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Encyclopedia > Samkhya
Some of the information in this article or section may not be verified by reliable sources. It should be checked for inaccuracies and modified to cite reliable sources.
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Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य, IAST: Sāṃkhya - Enumeration) is one of the six schools of classical Indian philosophy. Sage Kapila is traditionally considered to be the founder of the Sankhya school, although no historical verification is possible. It is regarded as the oldest of the philosophical systems in India. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Image File history File links Aum. ... Raja Yoga (lit. ... (Sanskrit ni-āyá, literally recursion, used in the sense of syllogism, inference)) is the name given to one of the six orthodox or astika schools of Hindu philosophy—specifically the school of logic. ... Vaisheshika, also Vaisesika, (Sanskrit: वैशॆषिक)is one of the six Hindu schools of philosophy (orthodox Vedic systems) of India. ... The main objective of the Purva (earlier) Mimamsa school was to establish the authority of the Vedas. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... VishishtAdvaita Vedanta (IAST ;Sanskrit: विशिष्टाद्वैत)) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy, the other major sub-schools of Vedānta being Advaita and Dvaita. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Patañjali as an incarnation of Adi Sesha Patañjali (DevanāgarÄ« पतञ्जलि) is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the philosophical aspects of mind and consciousness, and also the author of a major commentary on Paninis Ashtadhyayi, although many scholars do not consider... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with saptarshi. ... Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Veda Vyasa(Contemporary painting) Vyāsa (DevanāgarÄ«: व्यास) is a central and much revered figure in the majority of Hindu traditions. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, DevanāgarÄ«: , , IPA: ); c. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... MadhusÅ«dana SarasvatÄ« (c. ... Sant Tukaram (तुकाराम) (c. ... Namdev, Nam Dev, or Saint Namdev (1270-1350) born to a low-caste tailor named Damasheti and his wife, Gonabi in the village of Naras-Vamani, in the district of Maharashtra, India. ... Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: রামকৃষ্ণ পরমহংস Ramkrishno Pôromôhongsho), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay (Bangla: গদাধর চট্টোপাধ্যায় Gôdadhor Chôţţopaddhae) [1], (February 18, 1836–August 16, 1886) was a Hindu religious teacher and an influential figure in the Bengal Renaissance of the Nineteenth century. ... Sri Ramana Maharshi (December 30, 1879 – April 14, 1950) was a Hindu Sage. ... Swami Vivekananda (Bengali: Shami Bibekanondo) (January 12, 1863 - July 4, 1902), whose pre-monastic name was Narendranath Dutta ( Nôrendrônath Dôt-tô), was one of the most famous and influential spiritual leaders of the philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga and a major figure in the history of Hinduism... Narayana Guru It has been suggested that the section Sri Narayana Guru from the article Ezhava be merged into this article or section. ... Nitya Chaitanya Yati (Nithya Chaithanya Yati) (2 November 1923 - May 14, 1999) was an Indian philosopher. ... Dr. A.K. Coomaraswamy // Life of Dr. A.K. Coomaraswamy Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy (22 August 1877 Colombo - 9 September 1947 Needham, Massachusetts) was the son of the famous Sri Lankan legislator and philosopher Sir Mutu Coomaraswamy and his English wife Elizabeth Beeby. ... Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ Sri Ôrobindo, Sanskrit: श्री अरविन्द SrÄ« Aravinda) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian/Hindu nationalist, scholar, poet, mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru [1]. After a short political career in which he became one of leaders of the early movement for the freedom of India from... Swami Sivananda Saraswati (1887-1963), as he is known under his monastic name, was born Kuppuswamy in Pattamadai, Tamil Nadu, India. ... Nisargadatta Maharaj near the end of his life. ... Swami Satyananda (born in Almorah, Uttar Pradesh, India in 1923), a disciple of Swami Sivananda, is a modern yoga master and guru. ... Image:Swami Chinmayananda. ... According to Akilattirattu Ammanai, a scripture of the Ayyavazhi, Ayya Vaikundar அய்யா வைகுண்டர், was a Manu (father, sovereign) avatar (the incarnation of a deity) of Narayana. ... Pandurang Shastri Vaijnath Athavale (Gujarati: , Marathi: ) (October 19, 1920 – October 25, 2003), known as dada (Gujarati: , Marathi: ), meaning elder brother in marathi) A philosopher and social reformer who gave discourses upon Srimad Bhagawad Geeta and Upnishads. ... Swami Chidvilasananda (born Malti Shetty - June 24, 1955 in Mumbai, India) is the current guru of the Siddha Yoga lineage (parampara) established by Swami Muktananda. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Indian people stubs | Indian philosophers ...


