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Encyclopedia > Sami people
Sami

The Sami flag
Total population

80,000-100,000 Image File history File links Sami_flag. ... The Sami flag is the flag of the Sami people. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Finland Finland, Flag of Norway Norway, Flag of Sweden Sweden, Flag of Russia Russia
Languages
Sami languages, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, Russian
Religions
Laestadianism, Lutheranism, Orthodoxy, Shamanism

The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. Their ancestral lands span across an area the size of Sweden in the Nordic countries. The Sami are one of the largest indigenous groups in Europe. Their languages are the Sami languages, which are classified as Finno-Ugric. Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... The Laestadian movement (lestadiolaisuus in Finnish and Laestadianismen in Swedish) are a conservative Christian revival movement prominent mostly in Finland, Sweden, Norway and North America. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century reformer Martin Luther. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... Sami flag The Sami people (there are other names and spellings including Sámi, Saami and Lapp) are an indigenous people of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia, covering a total area in the Nordic countries corresponding to the size of Sweden. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... National anthem Sámi soga lávlla Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area ca. ... Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ...


Many years of forced assimilation in the four countries makes it difficult to estimate the numbers of Sami. However, the population is estimated at about 85,000. The Norwegian state recognizes any Norwegian as Sami if he or she has one great-grandparent whose home language was Sami, but there is not, and has not been, any registration of the home language spoken by Norwegian people. Roughly half of all Sami live in Norway, but many live in Sweden as well. Finland and Russia are also home to smaller groups located in the far north. The Sami in Russia were forced by the Soviet authorities to relocate to a collective called Lovozero/Lujávri, in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. First language (native language, mother tongue) is the language a person learns first. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Finno-Ugric languages spoken in parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Lovozero (Russian: ; Finnish: ; Northern Sami: and Kildin Sámi: ) is a village (selo) in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. ... Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ...


Traditionally, the Sami had a variety of livelihoods; fishing on the coast and in the inland, trapping animals for fur, sheep herding, etc. The best known livelihood is reindeer herding, but only a small percentage of the Sami have been mainly reindeer herders over the last centuries. Today, many Sami lead modern lives in the cities inside and outside the traditional Sami area, with modern jobs. Some 10% still practice reindeer herding, which for traditional and cultural reasons is reserved for Sami people in some parts of Nordic countries. Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) Reindeer map The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ...

Contents

Etymologies

For more details on this topic, see Sápmi (area).
Map of the Sami people.
Map of the Sami people.
Two men in the traditional Sami outfit gákti. The gákti shown here are from outside of Rovaniemi, Finland.
Two men in the traditional Sami outfit gákti. The gákti shown here are from outside of Rovaniemi, Finland.

The Sami were previously known in other languages as Lap or Lapp. This name was originally used in Sweden and Finland, and from there the word was exported to all major European languages (English: Lapps, German: Lappen, Russian, Ukrainian: Loparie, French: Lapons, Greek: Λάπονες, Spanish: Lapones). The widely accepted etymology is the Finnish word lape, which in this case means 'periphery'. Originally it meant any person living from the wilderness, not only the Sami people. In Scandinavian lapp also means a patch of cloth for mending and one explanation of the name suggests that the Sami wear patched clothes out of poverty. It is unknown how the word Lapp came into the Norse language, but it seems to have been introduced by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus to distinguish between Fish-Fennians (coastal tribes) and Lap-Fennians (forest tribes). It was popularized and became the standard terminology by the work of Johannes Schefferus "Acta Lapponica" (1673), but is also used earlier by Olaus Magnus in his '"Description of the Northern peoples" (1555). There is another suggestion that it originally meant wilds. An alternative interpretation made by Damião de Góis in 1540 derives Lapland from "the dumb and lazy land", because the land where no vegetables grow is lazy and does not speak. National anthem Sámi soga lávlla Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area ca. ... The border is indicated by hand from a map at http://www. ... The border is indicated by hand from a map at http://www. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Gakti is a special kind of clothing worn by the Sami of northern Scandinavia, Finland and Russia, both in cermonial contexts and while working, particularly when herding reindeer. ... City Rovaniemi (1960) Administrative Province Province of Lapland Historical Province Lappland Area  - Total  - Land  - Water Ranked 5th (municipalities), and 1st (cities) 8,016 km² 7,601 km² 415 km² Population  - Total (01/2006)  - Density Ranked 13th 58,500 7. ... Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... Johannes Schefferus (February 2, 1621 - March 26, 1679) was born in Strassburg, the present Strasbourg, in present-day France (at that time it was part of the Holy Roman Empire, and outside of France). ... Lapponia is a book written by Johannes Schefferus (1621 - 1679) covering a very comprehensive history of Northern Scandinavia topology, environment and Sami living condition, dwelling-places, clothing, gender roles, hunting, child raising, shamanism and pagan religion. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Olaus Magnus, or Magni (Magnus, Latin for the Swedish Stora -- great -- is the family name, and not a personal epithet), reported as born in October 1490 in Linköping, and died on August 1, 1557, was a Swedish ecclesiastic and writer, who did pioneering work for the interest of Nordic... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Damiao de Gois (February 2nd, 1502-January 30th, 1574) born in Alenquer, Portugal, was an important Portuguese humanist philosopher. ...


Another term for Sami used locally in Northern Norway is Finn whereas local Finnish speakers are called kvæn. This article is about the contemporary Kvens. ...


Sami refer to themselves as Sámit (the Samis) or Sápmelaš (of Sami kin), the word Sámi being inflected into various grammatical forms. It has been proposed that Sami, Suomi (Finnish for Finland), and Häme (Finnish for Tavastia) are of the same origin, the source of which might be related to the Baltic word *^zeme meaning 'land'.[1] The Sami institutions, notably the parliaments, the radio and TV stations, theatres etc. all use the term Sami, also when addressing outsiders in Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish or English. In a Sami context, the terms Lapp and Finn, especially if used by people considered to be well informed, are easily considered derogatory in Norway and Sweden. Tavastia, Tavastland or Häme, is a historical province in the south of Finland. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ...


