrix of the song." —Daddy-O of Stetsasonic, cited in Black Noise by Tricia Rose, Wesleyan Press 1994, p. 79
  • "You got stuff darting in and out absolutely everywhere. It's like someone throwing rice at you. You have to grab every little piece and put it in the right place like a puzzle. Very complicated. All those little snippets and pieces that go in, along with the regular drums that you gotta drop out in order to make room for it." —Eric Sadler of Public Enemy's Bomb Squad, Black Noise by Tricia Rose, Wesleyan Press 1994, p. 80
  • "It's a context issue, because not every sample is a huge chunk of a song. We might take a tiny little insignificant sound from a record and then slow it way down and put it deep in the mix with, like, 30 other sounds on top of it. It's not even a recognizable sample at that point. Which is a lot different from taking a huge, obvious piece from some hit song that everyone knows and saying whatever you want to on top of that loop. An example that's often brought up in court when we get sued over sampling is a Biz Markie track where he more or less used a whole Gilbert O'Sullivan song. Because it was such an obvious sample, it's the example lawyers use when trying to prove that sampling is stealing. And that's really frustrating to us as artists who sample, because sampling can be a totally different thing than that." —Beastie Boys[5]
  • "It’s pretty much impossible to clear samples now [in 2005]. We had to stay away from samples as much as possible. The ones that we did use were just absolutely integral to the feeling or rhythm of the song. But, back [on Odelay] it was basically me writing chord changes and melodies and stuff, and then endless records being scratched and little sounds coming off the turntable. Now it’s prohibitively difficult and expensive to justify your one weird little horn blare that happens for half of a second one time in a song and makes you give away 70 percent of the song and $50,000. That’s where sampling has gone, and that’s why hip-hop sounds the way it does now." —Beck [6]
  • "I think it's wonderful, and it's a kind of poetic justice. When I was a teenager, I used to go down to Birdland and hear Miles Davis and Kenny Clarke. Later on, when I was at Juilliard, I heard John Coltrane. This had an enormous impression on me. In 1974, after a concert at Queen Elizabeth Hall, this guy with long hair and lipstick comes up to me and says, "Hi, I'm Brian Eno." Then in Berlin in 1976, after a performance of "Music for 18 Musicians," I met David Bowie. Now cut to the Orb and their generation. That's the way life ought to be. That's the way Bach and Bartok and Stravinsky worked, and it's how Kurt Weill worked. There should be a back-and-forth between what goes on in the street and the clubs and what goes on in the concert halls." —Steve Reich [7]
    • KANYE WEST is awesome

Amon Tobin performing live. ... Organized Noize is a successful Atlanta-based American record production company made up of Rico Wade, Ray Murray, and Patrick Sleepy Brown. ... DJ Shadow (born Josh Davis on January 1, 1973) is an American DJ, turntablist, music producer and songwriter. ... DJ Shadow (born Josh Davis on January 1, 1973) is an American DJ, turntablist, music producer and songwriter. ... DJ Shadow (born Josh Davis on January 1, 1973) is an American DJ, turntablist, music producer and songwriter. ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... Liquid Swords is a solo album by Wu-Tang Clan member GZA, widely regarded as a masterpiece of the East Coast hip hop renaissance. ... Willie Mitchell is a soul, r&b, rock and roll, pop and funk music producer and arranger who runs Royal Recording in Memphis, Tennessee. ... Raekwon (born Corey Woods, January 12, 1970, Brooklyn, New York, United States) is an American East Coast rapper and a member of the Wu-Tang Clan. ... RZA (IPA pronounciation: //) (born Robert Diggs, July 5, 1969 in Brownsville, Brooklyn, New York, USA) is an American hip hop producer, rapper and actor. ... The first two measures of Mozarts Sonata XI, which indicates the tempo as Andante grazioso and a modern editors metronome marking: = 120. “Andante” redirects here. ... RJD2 (born Ramble John RJ Krohn on May 27, 1976) is an American hip hop producer, singer and musician. ... Dancehall is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed around the late 70s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles, however saxophones have been omitted from newer subgenres of rock music since the 90s. ... Lou Donaldson (born November 1, 1926) is a jazz alto saxophonist. ... Joni Mitchell, CC (born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7, 1943) is a Canadian musician, songwriter, and painter. ... Crosby, Stills & Nash, also Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young when including occasional fourth member Neil Young, are a folk rock/rock supergroup. ... PM Dawn are a genre-crossing band which mix Hip hop and Rhythm and blues. ... PM Dawn are a genre-crossing band which mix Hip hop and Rhythm and blues. ... Stetsasonic, appearing on the cover of their debut album, On Fire Stetsasonic was an American hip hop group formed in 1981 (see 1981 in music) in Brooklyn, New York. ... Public Enemy, also known as PE, is a hip hop group from Long Island, New York, known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media, and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ... Biz Markie (born Marcel Hall April 8, 1964 in Harlem, New York) is a rapper and DJ, best known for humorous singles such as Just a Friend. He has been labeled The Clown Prince of Hip-Hop. ... Gilbert OSullivan Raymond Edward OSullivan, known professionally as Gilbert OSullivan (born 1 December 1946, Waterford, County Waterford, Ireland) is an Irish singer-songwriter, best known for his early 1970s hits Alone Again (Naturally), Clair and Get Down. // Early in his life, his family moved to Swindon, Wiltshire... Beastie Boys is a hip hop musical group from New York City, consisting of Michael Mike D Diamond, Adam MCA Yauch and Adam Ad-Rock Horovitz. ... Odelay is the critically acclaimed 1996 forth album by alternative rock artist Beck. ... This article is about the musician. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ...