This was later incorporated as being one of the six orthodox (astika) (that which recognizes vedic authority) systems of Hindu philosophy with the major text of the theistic school being the extant Sankhya Karika, written by Ishvara Krishna, circa 200 CE. There are no purely Samkhya schools existing today in Hinduism, but its influence is felt in Yoga and Vedanta schools of philosophy. Its philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two eternal realities: Purusha and Prakriti.[1][2] It is therefore a strongly dualist[3] and enumerationist philosophy. The Purusha is the centre of consciousness, whereas the Prakriti is the source of all material existence. Nastika is a Sanskrit term meaning: It is the antonym of astika, or one who asserts. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Theism is the belief in one or more gods or goddesses. ... ... In Hinduism, Purusha ([Cosmic] Man) is the self which pervades the universe. ... Prakrti or Prakriti (from Sanskrit language) is, according to samkhya philosophy the basic matter of which the universe consists. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Hinduism, Purusha ([Cosmic] Man) is the self which pervades the universe. ... Prakrti or Prakriti (from Sanskrit language) is, according to samkhya philosophy the basic matter of which the universe consists. ...


The Samkhya school has deeply influenced the Hindu Yoga school of philosophy. They are sometimes referred together as Samkhya - yoga school. Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ...

Contents

Evolution of the Samkhya School

Samkhya doctrines go back to older Upanishads, and were compiled into a formal system only later.[4] The history of the evolution of this school of thought begins with dualist teachings in the Upanishads.[5] Anima Sen Gupta characterizes the references to samkhya ideas in the Upanishads as "scattered", gradually being developed into an orthodox system.[6]


A division by time periods is noted by the commentator Guṇaratna (14th c. CE) who mention two Samkhya schools: maulikya (original) and uttara (late).[7] Some Indologists use the terms "preclassical" and "classical" to distinguish between the early concepts and the codified system that eventually arose.[8]


While many people believe that it was always an atheistic school of thought, in fact Samkhya passed through both theistic and atheistic stages of development as Gupta explains: For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Theism is the belief in one or more gods or goddesses. ...

"In the classical Sāṃkhya both dualism and atheism are visible in clear and vivid forms. The complete passivity and disinterestedness of Puruṣa and the acceptance of triguṇātmikā Prakṛti, as the independent cause of all inner and outer manifestations of the world, are the important characteristics of the classical form. It is also realistic in its attitude towards the phenomenal world. The pre-classical Sāṃkhya on the other hand, has passed through different forms and stages such as theistic and monistic, atheistic and semidualistic, and so on."[9]

There were several different schools of Samkhya, differing in their theistic emphasis and their conception of the soul.[10]


Epistemology of Samkhya

According to the Samkhya school, knowledge is possible through three pramanas (means of knowledge) -

  • Pratyaksha - direct sense perception

Samkhya cites out two types of perceptions:


1. Indeterminate (nirvikalpa) perceptions and determinate (savikalpa) perceptions.


Indeterminate perceptions are merely impressions without understanding or knowledge. They reveal no knowledge of the form or the name of the object. There is only external awareness about an object. There is cognition of the object, but no discriminative recognition.


For example, a baby’s initial experience is full of impression. There is a lot of data from sensory perception, but there is little or no understanding of the inputs. Hence they can neither be differentiated nor be labeled. Most of them are indeterminate perceptions.


2. Determinate perceptions are the mature state of perceptions which have been processed and differentiated appropriately. Once the sensations have been processed, categorized and interpreted properly, they become determinate perceptions. They can lead to identification and also generate knowledge.

Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows. ...

Metaphysics of Samkhya

Ontology

Broadly, the Samkhya system classifies all objects as falling into one of the two categories: Purusha and Prakriti. Metaphysically, Samkhya maintains a radical duality between spirit/consciousness (Purusha) and matter (Prakrti).

  • Purusha

Purusha is the Transcendental Self or Pure Consciousness. It is absolute, independent, free, imperceptible, unknowable, above any experience and beyond any words or explanation. It remains pure, “nonattributive consciousness ”. Purusha is neither produced nor does it produce.

  • Prakriti

Prakriti is matter. Matter is inert, temporary, and unconscious. It is composed of three qualities (gunas) corresponding to creation, sustenance, and destruction. They are:

  • sattva (goodness) – pure, elevating, enlightening
  • rajas (passion) – motivates us to create, acquire and enjoy
  • tamas (ignorance) – dirty, degrading, deluding, and destructive.

All physical events are considered to be manifestations of the evolution of Prakrti, or primal Nature (from which all physical bodies are derived). Each sentient being is a Purusha, and is limitless and unrestricted by its physical body. Samsaara or bondage arises when the Purusha does not have the discriminate knowledge and so is misled as to its own identity, confusing itself with the physical body - which is actually an evolute of Prakriti. The spirit is liberated when the discriminate knowledge of the difference between conscious Purusha and unconscious Prakriti is realized. The Wheel of Life as portrayed within Buddhism, showing the cycle of Samsara, or reincarnation. ...