Terminological issues in Finland are somewhat different. Finns living in Finnish Lapland generally call themselves lappilainen, whereas the similar word for the Sami people is lappalainen. It would be politically incorrect not to call Lapland Finns with that name and similarly incorrect to use the latter name about the Sami people. This might become troublesome for foreign visitors regarding how similar lives Finns and Sami people today live in Lapland. "Lappalainen" is also a common family name in Finland. Furthermore, using the term "Finn" about Finns is completely acceptable in Lapland. Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ...


The word "Laplander" is sometimes used to refer to the Sami people. Laplander however means anyone living in the area of Lapland, especially in the Finnish Lapland, and is not specifically a Sami term.


History

Main article: Sami history
A Sami family around 1900
A Sami family around 1900

The Sami peoples have inhabited the northern regions of Scandinavia for thousands of years. Exactly how long is difficult to state with certainty. The Sami peoples have inhabited the northern regions of Fenno-Scandinavia and Russia for a long time in coexistence with other peoples. ... Download high resolution version (993x730, 226 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (993x730, 226 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ...


Archeological evidence suggests that people along the southern shores of Lake Onega and around Lake Ladoga reached the River Utsjoki in Northern Finnish Lapland before 8100 BC [2]. Other experts trace the Sami presence back to as recently as 2500 years ago. They are the earliest of the contemporary ethnic groups represented in the Sami area, and are consequently considered the indigenous population of the area. Lake Onega (also known as Onego, Onezhskoe ozero (from Russian, Онежское озеро), and Onezhskoe lake) is a lake in the Russian Federation. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ... Utsjoki (Ohcejohka in Northern Sami, Uccjokk in Skolt Sami) is a municipality in Finland. ...


Historically, the Sami inhabited all of Northern Russia, Finland, and Eastern Karelia for a long time, though the Eastern Sami became assimilated into Finnish and Karelian populations after settlers from Häme, Savo, and Karelia migrated into the region. Placenames, e.g. Nuuksio on the south coast of Finland, remain as proof of former Sami settlement. However, Sami people increasingly mixed with Finnish and Scandinavian settlers, losing their culture and language. For other uses of Karelia, see Karelia (disambiguation). ... Map highlighting the location of Tavastia Tavastia, Tavastland or Häme, is a historical province in the south of Finland. ... Savonia, Savolax or Savo, is a historical province in the south of Finland. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... Categories: Stub | National parks of Finland ...


Lapponia (1673), written by the rhetorician Johannes Schefferus, is the oldest source of detailed information on Sami culture. It was written due to "ill-natured" foreign propaganda (in particular from Germany) claiming that Sweden had won victories on the battlefield by means of 'Sami magic'. In attempts to correct the picture of Sami culture amongst the Europeans, Magnus de la Gardie started an early 'ethnological' research project to document Sami groups, conducted by Schefferus. The book was published in late 1673 and quickly translated to French, German, English, and other languages (though not to Swedish until 1956). However, an adapted and abridged version was quickly published in the Netherlands and Germany, where chapters on their difficult living conditions, topography, and the environment had been replaced by made-up stories of magic, sorcery, drums and heathenry. But there was also criticism against the ethnography, claiming Sami to be more warlike in character, rather than the image Schefferus presented. Lapponia is a book written by Johannes Schefferus (1621 - 1679) covering a very comprehensive history of Northern Scandinavia topology, environment and Sami living condition, dwelling-places, clothing, gender roles, hunting, child raising, shamanism and pagan religion. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of spoken language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Johannes Schefferus (February 2, 1621 - March 26, 1679) was born in Strassburg, the present Strasbourg, in present-day France (at that time it was part of the Holy Roman Empire, and outside of France). ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie with his spouse Maria Eufrosyne of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, the sister of King Charles X of Sweden. ... Ethnology (greek ethnos: (non-greek, barbarian) people) is a genre of anthropological study, involving the systematic comparison of the folklore, beliefs and practices of different societies. ... See also: 1672 in literature, other events of 1673, 1674 in literature, list of years in literature. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... Bass drum made from wood, rope, and cowskin A drum is a musical instrument in the percussion group that can be large, technically classified as a membranophone. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Germanic neopaganism. ...


Up to around 1500 the Sami were mainly fishermen and trappers, usually in a combination, leading a nomadic lifestyle decided by the migrations of the reindeer. Around 1500, due to excessive hunting, again provoked by the fact that the Sami had to pay taxes to Norway, Sweden and Russia, the number of reindeer started to decrease. Most Sami then settled along the fjords, on the coast and along the inland waterways to pursue a combination of cattle raising, trapping and fishing. A small minority of the Sami then started to tame the reindeer, becoming the well-known reindeer nomads, who, although often portrayed by outsiders as following the archetypical Sami lifestyle, only represent around 10% of the Sami people. Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) Reindeer map The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Fjords are very long inlets from the sea with high steeply sloped walled sides. ...


The Sami crossed the borders freely until 1826, when the Norwegian/Finnish/Russian border was closed. Sami were still free to cross the border between Sweden and Norway according to inherited rights laid down in the Lapp Codicil of 1751 until 1940, when the border was closed due to Germany's occupation of Norway. After WWII, they were not allowed to return. Their summer pasturages are today used by Sami originating in Kautokeino. Lapp Codicil of 1751, often referred to as the Sami Magna Carta is an addendum to the Stromstad Treaty of 1751 that defined the Norwegian-Swedish border. ...


For long periods of time, the Sami lifestyle reigned supreme in the north because of its unique adaptation to the Arctic environment, enabling Sami culture to resist cultural influences from the South. Indeed, throughout the 18th century, as Norwegians of Northern Norway suffered from low fish prices and consequent depopulation, the Sami cultural element was strengthened, since the Sami were independent of supplies from Southern Norway. The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ...


However, in the 19th century Norwegian authorities put the Sami culture under pressure in order to make the Norwegian language and culture universal. A strong economical development of the north also took place, giving Norwegian culture and language status. On the Swedish and Finnish side, the authorities were much less militant in their efforts; however, strong economic development in the north led to a weakening of status and economy for the Sami.


