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Encyclopedia > Samo
Part of the
Czech history series
Samo's Realm
Great Moravia
Middle Ages
Czech lands
1526-1648 · 1648-1867 · 1867-1918
Czechoslovakia
(1918-1993)
Czech Republic
Part of the series
on Slovak history
Samo's Empire
Principality of Nitra
Great Moravia
Kingdom of Hungary
Royal Hungary
History of Czechoslovakia
Slovaks in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938)
Slovak Republic (1939–1945)
Slovak National Uprising (1944)
Slovaks in Czechoslovakia (1960–1990)
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History of Slovenia Image:Jean1. ... Samo is a small town located in the Province of Reggio Calabria, Italy. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... The history of the Czech lands includes the following periods: Prehistory (700 000 BC – 400 BC) Celts (400 BC – 8 BC) – Boii Germanic tribes (8 BC – 511 AD) – Marcomanni & Quadi Slavs: Bohemians & Moravians – since the 6th century (535?) Samo’s realm (623 – 658) Moravian principality (late 8th century – 833) in... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... This article describes the history of the Czech lands in the Middle Ages. ... Bohemia, Moravia, Austrian Silesia - 1892, then part of Austria-Hungary Bohemia and Moravia-Silesia within Czechoslovakia in 1928 The Czech lands (Czech: ÄŒeské zemÄ›) is an auxiliary term used mainly to describe the combination of Bohemia, Moravia and Czech Silesia. ... Although the Bohemian Kingdom and the Margravate of Moravia were all under Habsburg rule, they followed different paths of development. ... 1648 – 1740 In 1683, Leopold I (1656-1705) defeated the Turks and paved the way for the restoration of the Kingdom of Hungary to its previous territorial dimensions. ... The Compromise of 1867 established the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary (also known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Slovakia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Principality of Nitra or Nitrian Principality ( Slovak: Nitrianske kniežatstvo, Nitriansko, Nitrava) was a principality in what is today Slovakia and some adjacent territories in present-day Hungary in the Middle Ages. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Consequences of the Battle of Mohács, and the conquest of Buda in 1541 by the Ottomans: the Kingdom is partitioned. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Whereas Czechs wished to create a Czechoslovak nation, Slovaks sought a federative republic in 1918. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Slovakia Commanders Heinrich Himmler Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ Ján Golian† Rudolf Viest† Strength 40,000, later increased to 83,000 18,000 initially, later increased to 78,000 Casualties ≈10,000 ≈10,000 + 5,304 captured and executed Memorial of the Slovak National Uprising in Banska Bystrica The... The division between Czechs and Slovaks in Czechoslovakia persisted as a key element in the reform movement of the 1960s and the retrenchment of the 1970s, a decade that dealt harshly with the aspirations of both Czechs and Slovaks. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Slovenia. ... // Ancient times Slovenia under the Roman Empire In ancient times Celts and Illyrians inhabited the territory of present-day Slovenia. ...

Samo's Realm
Karantania
March of Carniola
Illyrian provinces
Kingdom of Illyria
Duchy of Carniola
Drava Banovina
Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Republic of Slovenia

King Samo (? – 658) was a merchant born in the Senonian country (Senonago) (probably today's Sens in France). He was the first ruler of the Slavs whose name is known, and the founder of the so-called (King) Samo's Empire or Samo's Realm (623 - 658), the first known organized community of the Slavs - actually a kind of supra-tribal union, not a true state. As for Samo's nationality (see the end of this article), Fredegar's chronicle - the only contemporaneous source mentioning Samo - says explicitly "Samo, a Frank by birth [or nation] from the Senon[ag]ian province". It is recorded that the Frankish ruler Samo had twelve Wendish wives; the women were possibly refugees and their men or husbands dead. Karantania (also Carantania, Carentania, in old Slovenian onomastics Korotan, or Karantanija) was a Slovenian principality that emerged in the 7th century and was centered on the territory of contemporary Carinthia. ... The Mark Krain (March of Carniola) is in the southeast (lower right) of this map of the 10th-century Holy Roman Empire. ... Illyrian Provinces (French Provinces illyriennes) were formed in 1809 when Austria ceded with the Treaty of Schoenbrunn its lands Carinthia, Carniola, Croatia southwest of the river Sava, Gorizia and Trieste to France after the defeat at the Battle of Wagram. ... Illyria (Anc. ... Carniola (Slovenian Kranjska, German Krain) is a region in Slovenia. ... Map showing Yugoslav banovinas in 1929 (The Drava Banovina is coloured yellow, on the top left part of the map) The Drava Banovina or Drava Banate (Slovenian and Croatian: Dravska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. ... Flag of Socialist Republic of Slovenia Coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia Socialist Republic of Slovenia was the official name of Slovenia as a federal unit in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Events The union of Slavic tribes falls apart after Samos death Births Deaths King Samo of the Slavs Categories: 658 ... Inside the cathedral of Sens, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, c. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Events Clotaire II, king of the Franks, makes his son Dagobert I king of Austrasia Samo, reputedly a Frankish merchant, governs in Moravia, Slovakia and Lower Austria. ... Events The union of Slavic tribes falls apart after Samos death Births Deaths King Samo of the Slavs Categories: 658 ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... The Chronicle of Fredegar (died ca 660) is the main source for Western European events of the 7th century, a formative period whose scarcity of sources in part justifies the characterization of its silence as that of the Dark Ages. In the 7th century many institutions of the Middle Ages... Wends (German: Wenden, Latin: Venedi) is the English name for some Slavic people from north-central Europe. ...