Types of samples

Once recorded, samples can be edited, played back, or looped (i.e. played back continuously). Types of samples include:


Loops

The drums and percussion parts of many modern recordings are really a variety of short samples of beats strung together. Many libraries of such beats exist and are licensed so that the user incorporating the samples can distribute their recording without paying royalties. Such libraries can be loaded into samplers. Though percussion is a typical application of looping, many kinds of samples can be looped. A piece of music may have an ostinato which is created by sampling a phrase played on any kind of instrument. There is software which specializes in creating loops. In music, an ostinato (derived from Italian: stubborn, compare English: obstinate) is a motif or phrase which is persistently repeated at the same pitch. ...


Samples of musical instruments.

Whereas loops are usually a phrase played on a musical instrument, this type of sample is usually a single note. Music workstations and samplers use samples of musical instruments as the basis of their own sounds, and are capable of playing a sample back at any pitch. Many modern synthesizers and drum machines also use samples as the basis of their sounds. (See sample-based synthesis for more information.) Most such samples are created in professional recording studios using world-class instruments played by accomplished musicians. These are usually developed by the manufacturer of the instrument or by a subcontractor who specializes in creating such samples. There are businesses and individuals who create libraries of samples of musical instruments. Of course, a sampler allows anyone to create such samples. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Synthesizer (disambiguation). ... A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums and/or other percussion instruments. ... Sample-based synthesis is a form of audio synthesis that can be similar in structure to either subtractive synthesis or additive synthesis. ...


Possibly the earliest equipment used to sample recorded instrument sounds are the Chamberlin, which was developed in the 1940s, and its more well-known cousin, the Mellotron, marketed in England in the 1960s. Both are tape replay keyboards, in which each key pressed triggers a prerecorded tape loop of a single note. The Chamberlin is an electro-mechanical keyboard instrument related to the Mellotron. ... The Mellotron is an electromechanical polyphonic keyboard musical instrument originally developed and built in Birmingham, England in the early 1960s. ...


Musicians can reproduce the same samples of break beats like the "Amen" break which was composed, produced and mastered by the Winston Brothers in 1960s. Producers in the early 90's have used the whole 5.66 second sample; but music workstations like the Korg Electribe Series (EM-1, ES-1; EMX-1 and the ESX-1) have used the "Amen" kick, hi hat and snare in their sound wave libraries for free use. Companies like Korg have managed to use these samples for pitch, attack and decay and DSP effects to each drum part. The wave form of the Amen break. ... The Winstons is a funk and soul music outfit, based in Washington, D.C., from the 1960s who are most notable for recording a track called Amen, Brother (a B-side to the single Color Him Father recorded in 1969). ... For comic book character, see Korg (comics). ...