The strongest pressure took place from around 1900 to 1940, when Norway invested considerable money and effort to wipe out Sami culture. Notably, anyone who wanted to buy or lease state lands for agriculture in Finnmark, had to prove knowledge of the Norwegian language. This also ultimately caused the dislocation in the 1920s, that increased the gap between local Sami groups, something still present today, and sometimes bears the character of an internal Sami ethnic conflict. Another factor was the heavy war destruction in northern Finland and northern Norway in 1944-45, destroying all existing houses and visible traces of Sami culture. After World War II the pressure was relaxed somewhat. County NO-20 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Vadsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 1 48,618 km² 15. ... The Disclocation of Sami people refers to the ordered movement of 300-400 Sami peoples from Jukkasjärvi and Karesuando in the 1930s. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The controversy around the construction of the hydro-electric power station in Alta in 1979 brought Sami rights onto the political agenda. In August of 1986, the national anthem (Sámi soga lávlla) and flag (Sami flag) of the Sami people was created. In 1989, the first Sami parliament in Norway was elected. In 2005, the Finnmark Law was passed in the Norwegian parliament. This law gives the Sami parliament and the Finnmark Provincial council a joint responsibility of administering the land areas previously considered state property. These areas, 98% of the provincial area, that have always been used primarily by the Sami, now belong officially to the people of the province, Sami or Norwegian, and not the Norwegian state. The Alta controversy refers to a political controversy in Norway in the late 1970s and early 1980s concerning the construction of a hydroelectric power plant in the Alta river in Finnmark, Northern Norway. ... County Finnmark District Municipality NO-2012 Administrative centre Alta Mayor (2003) Geir Ove Bakken (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 7 3,849 km² 3,651 km² 1. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The anthem Sámi soga lávlla (Song of the Sami Night) is a national anthem of Saamiland instituted on August of 1986. ... The Sami flag is the flag of the Sami people. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Genetic history

Sami genetic history has been of great interest because of their large genetic distance to other European populations including their closest neighbours. It is mainly the north Sami and east Sami that have been investigated. There is considerable genetic variation between the different Sami groups but they all share a common ancestry. Female mtDNA especially has been investigated, but also Y chromosomes and classical autosomal markers. The research indicates that 95.6% of Saami mtDNA originated in the Iberia refugia while only 4.4% is of Siberian-Asiatic origin (Tambets 2004). The age of the two main mtDNA haplogroups are estimated to be 5 500 and 7 500 YBP (Ingman 2006, Delghandi 1998). A genetic link has been established between the Sami and the Berbers of North Africa going back 9000 years (Achilli 2005). Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. ... Genetic variation is the variation in the genetic material of a population, and includes the nuclear, mitochodrial, ribosomal genomes as well as the genomes of other organelles. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... An autosome is a non-sex chromosome. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Proposed Amazonian Refugia from Haffer, 1969 In the most basic biological sense refugia (singular: refugium) refer to locations of isolated or relict populations of once widespread animal or plant species. ... Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia (Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting all of northern Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Sami Y chromosomes indicate that 29.8% originated in the Iberia refugia and 58.2% originated in Eastern Europe (Tambets 2004). The autosomal classic markers shows that the Sami have no close relatives in any population including their closest linguistic relatives but are in general more closely related to Europeans than people of other continents. The closest of the distant relatives are Finnish people, but this is probably due to more recent immigration of Finnish people into the Sami areas, and the assimilation of the Sami population into the mainstream population in today's Finland (Meinila 2001).


The Sami are no more closely related to the Siberian and Mongol populations than other eastern European and Scandinavian populations (Niskanen 2002), in contrast to the historically held view that the Sami are of Siberian-Asian origin. The genetic distances between the Sami and the rest of the world are due to (amongst other factors) adaptation, founder effects and genetic drift resulting from their subarctic location and small, isolated population (Beckman 1993, Tambets 2004). Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia (Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting all of northern Asia. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia (Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting all of northern Asia. ... This article deals primarily or exclusively with the definition of Asian in English-speaking countries, mainly referring to immigrants or descendants of immigrants living therein. ... A biological adaptation is an anatomical structure, physiological process or behavioral trait of an organism that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection such that it increases the expected long-term reproductive success of the organism. ... Simple illustration of founder effect. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the Chinese province of Heilongjiang. ...


Language history

In recent linguistics research it has been revealed a large substratum lexicon in the Sami languages in certain semantic fields related to topographical nouns, the biological world and cultural items and concepts, possibly attributable to the lost languages of the first hunter gatherer ancestors of the Sami in northern Fenoscandia (Aikio 2004). It has been suggested that the language shift from paleo-european to proto-Sami happened no earlier than the iron age and was completed no later than 500 AC (Aiko 2004). It is not known if the earlier language was related to uralic languages but so far there is no support for this. Its therefore reasons to believe there has been a considerable cultural continuity trough the language shift (Aikio 2004, Aikio 2006). Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up lexicon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... Topography, a term in geography, has come to refer to the lay of the land, or the physiogeographic characteristics of land in terms of elevation, slope, and orientation. ... A noun, or noun substantive, is a word or phrase that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance or quality. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ...


Culture

Duodji

Main article: Duodji

Duodji, the Sami handicraft, originates from the time when the Samis were self-supporting nomads, believing therefore that an object should first and foremost serve a purpose rather than being primarily decorative. Duodji, the Sami handicraft, originates from the time when the Samis were self-supporting nomads, therefore should an object first and foremost serve a purpose. ...


Music

Main article: Sami music

A characteristic feature of Sami musical tradition is the singing of joik. Joiks are traditionally sung a cappella, usually sung slowly and deep in the throat with apparent emotional content of sorrow or anger. Joiks can be dedicated to animals and birds in nature, to special people or special occasions, and they can be joyous, sad or melancholic. Christian missionaries and priests regarded these as "songs of the Devil". In recent years, musical instruments frequently accompany joiks. Traditional Sami music revolves around singing. ... Yoik or juoiggus is a traditional Sami form of song. ... A cappella music is vocal music or singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. ... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ...


Suppression and revival

Sámi wearing her traditional garb.
Sámi wearing her traditional garb.