The Avars arrived in the Carpathian Basin in the 560s from the steppes of Asia and subdued the Slavs living on the conquered territory. The Avar border ran approximately along the line of the Byzantine Empire in present-day Serbia - Lake Balaton - eastern Bratislava - southern Slovakia - Ruthenia. However, after the Avars were defeated at Constantinople in the early 7th century, the Slavs living north of the Danube started to revolt against them. Samo was one of the merchants who supplied arms to the Slavs (mainly) for these revolts. During a Slav revolt in 623 (probably at today's Bratislava-Devín), Samo joined the Slavs, the Avars were defeated under his leadership, and the Slavs made him their ruler, thereby giving birth to what is known as the King Samo's Empire. Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Decades: 510s - 520s - 530s - 540s - 550s - 560s - 570s - 580s - 590s - 600s - 610s Years: 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 Events and Trends The Byzantine conquest of Italy, completed in 560, comes to a premature end with the entrance... Small Text For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... Lake Balaton, located in Hungary, is the largest lake in Central Europe. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Slovakia Region Bratislava Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907[1] Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský[2]  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Events Clotaire II, king of the Franks, makes his son Dagobert I king of Austrasia Samo, reputedly a Frankish merchant, governs in Moravia, Slovakia and Lower Austria. ... Devín (Slovak: Devín or Devínsky hrad) is a castle in Bratislava, Slovakia. ...


Archaeological findings indicate that the "empire" was situated in present-day Moravia, Slovakia, Lower Austria and Carinthia. The settlements of the later Moravian and Nitrian principalities (see Great Moravia) are often identical with those from the time of Samo's Empire. Present-day Bohemia probably, Sorbia at the Elbe surely, and state of Karantania temporarily, became parts of the empire later (in the 630s), as well. Although the Slavs, led by King Samo, managed to defeat all Avar attacks, Slav conflicts with Frankish merchants, in which merchants were killed and goods stolen, forced them to fight against the Franks as well. In 631, the Frankish king Dagobert I (Merovingian) sent three armies against King Samo. The biggest of the armies, hailing from Austrasia, was defeated by the Slavs led by King Samo at the castle Wogastisburg (Vosgate Castle) when trying to attack the center of Samo's Empire. As a result, Samo even invaded Frankish Thuringia several times and undertook looting raids there. The Sorbian prince Dervan joined Samo after this success. The location of the Wogastisburg is currently strongly disputed with claims ranging from castles in Bohemia, to castles at the Danube, to the Frankish Forchheim, to Bratislava, to the Devín Castle, to Nitra, to Carnuntum etc. Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Map of Lower Austria showing districts and the four quarters (Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue) Lower Austria (de: Niederösterreich) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. ... Carinthia (German: Kärnten, Italian: Carinzia, Slovenian: KoroÅ¡ka) is an Austrian state or Land, located in the south of Austria. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech and Serbian Lužice), sometimes called Sorbia comprises a region in the southern parts of Brandenburg and eastern parts of Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Karantania (also Carantania, Carentania, in old Slovenian onomastics Korotan, or Karantanija) was a Slovenian principality that emerged in the 7th century and was centered on the territory of contemporary Carinthia. ... Centuries: 6th century 7th century 8th century Decades: 580s - 590s - 600s - 610s - 620s - 630s - 640s - 650s - 660s - 670s - 680s Years: 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 Events: 630 - Serbs and Croats settle the Balkans in the provinces of Moesia, Pannonia and Dalmatia 632 - death of... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Events Battle of Wogastisburg between Slavs led by Samo and Dagobert I, king of the Franks Births Deaths Categories: 631 ... Dagobert I (c. ... For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Austrasia & Neustria Austrasia formed the north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising parts of the territory of present-day eastern France, western Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands. ... Combatants Slavs Austrasians Commanders King Samo Dagobert I According to the contemporary Chronicle of Fredegar, the battle of Wogastisburg was a battle between Slavs under Samo and Franks under King Dagobert I in 631. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the current German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... Dervan (Serbian Cyrillic: Дерван) (* c. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... There are communes and places that have the name Forchheim in Germany: Municipalities Forchheim (Oberfranken) , in the Forchheim district, Bavaria Forchheim am Kaiserstuhl , in the Emmendingen, Baden-Württemberg Subdivisions Forchheim (Beilngries) Forchheim (Döbeln) Forchheim bei Karlsruhe, a locality in Rheinstetten Forchheim (Erzgebirge) , a locality of Pockau Forchheim (Oberpfalz... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Slovakia Region Bratislava Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907[1] Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský[2]  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Devín Castle (Slovak: hrad Devín or Devínsky hrad) is a castle in Devín, which is a part of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia. ... Nitra - City Center Nitra (German: ( ); Hungarian: / Nyitria [archaic]) is a city in western Slovakia (and the fourth largest urban settlement in Slovakia) situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in the Nitra River valley. ... // Heidentor (pagan gate). ...