Most sample sets consist of multiple samples at different pitches. These are combined into keymaps, that associate each sample with a particular pitch or pitch range. Often, these sample maps may have different layers as well, so that different velocities can trigger a different sample. Computers and other typing devices offer many different keyboard layouts for inputting data in different languages. ...


Samples used in musical instruments sometimes have a looped component. An instrument with indefinite sustain, such as a pipe organ, does not need to be represented by a very long sample because the sustained portion of the timbre is looped. The sampler (or other sample playback instrument) plays the attack and decay portion of the sample followed by the looped sustain portion for as long as the note is held, then plays the release portion of the sample.


A common standard format for generating such sample sets is the soundfont protocol. SoundFont is a brand name that collectively refers to a file format and associated technology designed to bridge the gap between recorded and synthesized audio, especially for the purposes of computer music composition. ...


Resampled layers of sounds generated by a music workstation.

To conserve polyphony, a workstation may allow the user to sample a layer of sounds (piano, strings, and voices, for example) so they can be played together as one sound instead of three. This leaves more of the instruments' resources available to generate additional sounds. Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ...


Samples of recordings.

There are several genres of music in which it is commonplace for an artist to sample a phrase of a well-known recording and use it as an element in a new composition. Two well-known examples include the sample of Rick James' "Super Freak" in MC Hammer's "U Can't Touch This" and the sample of Queen/David Bowie's "Under Pressure" in Vanilla Ice's "Ice Ice Baby". This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Super Freak is a 1981 hit single, produced and performed by Rick James for the Motown label. ... MC Hammer (born Stanley Kirk Burrell on March 30, 1962) is an American MC who was popular during the late 1980s and early 1990s, known for his dramatic rise to and fall from fame and fortune, his trademark Hammer pants, and for leaving a lasting influence on hip hop culture... Listen to this article ( info/dl) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-12-04, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, singer Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ... David Bowie (IPA: []) (born David Robert Jones on 1947 January 8) is an English singer, songwriter, actor, multi-instrumentalist, producer, arranger and audio engineer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert Matthew Van Winkle (born October 31, 1968), better known as Vanilla Ice, is a Grammy Award nominated, American Music Award winning American rapper and actor known mostly for the 1990 single Ice Ice Baby. ...


Samples of spoken word

Usually taken from movies, television, or other non-musical media, often used for humorous or atmospheric effect. For example, Goa trance often employs samples of people talking about drugs, spirituality, or science fiction themes. Industrial is known for samples from horror/sci-fi movies, news broadcasts, propaganda reels, and speeches by political figures (the band Ministry is notorious for sampling both the younger and elder George Bush). The band Negativland samples from practically every form of popular media, ranging from infomercials to children's records. A good example of this is "Civil War" by Guns N'Roses on their album Use Your Illusion II. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Ministry is an American industrial metal band founded by front-man by Al Jourgensen in 1981. ... For the album, see Negativland (album). ... For other uses, see Use Your Illusion (disambiguation). ...


Unconventional sounds

These are not musical in the conventional sense - that is, neither percussive nor melodic - but which are musically useful for their interesting timbres or emotional associations, in the spirit of musique concrete. Some common examples include sirens and klaxons, locomotive whistles, gunshots, natural sounds such as whale song, and cooing babies. It is common in theatrical sound design to use this type of sampling to store sound effects that can then be triggered from a musical keyboard or other software. This is very useful for high precision or nonlinear requirements. Musique concrète is the name given to a class of electronic music produced from editing together fragments of natural and industrial sounds. ... Sound design is a technical/conceptually creative field. ...