To make up for past suppression, the authorities of Norway, Sweden and Finland now make an effort to build up Sami cultural institutions and promote Sami culture and language. All recognize February 6 as Sami National Day, which was first recognized in 1993. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1380x1380, 1227 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sami people Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1380x1380, 1227 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sami people Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • There are daily news bulletins in Sami on national TV in all three countries. Children's programs in Sami are also frequently made. There is also radio in Sami.
  • Two weekly newspapers in Sami, Min Áigi and Áššu are published, along with a few magazines.
  • There is a Sami theatre, Beaivvaš, in Kautokeino on the Norwegian side, as well as in Kiruna on the Swedish side. Both tour the entire Sami area with drama written by Sami authors or international translations.
  • A number of novels and poetry collections are published every year in Sami, occasionally also in other dialects than Northern Sami.
  • Education with Sami as the first language is available in all three countries, also outside the Sami area.
  • Sámi University College is located in Kautokeino. Sami language is studied in several universities in all countries, most notably the University of Tromsø, which considers Sami a mother tongue, not a foreign language.
  • Numerous festivals throughout the Sami area celebrate different aspects of the Sami culture. The best known on the Norwegian side is Riddu Riđđu, a music festival in Olmmaivaggi (Manndalen). Among the most festive are the easter festivals taking place in Kautokeino and Karasjok prior to the springtime reindeer migration to the coast. These festivals combine traditional culture with modern phenomena such as snowmobile races.

Min Áigi Min Áigi ---- (more info) Stage 2 : In Progress (How-to) Thanks! Yupik 12:05, 9 March 2007 (UTC) Long-running Sámi newspaper Guypuz 50%   15:03, 27 March 2007 (UTC) Join this translation   ---   Update this information (instructions)   Min Áigi (meaning: Our Time)is a Sámi-language... Áššu is a Sámi newspaper that has been published twice a week — on Tuesdays and Fridays — since 1993. ... Beaivváš Sámi Theatre (established in 1981 in Guovdageaidnu Kautokeino) is a Norwegian theatre that uses Sami language as their performing language. ... Sámi University College (Sámi allaskuvla in Sami language) was established in 1989 and has about 260 students and 52 faculty, technical and administrative staff. ... The University of Tromsø (Universitetet i Tromsø) is the worlds northernmost university. ... Riddu RiÄ‘Ä‘u is an annual Sami music and culture festival held in Olmmaivaggi (Manndalen) in Gáivuotna (KÃ¥fjord) municipality in Norway. ...

Sápmi

Main article: Sápmi (area)

Sápmi (or Lapland) is the name of the cultural region traditionally inhabited by the Sami people. Sápmi is located in Northern Europe and includes the northern parts of Fennoscandia. It spans over four countries: Finland, Norway, Russia and Sweden. National anthem Sámi soga lávlla Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area ca. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Area

There is no official geographic definition for the boundaries of Sápmi. However, usually the following counties and provinces are included:

The municipalities of Gällivare, Jokkmokk and Arjeplog in Swedish Lappland were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996 as a "Laponian Area". Lappi, or the Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. ... County NO-20 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Vadsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 1 48,618 km² 15. ... // For other uses, see Nordland (disambiguation). ... County NO-17 Region Trøndelag Administrative centre Steinkjer County mayor Inger Lise Gjørv Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 6 22,412 km² 6. ... County NO-19 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Tromsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 4 25,877 km² 8. ... Murmansk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Jämtland County, or Jämtlands län, is a County or län in the north of Sweden. ... Norrbotten County (Norrbottens län) is a Swedish county or län in the extreme north of Sweden. ... Västerbotten County, or Västerbottens län is a county or län in the north of Sweden. ... Gällivare Municipality is a Municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern Sweden where Gällivare is seat. ... Jokkmokk is a Municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern Sweden. ... Arjeplog is a Municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern population density of the community is 0 inhabitants per km². See also Arjeplog Lapland Court District External links Arjeplog - Official site Categories: Municipalities of Sweden | Municipalities of Norrbotten County | Sami language municipalities ...


The Sami Domicile Area in Finland consists of the municipalities of Enontekiö, Utsjoki and Inari as well as a part of the municipality of Sodankylä. Location of the Sami Domicile Area in Finland. ... Enontekiö (Eanodat in Northern Sami, Enontekis in Swedish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Utsjoki (Ohcejohka in Northern Sami, Uccjokk in Skolt Sami) is a municipality in Finland. ... Inari (Aanaar in Inari Sami, Anár in Northern Sami, Aanar in Skolt Sami, Enare in Swedish) is a municipality in Finland. ... Sodankylä (SoaÄ‘egilli in Northern Sami, Syäˊđjel in Skolt Sami) is a town and municipality of Finland. ...


Important Sami towns

The following towns and villages have a significant Sami population or host Sami institutions (Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish or Russian name in parenthesis):