The history of the empire after Samo's death in 658 (or 659) is largely unclear. It is generally assumed that it disappeared with Samo's death. Archaeological findings show that the Avars returned to their previous territories (at least to southernmost Slovakia) and entered into a symbiosis with the Slavs, whereas territories to the north of the Avar empire were purely Slav territories. The first specific thing that is known about the fate of these Slavs and Avars, is the existence of the Moravian and Nitrian principalities in the late 8th century (see Great Moravia) which were attacking the Avars, and the defeat of the Avars by the Franks under Charlemagne in 799 or 802/803, after which the Avars quickly ceased to exist. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Events 29 November - Pope Leo III, aided by Charles the Great, returns to Rome. ... Events 31 October - Irene deposed as Emperoress of Byzantium and replaced by Nicephorus I. She is banished to Lesbos. ... Events Nicephorus I and Charlemagne settle their imperial boundaries. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ...


Sources of information

The main source of written information on Samo and his "empire" is the Frankish Fredegarii Chronicon (Fredegar's Chronicle). It was written by one author (perhaps called Fredegar) around 660 or by three authors in the first half of the 7th century. Its second part describes the history of the Franks between 584 and about 643 and is one of the main sources on the Frankish history. It is the only contemporaneous source on Samo. All other sources are derived from this chronicle, and are much more recent. Examples of such sources are the Gesta Dagoberti I, regnis Francorum from the first third of the 9th century, and the Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum (Conversion of the Bavarians and Karantanians) from Salzburg (the center of Bavarian clergy) written in 871-872, the latter source being a very tendentious one as its name suggests (which however does not mean necessarily that it is wrong). According mainly to the Conversio, Samo was a Karantanian merchant. The Chronicle of Fredegar (died ca 660) is the main source for Western European events of the 7th century, a formative period whose scarcity of sources in part justifies the characterization of its silence as that of the Dark Ages. In the 7th century many institutions of the Middle Ages... Events Childeric II proclaimed king of Austrasia. ... Events The Visigoths conquer the Suevi kingdom in Spain. ... Events Rothari, King of the Lombards, issues the Lombard law code. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Geography Bavaria shares international borders with Austria and the Czech Republic. ... Caranthanians (Latin Quarantani, Slovenian Karantanci) were the only Alpine Slavs in the early middle ages and the first ethnic name of an old Slovenian people as a separate part of the Slavs (Latin Sclavi qui dicuntur Quarantani, Slavs called Caranthanians). ...   (Austro-Bavarian: SÃ¥izburg) is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. ... Events Nine battles are fought between the Danes and Wessex. ... Events Battle of Hafrsfjord in Norway, Harald Finehair first king of Norway. ...


Names of the entity in other languages

The names of the so-called Samo's Empire in other languages are: Czech Sámova říše, Bulgarian Държава на Само, Polish Państwo Samona, German Reich des Samo, Slovak Samova ríša, Slovene Samova država (Samo's State) or Samova plemenska zveza (Samo's Tribal Union), Croatian Samovo kraljevstvo (Samo's kingdom), Serbian Samov plemenski savez or cyrillic spelling Самов племенски савез (Samo's Tribal Union). Serbian (српски језик; srpski jezik) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


See also

The history of the Czech lands includes the following periods: Prehistory (700 000 BC – 400 BC) Celts (400 BC – 8 BC) – Boii Germanic tribes (8 BC – 511 AD) – Marcomanni & Quadi Slavs: Czechs & Moravians – since the 6th century (535?) Samo’s realm (623 &#8211... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Ancient times Slovenia under the Roman Empire In ancient times Celts and Illyrians inhabited the territory of present-day Slovenia. ... This is a timeline of key events in the history of Slovenia, both of the Slovenes and the other ethnicities who once lived or do live on Slovene ethnic territory or in the geographical bounds of Slovenia. ...


 
 

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