  • Ishwara (Creationist God)

The original school of Samkhya as founded by Sage Kapila. There has no philosophical place for a creationst God in this system. The Samkhyan's argue that the existence of Ishvara cannot be proved and hence cannot be admitted to exist. The school also argues that an unchanging Ishvara as the cause cannot be the source of a changing world as the effect.


Later on followers of Samkhya adopted theism and included Ishvara within the system. The concept of Ishvara was incorporated into the Sankhya viewpoint only after it became associated with the theistic Yoga system of philosophy. Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ...


Nature of Duality

According to Samkhya, the efficient cause of the world is Purusha and the material cause is Prakriti. Here Purusha stands for the ‘Supreme Self’ and Prakriti stands for ‘Matter’. Purusha (Self) is the first principle of Samkhya. Prakriti is the second, the material principle of Samkhya.


Theory of Existence

The Samkhya system is based on Satkaryavada. According to Satkaryavada, the effect pre-exists in the cause. Cause and effect are seen as different temporal aspects of the same thing - the effect lies latent in the cause which in turn seeds the next effect. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


More specifically, Samkhya system follows the Prakriti-Parinama Vada. Parinama denotes that the effect is a real transformation of the cause. The cause under consideration here is Prakriti or more precisely Mula-Prakriti (Primordial Matter). The Samkhya system is therefore an exponent of an evolutionary theory of matter beginning with primordial matter. In evolution, Prakriti is transformed and differentiated into multiplicity of objects. Evolution is followed by dissolution. In dissolution the physical existence, all the worldly objects mingle back into Prakriti, which now remains as the undifferentiated, primordial substance. This is how the cycles of evolution and dissolution follow each other.


Sankhya theorizes that Prakriti is the source of the world of becoming. It is pure potentiality that evolves itself successively into twenty four tattvas or principles. The evolution itself is possible because Prakriti is always in a state of tension among its constituent strands - According to the Indian school of Samkhya philosophy, the Tattva are a way of directly experiencing the 5 alchemical elements. ...

  • Sattva - a template of balance or equilibrium;
  • Rajas - a template of expansion or activity;
  • Tamas - a template of inertia or resistance to action.

All macrocosmic and microcosmic creation uses these templates. The twenty four principles that evolve are -

  • Prakriti - The most subtle potentiality that is behind whatever is created in the physical universe, also called "primordial Matter". It is also a state of equilibrium amongst the Three Gunas.
  • Mahat - first product of evolution from Prakriti, pure potentiality. Mahat is also considered to be the principle responsible for the rise of buddhi or intelligence in living beings.
  • Ahamkara or ego-sense - second product of evolution. It is responsible for the self-sense in living beings. It is also one's identification with the outer world and its content.
  • "Panch Tanmatras" are a simultaneous product from Mahat Tattva, along with the Ahamkara. They are the subtle form of Panch Mahabhutas which result from grossification or Panchikaran of the Tanmatras. Each of these Tanmatras are made of all three Gunas.
  • Manas or "Antahkaran" evolves from the total sum of the sattva aspect of Panch Tanmatras or the "Ahamkara"
  • Panch jnana indriyas or five sense organs - also evolves from the sattva aspect of Ahamkara.
  • Panch karma indriya or five organs of action - The organs of action are hands, legs, vocal apparatus, urino-genital organ and anus. They evolve from the rajas aspect of Ahamkara.
  • Panch mahabhuta or five great substances - ether, air, fire, water and earth. They evolve from the "tamas" aspect of the "Ahamkara". This is the revealed aspect of the physical universe.

The evolution of primal Nature is also considered to be purposeful - Prakrti evolves for the spirit in bondage. The spirit who is always free is only a witness to the evolution, even though due to the absence of discriminate knowledge, he misidentifies himself with it.[citation needed] bud•dhi Pronunciation: (bOOdē, boodē), [key] —n. ...


The evolution obeys causality relationships, with primal Nature itself being the material cause of all physical creation. The cause and effect theory of Sankhya is called Satkaarya-vaada (theory of existent causes), and holds that nothing can really be created from or destroyed into nothingness - all evolution is simply the transformation of primal Nature from one form to another. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


The evolution of matter occurs when the relative strengths of the attributes change. The evolution ceases when the spirit realizes that it is distinct from primal Nature and thus cannot evolve. This destroys the purpose of evolution, thus stopping Prakrti from evolving for Purusha.