  • Guovdageaidnu (Kautokeino) is the perhaps the cultural capital of the Sami. About 90% of the population speak Sami. Several Sámi institutions are located in Kautokeino including: Beaivváš Sámi Theatre, a Sámi High School and Reindeer Herding School, the Sámi University College, the Nordic Sámi Research Institute, Sámi language board, the Resource Centre for the Rights of Indigenous People, and International Centre For Reindeer Husbandry. In addition, several Sami media are located in Kautokeino including the Sámi language Áššu newspaper, and the DAT Sami publishing house and record company. Kautokeino also hosts the Sámi Easter Festival. The Kautokeino rebellion in 1852 is one of the few Sami rebellions against the Norwegian governments oppression against the Sami.
  • Kárášjohka (Karasjok) is the seat of the Norwegian Sami Parliament. Also other important Sámi institutions are located in Kárášjohka, including NRK Sámi Radio, the Sámi Collections museum, the Sámi Art Centre, the Sámi Specialist Library, Mid-Finnmark legal office, inner Finnmark Child and Youth Psychiatric Policlinic, the Sámi Specialist Medical Centre, and the Sámi health research institute. [3] In addition the Sápmi cultural park is in the township, and the Sami language Min Áigi newspaper is published here.
  • Gáivuotna (Kåfjord) is an important center for the Sea-Sami culture. Each summer the Riddu Riđđu festival is held in Gáivuotna. The municipality has a Sami language center, and hosts the Ája Sami Center. The opposition against Sami language and culture revitalization in Gáivuotna was infamous in the late 1990s and included Sami language road signs being shot to pieces repeatedly. [4]
  • Deatnu (Tana) has a significant Sami population.
  • Leavdnja (Lakselv) in Porsáŋgu (Porsanger) municipality is the location of the Finnmarkseiendommen, and the Ságat Sami newspaper. The Finnmarkseiendommen organization owns and manages about 95% of the land in Finnmark, and 50% of its board members are elected by the Norwegian Sami Parliament.
  • Unjárga (Nesseby) is an important center for the sea-Sami culture. It is also the site for the Várjjat Sámi Museum and the Norwegian Sami Parliament's department of culture and environment. The first Sami to be elected into the Norwegian Parliament, Isak Saba, was born there.
  • Snåase (Snåsa) is a center for the Southern Sami language, and the only municipality in Norway where Southern Sami is an official language. The Saemien Sijte southern sami museum is located in Snåase.
  • Divtasvuodna (Tysfjord) is a center for the Lule-Sami population. The Árran Lule-Sami center is located here.
  • Aarborte (Hattfjelldal ) is a southern sami center with a southern-Sami language school and a Sami culture center.

Image:NO 2011 Guovdageainnu suohkan or Kautokeino. ... Beaivváš Sámi Theatre (established in 1981 in Guovdageaidnu Kautokeino) is a Norwegian theatre that uses Sami language as their performing language. ... Sámi University College (Sámi allaskuvla in Sami language) was established in 1989 and has about 260 students and 52 faculty, technical and administrative staff. ... The Nordic Sami Institute is a research institution located at Guovdageaidnu (Kautokeino) in Norway. ... Áššu is a Sámi newspaper that has been published twice a week — on Tuesdays and Fridays — since 1993. ... Image:NO 2021 Kárášjohka-Karasjok. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sami government. ... Norsk Rikskringkasting (NRK) - the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation - is the Norwegian state-owned radio and television public broadcasting company. ... Min Áigi Min Áigi ---- (more info) Stage 2 : In Progress (How-to) Thanks! Yupik 12:05, 9 March 2007 (UTC) Long-running Sámi newspaper Guypuz 50%   15:03, 27 March 2007 (UTC) Join this translation   ---   Update this information (instructions)   Min Áigi (meaning: Our Time)is a Sámi-language... Image:NO 1940 Gáivuona suohkan or KÃ¥fjord. ... Riddu RiÄ‘Ä‘u is an annual Sami music and culture festival held in Olmmaivaggi (Manndalen) in Gáivuotna (KÃ¥fjord) municipality in Norway. ... Image:NO 2025 Deatnu Tana. ... The town of Lakselv is the largest settlement and administrative centre of the municipality Porsanger in the county of Finnmark in Norway. ... Image:NO 2020 Porsanger Porsángu Porsanki. ... Ságat is a Sami newspaper in Norwegian language published in Finnmark county, Norway. ... Image:NO 2027 Unjárga Nesseby. ... The Storting (Stortinget, literally The Big Thing) is the Norwegian Parliament, and is located in the capital city Oslo. ... Isak Mikal Saba (born November 15, 1875 in Nesseby, Norway, died June 1, 1921) was a Sami teacher and politician. ... County Nord-Trøndelag District Municipality NO-1736 Administrative centre SnÃ¥sa Mayor (2003) Vigdis Hjulstad Belbo (Sp) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 20 2,343 km² 2,151 km² 0. ... Southern Saami is divided into two main dialects: Southern Saami sensu stricto and Ume Saami. ... The municipality Tysfjord in the county of Nordland, Norway, has 2,283 inhabitants as of January 1, 2002. ... Árran is the Lule Sámi Center in the village of Drag in Tysfjord, Norway. ... County Nordland District Helgeland Municipality NO-1826 Administrative centre Hattfjelldal Mayor (2003) Asgeir AlmÃ¥s (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 17 2,684 km² 2,415 km² 0. ... Utsjoki (Ohcejohka in Northern Sami, Uccjokk in Skolt Sami) is a municipality in Finland. ... Enontekiö (Eanodat in Northern Sami, Enontekis in Swedish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Inari (Aanaar in Inari Sami, Anár in Northern Sami, Aanar in Skolt Sami, Enare in Swedish) is a municipality in Finland. ... Arjeplog is a Municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern population density of the community is 0 inhabitants per km². See also Arjeplog Lapland Court District External links Arjeplog - Official site Categories: Municipalities of Sweden | Municipalities of Norrbotten County | Sami language municipalities ... Gällivare Municipality is a Municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern Sweden where Gällivare is seat. ... Jokkmokk is a Municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern Sweden. ... Kiruna View from just outside Kiruna, with European route E10 left to LuleÃ¥ and right to Narvik, Norway. ... Lovozero (Russian: ; Finnish: ; Northern Sami: and Kildin Sámi: ) is a village (selo) in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. ...

Demographics

In the geographical area composing Lapland the Sami are a small minority. According to the Swedish Sami parliament the total Sami population is about 70 000. The Sami may be divided into smaller groups either based on the area where they are from, the Sami language (dialect) they speak, their occupation, or the country of residence.


Division by geography

Sápmi is traditionally divided into:

  • Eastern Sápmi (Kola peninsula, eastern Norway and Finland Sami regions)
  • Northern Sápmi (most of Norway and Finland Sami area, northern part of Swedish Sami area)
  • Luleå Sápmi (Luleå river valley area)
  • Southern Sápmi (southern Sweden and Norway Sami area)

It should also be noted that many Sami now live outside Sápmi, in large cities such as Oslo in Norway. County District Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ...