See also

In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous signal to a discrete signal. ... Musique concrète (French; literally, concrete music), is a style of avant-garde music that relies on natural environmental sounds and other non-musical noises to create music. ... The wave form of the Amen break. ... Plunderphonics is a term coined by John Oswald in 1985 in an essay entitled Plunderphonics, or Audio Piracy as a Compositional Prerogative. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Sound collage is the production of songs, musical compositions, or recordings using portions, or samples, of previously made recordings. ... Musical montage (literally putting together) is a technique where sound objects or compositions are created from collage. ... An AKAI MPC2000 sampler Playing a Yamaha SU10 Sampler A sampler is an electronic music instrument closely related to a synthesizer. ... Illegal Art is a sampling label that was started by a person calling him/herself Philo T. Farnsworth in 1998. ... The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ... For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ... Daft Punk is the collective name of Paris house musicians Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo (born February 8, 1974)[1] and Thomas Bangalter (born January 3, 1975). ... In music, interpolation is an abrupt change of elements, with (almost immediate) continuation of the first idea. ... A remix is an alternative version of a song, different from the original version. ... The Avalanches is an electronic music group from Melbourne, Australia, best known for its live DJ sets and debut album Since I Left You, which was assembled from approximately 3,500 vinyl samples. ... In popular music, a cover version, or simply cover, is a new rendition (performance or recording) of a previously recorded song. ...

Sampling in other contexts

  • Collage - a work of visual arts made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole.
  • Papier collé - a painting technique and type of collage.
  • Cut-up technique - an aleatory literary technique or genre in which a writing is cut up at random and rearranged to create a new text.
  • Found footage - a method of compiling films partly or entirely of footage which has not been created by the filmmaker.
  • Appropriation (art) - (Visual arts) often refers to the use of borrowed elements in the creation of new work.

A collage composed of magazine articles and pictures Collage (From the French: , to stick) is regarded as a work of visual arts made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole. ... Papier collé (French: pasted paper) is a painting technique and type of collage. ... The cut-up technique is an aleatory literary technique or genre in which a text is cut up at random and rearranged to create a new text. ... Illustration of a scribe writing Writing, in its most common sense, is the preservation of and the preserved text on a medium, with the use of signs or symbols. ... Random redirects here. ... Found footage is a filmmaking term which describes a method of compiling films partly or entirely of footage which has not been created by the filmmaker, and changing its meaning by putting it into a new context. ... Composition with Fruit, Guitar and Glass. ...

References

External links

Free sample resources

  • Free music downloads - Free music downloads, free samples and music loops (guitar, bass, synth and drum loops)
  • Loopasonic - Free samples and loops download
  • iBeat.org - Three levels of categorised open music wave samples.
  • Atom Splitter Audio - Royalty free audio samples
  • ccMixter.org 1,000s of samples licensed under Creative Commons

Look up who sampled who

  • Second Hand Songs — a large, searchable database of original and new songs and artists.
  • The-Breaks.com, AKA The (Rap) Sample FAQ — A searchable database that lets you search by sampling artist and sample.
The external links section in the Cover version article contains databases of cover versions.

In popular music, a cover version, or simply cover, is a new rendition (performance or recording) of a previously recorded song. ...

Source

  • Schloss, Joseph G. (2004). Making Beats: The Art of Sample-Based Hip Hop. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0-8195-6696-9.
  • Katz, Mark. "Music in 1s and 0s: The Art and Politics of Digital Sampling." In Capturing Sound: How Technology has Changed Music (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 137-57. ISBN 0-520-24380-3

  Results from FactBites:
 
Contact Us - Sampling,Tips,Reviews and Music Links (567 words)
Sounduser.com is the web's premier sample CD review site, in addition we offer free VST software and general sampling and music making information.
A reviewed sample CD will feature on the home page for a period of seven days, the reviews page for 6 weeks and then in the reviews archives forever.
The suppliers of sample CD's and related products will be linked to in a review, normally to a website, but we will also include further contact information on request.
Fair Use: Music Sampling (2073 words)
Specifically, a two-second sample from the guitar solo was copied, the pitch was lowered, and the copied piece was “looped” and extended to 16 beats.
Drawing on both the quantitative/qualitative and “fragmented literal similarity” approaches, the district court found the de minimis analysis was a derivation of the substantial similarity element when a defendant claims that the literal copying of a small and insignificant portion of the copyrighted work should be allowed.
The analysis that is appropriate for determining infringement of a musical composition copyright, is not the analysis that is to be applied to determine infringement of a sound recording.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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