Samkhyan cosmology describes how life emerges in the universe; the relationship between Purusha and Prakriti is crucial to Patanjali's yoga system. The evolution of forms at the basis of Samkhya is quite unique. The strands of Samkhyan thought can be traced back to the Vedic speculation of creation. It is also frequently mentioned in the Mahabharata and Yogavasishta. Esoteric cosmology is cosmology that is an intrinsic part of an esoteric or occult system of thought. ... Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


Moksha

Like other major systems of Indian philosophy, Samkhya regards ignorance as the root cause of bondage and suffering (Samsara.) According to Samkhya, the Purusha is eternal, pure consciousness. Due to ignorance, it identifies itself with the physical body and its constituents - Manas, ahamkara and Mahat, which are products of Prakriti. Once it becomes free of this false identification and the material bonds, Moksha ensues. The Wheel of Life as portrayed within Buddhism, showing the cycle of Samsara, or reincarnation. ...


See also

Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... There are Six Systems of Vedic or Hindu Philosophy. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... Lińga Śarīra is the Sanskrit term for the invisible double of the human body. ... Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Devanagari ; IPA ) is the dominant sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, Devanāgarī: , , IPA: ); c. ...

Notes

  1. ^ For the basis of Samkhya as dualist Purusha and Prakriti, see: Michaels, p. 264.
  2. ^ For the the separation between Purusha and Prakriti as the "cardinal doctrine" of Samkhya philosophy, see: Sen Gupta, p. 6.
  3. ^ For Samkhya as a dualist school, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, p. 89.
  4. ^ For roots in Upanishads with later compilation into a system, see: Michaels, p. 264.
  5. ^ For beginning of the history as Upanishadic dualism, see: Sen Gupta, p. 9.
  6. ^ For the quotation "scattered" and gradual development into a system, see: Sen Gupta, p. 1.
  7. ^ For dating of Guṇaratna and the two schools, see: Eliade, p. 368.
  8. ^ For examples of the use of the terms, see: Eliade, p. 368.
  9. ^ See: Sen Gupta, p. viii.
  10. ^ For multiplicity of schools, see: Eliade, p. 368.

References

  • Eliade, Mircea (1969). Yoga: Immortality and Freedom, Bollingen Series LVI. New York, New York: Bollingen Foundation, Inc.. ISBN 0-691-01764-6.  Second Edition. Translated from the French by Willard R. Trask.
  • Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08953-1. 
  • Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, C. A. (1957). A Source Book in Indian Philosophy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.  Princeton paperback 12th printing, 1989.
  • Sen Gupta, Anima. The Evolution of the Sāṃkhya School of Thought. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.: New Delhi, 1986.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (September 5, 1888 - April 17, 1975) is best known as the man who introduced the thinking of western idealist philosophers into Indian thought. ...

Further reading

  • Chatterjee, Satischandra; Datta, Dhirendramohan (1984). An Introduction to Indian Philosophy, Eighth Reprint Edition, Calcutta: University of Calcutta. 
  • Müeller, Max (1899). Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Ltd.. ISBN 0-7661-4296-5.  Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy.
  • Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, CA (1967). A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princeton. ISBN 0-691-01958-4. 
  • R.A. Ramaswami Shastri, A Short History Of The Purva Mimamsa Shastra, Annamalai University Sanskrit Series No. 3 (1936).
  • Zimmer, Heinrich (1951). Philosophies of India. New York, New York: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01758-1.  Bollingen Series XXVI; Edited by Joseph Cambell.

Max Müller Friedrich Max Müller (December 6, 1823 – October 28, 1900), more commonly known as Max Müller, was a German philologist and Orientalist, one of the founders of Indian studies, who virtually created the discipline of comparative religion. ... Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (Telugu:సర్వేపల్లి రాధాకృష్ణ,Tamil:சர்வபள்ளி ராதாகிருஷ்ணன) (September 5, 1888 – April 17, 1975), was a philosopher and statesman. ... Heinrich Zimmer Heinrich Zimmer (b. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Samkhya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1133 words)
Samkhya, also Sankhya, (Sanskrit: सांख्य - Enumeration) is one of the schools of Indian philosophy.
In Samkhya, however, it is between the self (purusha) and matter, and the latter incorporates what Westerners would normally refer to as "mind".
Samkhya · Nyaya · Vaisheshika · Yoga · Mimamsa · Vedanta · Tantra · Bhakti · Carvakas
Samkhya (1552 words)
The precise manner of the emergence of the twenty-four tattvas from prakriti, the nature of the "relation" between purusha and prakriti, as well as many other subjects which are only in summary form in the karikas are all taken up in the commentaries.
Although Samkhya ("enumeration") is one of the six classical systems of Indian philosophy, its history presents many problems and is the subject of scholarly disagreement.
Although this cannot count as "history" in the usual sense of the word, Samkhya teachings have their roots in certain speculations which are found in the Rig Veda and in the oldest prose Upanishads (e.g., the Brihadaranyaka and the Chandogya).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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