Division by language

Main article: Sami languages
Geographic distribution of the Sami languages: 1. Southern Sami, 2. Ume Sami, 3. Pite Sami, 4. Lule Sami, 5. Northern Sami, 6. Skolt Sami, 7. Inari Sami, 8. Kildin Sami, 9. Ter Sami. Darkened area represents municipalities that recognize Sami as an official language.
Geographic distribution of the Sami languages: 1. Southern Sami, 2. Ume Sami, 3. Pite Sami, 4. Lule Sami, 5. Northern Sami, 6. Skolt Sami, 7. Inari Sami, 8. Kildin Sami, 9. Ter Sami. Darkened area represents municipalities that recognize Sami as an official language.

A division based on language is (the numbers are the estimated number of speakers of each language): Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 499 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1107 × 1329 pixel, file size: 321 KB, MIME type: image/png) Modification of Image:Sami languages large. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 499 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1107 × 1329 pixel, file size: 321 KB, MIME type: image/png) Modification of Image:Sami languages large. ...

Note that many Sami do not speak any of the Sami languages anymore, so the number of Samis living in each area is much higher. There are also two extinct Sami languages Kemi Sami and Akkala Sami. Southern Saami is divided into two main dialects: Southern Saami sensu stricto and Ume Saami. ... Ume Sami is a Sami language spoken in Sweden and Norway. ... Pite Sami, also known as Arjeplog Sami, is a Sami language spoken in Sweden and Norway. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Northern or North Sami (also written Sámi or Saami; formerly Lappish or Lapp) is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages. ... Inari Sami (anarâškielâ) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland by some 300-400 people, the majority of which are middle-aged or older and live in the town of Inari. ... Skolt Sami (Sää´mǩiõll) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland and nearby parts of Russia. ... Kildin Sami (also spelled Sámi or Saami; formerly Lappish) is a Sami language spoken by approximately 500 people in the Kola Peninsula in northwestern Russia. ... Ter Sami is a Sami language spoken in the eastern region of the Kola peninsula. ... Kemi Sami is a Sami language that was originally spoken in the southernmost district of Finnish Lapland as far south as the Sami siidas around Kuusamo. ... Akkala Sami is a Sami language that was spoken in the Sami villages of A´kkel and Ču´kksuâl, in the inland parts of the Kola Peninsula in Russia. ...


Division by occupation

A division often used Northern Sami is based on occupation and the area of living. This division is also used in many historical texts:

  • Reindeer Sami (in Northern Sami boazosapmelaš or badjeolmmoš). Previously nomadic Sami living as reindeer herders. Still used about reindeer herders, but most have a permanent residence in the Sami core areas. Some 10% of Samis practise reindeer herding, which is seen as a fundamental part of a Sami culture and in some parts of Nordic countries can only be practised by Samis.
  • Sea Sami (in Northern Sami mearasapmelaš). These lived traditionally by combining fishing and small scale farming. Today often used about all Sami from the coast regardless of their occupation.
  • Non-reindeer Sami not living by the sea (in Northern Sami dalon). Non-nomadic Sami. Is now probably the largest group of Sami.

Historical texts often divide the Sami into:Forest Sámi, Mountain Sámi, River Sámi, and Eastern Sámi. [1]


Division by country

According to the Swedish Sami parliament the Sami population of Norway is 40 000. If all people who speak Sami or have a parent, grandparent, or great-grandparent who speaks or spoke Sami are included the number reaches 70 000. As of 2005 12 538 people were registered to vote in the election for the Sami parliament in Norway.[5] The bulk of the Sami live in Finnmark and Northern Troms, but there are also Sami populations in Southern Troms, Nordland and Trøndelag. Due to recent migration it has also been claimed that Oslo is the municipality with the largest Sami population. The Sami are in a majority only in the municipalities of Guovdageaidnu-Kautokeino, Karasjohka-Karasjok, Porsanger, Deatnu-Tana and Unjargga-Nesseby in Finnmark, and Kåfjord in Northern Troms. This area is also know as the Sami core area. Sami and Norwegian are equal as administrative languages in this area. County NO-19 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Tromsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 4 25,877 km² 8. ... // For other uses, see Nordland (disambiguation). ... Trøndelag is the name of a geographical region in the middle of Norway, consisting of the two counties Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag. ... County District Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... County Finnmark District Municipality NO-2011 Administrative centre Kautokeino Mayor (2004) Klemet Erland Hætta (Samefolkets liste - Sámi Peoples Party) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 1 9,708 km² 8,964 km² 3. ... County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2021 Administrative centre Karasjok Mayor (2004) Kjell H. Sæther (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 2 5,453 km² 5,205 km² 1. ... Image:NO 2020 Porsanger Porsángu Porsanki. ... County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2025 Administrative centre Tana Mayor (2003) Ingrid Smuk Rolstad (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Northern Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 5 4,049 km² 3,833 km² 1. ... County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2027 Administrative centre Nyborg Mayor (2003) Ann Jorid Henriksen (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 57 1,436 km² 1,367 km² 0. ... County Troms District Municipality NO-1940 Administrative centre Olderdalen Mayor (2003) Idar Lilleberg(NSD-AP) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 106 991 km² 950 km² 0. ...


According to the Swedish Sami parliament the Sami population of Sweden is about 20 000.


According to the Swedish Sami parliament the Sami population of Finland is about 6 000.


According to the 2002 census the Sami population of Russia was 1,991.


Since 1926 the number of Sami in Russia has gradually increased:

  • census 1926: 1,720 (this number refers to the total Soviet Union)
  • census 1939: 1,829
  • census 1959: 1,760
  • census 1970: 1,836
  • census 1979: 1,775
  • census 1989: 1,835
  • census 2002: 1,991

Organization

Main article: Sami government

Sápmi demonstrates a distinct semi-national identity that transcends the borders between Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. However, there is no movement for complete autonomy. The Sami Parliaments, founded in Norway (1989), Sweden (1993), and Finland (1996) have very weak political influence, far from autonomy. They are formally public authorities, ruled by the Scandinavian governments, but have democratically elected parliamentarians. Their mission is to work for the Sami culture. The candidates' election promises often get in conflict with the institutions' submission under their governments. But as authorities, they have some influence over the government. Since the other half of 20th century, Sami peoples are organised in a local authority called Sami Parliament. ... The Sami Parliament is a representative body for peoples of Sami heritage in several Scandinavian countries. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Russia is not actively taking part of this recognition of the minority of Samis.


Sweden has taken this active part for two reasons:

Sami Parliaments are democratically elected and act as autonomous authorities. In each country, Sami inhabitants have a vote, in addition to the regular elections in each country, to elect representatives to their Sami Parliament if: Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Majoritarianism is a political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society. ...

  • s/he considers himself/herself to be culturally or ethnically Sami, and
    • s/he speaks a Sami language, or
    • s/he had or has a parent, or grandparent, that speaks or spoke a Sami language

The main organisations for Sami representation in Sweden are the "siidas". They cover northern and central Sweden. A Sami village, or Siida, Sita, Kite in Sami language, is at the same time both a Sami village community, and a corporation working for the economic benefit of their members. ...


Border conflicts

There is a border, and some state that the rights (for reindeer herding and in some parts even for fishing and hunting) would include a larger part than of Sápmi. However, today's "border" originates from the 14-16th centuries when land-owning conflicts occurred. The establishment of more stable dwelling places and larger towns originates from the 16th century, and was performed for strategic defence and economic reasons, both by peoples from Sami groups themselves and more southern immigrants.


Owning land within the borders or being a member of a siidas (="corporation villages") gives rights. A different law enacted in Sweden in the mid-90s gave the right to anyone to fish and hunt in the region, something that was met with large skepticism and anger amongst the siidas. A Sami village, or Siida, Sita, Kite in Sami language, is at the same time both a Sami village community, and a corporation working for the economic benefit of their members. ...


Court proceedings have been common throughout history, and the aim from the Samic viewpoint is to reclaim territories used earlier in history. Due to a major defeat in 1996, one siidas has introduced a sponsorship "Reindeer Godfather" concept to raise funds for further battles in courts. These "internal conflicts" are usually conflicts between non-Sami land owners and Reindeer owners. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


The question whether the Fjeld's territory is owned by the governments or the Sami population is not answered. In geography a fell is a treeless mountain landscape that has been shaped by glacier ice earlier in history. ...


Sami national symbols

Although the Sami have considered themselves to be one people through history, the idea of, Sápmi, a Sami nation first gained acceptance among the Sami in the 1970s, and even later among the majority population. During the 1980s and 1990's a flag was created, a national song was written, and the date of national day was settled. One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ...


Sami flag

Main article: Sami flag

The Sami flag was inaugurated during the Sami Conference in Åre, Sweden on August 15, 1986. It was the result of a competition for which many suggestions were entered. The winning design was submitted by the artist Astrid Båhl from Skibotn, Norway. The Sami flag is the flag of the Sami people. ... Ã…re is a Municipality in Jämtland County, in North West Sweden. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Skibotn is a small community (a village) on the eastern shore of the Lyngen Fjord - Storfjorden in the Norwegian language - in the Northern Norwegian province of Finnmark. ...


The motif was derived from the shaman's drum and the poem "Paiven parneh" ("Sons of the Sun") by the south Sami Anders Fjellner (1795-1876). Fjellner described the Sami as sons and daughters of the sun. The flag's circle represents the sun (red) and the moon (blue). The flag has the Sami colours, red, green, yellow and blue. Pantone colour formula is: red 485C, green 356C, yellow 116C and blue 286C. 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For the record label, see Pantone Music. ...


Sami National Day

Main article: Sami National Day

The Sami National Day falls on February 6 as this date was when the first Sámi congress was held in 1917 in Trondheim, Norway. This congress was the first time that Norwegian and Swedish Sámi came together across their national borders to work together to find solutions for common problems. The resolution for celebrating on February 6th was passed in 1992, at the 15th Sámi congress in Helsinki. The Sami National Day falls on February 6 as this date was when the first Sámi congress was held in 1917 in Trondheim, Norway. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... County District Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2003-) Rita Ottervik (AP) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ...


National song

Main article: Sámi soga lávlla

Sámi soga lávlla ("Song of the Sami People", lit. "Song of the Sámi Family") was originally a poem written by Isak Saba that was published in the newspaper Sagai Muittalægje for the first time on April 1, 1906. In August 1986, it became the national anthem of the Sami. Arne Sørli set the poem to music, which was then approved at the 15th Sámi Conference in Helsinki in 1992. Sámi soga lávlla has been translated into all of the Sámi languages. The anthem Sámi soga lávlla (Song of the Sami Night) is a national anthem of Saamiland instituted on August of 1986. ... Isak Mikal Saba (born November 15, 1875 in Nesseby, Norway, died June 1, 1921) was a Sami teacher and politician. ... SaÇ¥ai Muittalægje (The News Reporter) was a Sámi newspaper that was published from 1904 to 1911, for a total of 33 issues. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - City manager Jussi Pajunen Area  - City 187. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ...


Religion

Main article: Sami religion
Copper carving (1767) by O.H. von Lode showing a sami shaman with his rune drum (meavrresgárri)
Copper carving (1767) by O.H. von Lode showing a sami shaman with his rune drum (meavrresgárri)

The Sami had their own shamanistic religion up to the 18th c. This religion does not exist anymore in its traditional form. Most Sami today belong to the Lutheran churches of Norway, Sweden and Finland. A few belong to the Orthodox church, first and foremost in Russia, but also in North Eastern Finland, and a handful also in Norway. The knowledge of the Sami religion is primarily based on archeological remains and written sources from missionary works in northern Scandinavia during the Middle Ages (1500 - 1600). ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... The membrane-covered oval or circular rune drum played an important role in Sami cermonies. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ...


Traditional Sami religion

Sami religion shared some elements with the Norse mythology, possibly from early contacts with trading Vikings (or viceversa). Through a mainly French initiative, from J.P. Gaimard, Lars Levi Læstadius began researching the Sami mythology. His work resulted in four bands or fragments, since by his own admission they contained only a small percentage of what had existed. The fragments were termed Theory of Gods, Theory of Sacrifice, Theory of Prophecy, or short reports about rumorous Sami magic and Sami sagas. Generally, he filtered out the Norse influence and derived common elements between the South, North, and Eastern Sami groups. The mythology has common elements with other Circumpolar religions as well -- such as those in Siberia and North America. Norse or Scandinavian mythology comprises the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Lars Levi Laestadius (1800-1861) Lars Levi Læstadius (October 1, 1800 - February 21, 1861) was a Swedish Lutheran pastor of Sami ancestry. ... This article is in need of attention. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


Missionary efforts

The term Sami religion usually refers to the pre-Christian religion, practiced until approximately the 18th century. Christianity was spread by Roman Catholic missionaries as early as the 13th century. Increased pressure came after the Lutheran reformation, and rune drums were burned or sent to museums abroad. In this period, many Sami practiced their traditional religion at home, while turning up in church on Sunday. Since the Sami were considered to possess witchcraft powers, they were often accused of sorcery during the 17th century. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The membrane-covered oval or circular rune drum played an important role in Sami cermonies. ...


In Norway, a major effort to convert the Sami was made around 1720, when the "Apostle of the Sami" - Thomas von Westen, burned drums and converted people by force.


In the far east of the Sami area, the Russian Monk Trifon converted the Sami in the 16th. c. Today, the St. George's chapel in Neiden, Norway, (1565) testifies to this effort. Municipality: Sør-Varanger County: Finnmark Protection order adopted by the King in Council in September 2000 Area: ca 230 700 m2 Skoltebyen in Neiden was originally the old summer settlement of the Eastern (Skolt) Sami (a. ... // Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded. ...


Laestadius

The Swedish Sami vicar, Lars Levi Læstadius initiated a puritan, Lutheran movement among the Sami around 1840. This movement is still very dominant in Sami speaking areas. Sami on the Kola peninsula and in North-Eastern Finland, as well as a handful in Norway are members of the Russian Orthodox Church. Lars Levi Laestadius (1800-1861) Lars Levi Læstadius (October 1, 1800 - February 21, 1861) was a Swedish Lutheran pastor of Sami ancestry. ... Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


Neo-shamanism

Today, one occasionally comes across Sami shamans offering their services, through newspaper advertisements, at new age-arrangements or for tourist groups. These shamans are not a part of an unbroken Sami religious tradition, but are rather an expression for a wish to return to traditional values. They may be compared with neo-paganism and modern druids. Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ...


An altogether more traditional religious idea is represented by the numerous "wise men" and "wise women" found throughout the Sami area. They often heal the sick by rituals combining pre-Christian elements and readings from the bible.


Language

Main article: Sami language

There is no single Sami language, but a group of ten distinct Sami languages. Six of these languages have their own written standards. The Sami languages are relatively closely related, but not mutually intelligible; for instance, speakers of Southern Sami cannot understand Northern Sami. Especially earlier these distinct languages were referred to as "dialects", but today this is considered misleading due to the deep differences between the varieties. Most Sami languages are spoken in several countries, because linguistic borders do not correspond to national borders. Sami is a general name for a group of Finno-Ugric languages spoken in parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ...


The Sami languages belong to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family, and are thus related to Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian. Due to prolonged contact with neighboring Scandinavians, however, there are a large number of Germanic loanwords in Sami. The majority of the Sami now speak the majority languages of the countries they live in, i.e. Swedish, Russian, Finnish and Norwegian. Efforts are being made to further the use of Sami language among Sami and persons of Sami origin. Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ...


See also

This list is based solely on territory; the peoples listed here do not belong to a single language family or ethnicity: they are Finno-Ugric, Turkic, Eskimo-Aleut, and other groups. ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Lars Levi Laestadius (1800-1861) Lars Levi Læstadius (October 1, 1800 - February 21, 1861) was a Swedish Lutheran pastor of Sami ancestry. ... Carl Lindhagen (1860 – 1946) was a Swedish socialist politician, a lawyer and a pacifist. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Is a 2002 film directed by Aleksandr Rogozhkin. ... The Pathfinder (Sami: Ofelaš; Norwegian: Veiviseren) is a 1987 Norwegian film, directed by Nils Gaup. ...

References

  1. ^ Article on the subject by the Finno-Ugrian Society.
  2. ^ Uncovering the secrets of the Sámi, a February 2006 Helsingin Sanomat article
  3. ^ http://english.karasjok.kommune.no/document.aspx?uid=40&title=Facts
  4. ^ http://www.nrk.no/nyheter/distrikt/nrk_troms_og_finnmark/troms/programmer_nrk_troms/784905.html
  5. ^ Norwegian Sami parliament web page on registered voters

Helsingin Sanomat is the biggest subscription newspaper in Finland. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sami people

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

General

List of Ministers of Foreign Affairs 1918 Otto Stenroth 1918 - 1919 Carl Enckell 1919 - 1922 Eino Holsti 1922 Carl Enckell 1922 - 1924 Juho Heikki Vennola 1924 Carl Enckell 1924 - 1925 Johann Procopé 1925 Karl Idman 1925 - 1926 Emil Nestor Setälä 1926 - 1927 Kaarle Väinö Voionmaa 1927 - 1931 Johan... Entrance to the Royal Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Oslo Royal Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Oslo, Norway The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Utenriksdepartementet) was established on June 7, 1905 - the same day the Norwegian Parliament decided to dissolve the union with Sweden. ... Norsk rikskringkasting (NRK) - the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation - is the Norwegian government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company. ...

Historical sources

Genetics

Div

  • Coexistence of Saami and Norse culture reflected in and interpreted by Old Norse myths, Mundal
  • Dablot prejjesne A traditional Sami boardgame.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Swedish Lapland - Arvidsjaur, Lapland, Sweden - Laponia, Laplandia (355 words)
Arvidsjaur in Swedish Lapland till holds several Sami villages, and as a tribute to the Sami people a reindeer is the basis for the City Arms.
They were back then a hunting people, living of the plenty of fish and wildlife in the area of Swedish Lapland.
The name Arvidsjaur itself comes from a Sami word – the word Arvidsjaur means generous water, and was originally the name of the adjecent lake.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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