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Encyclopedia > Sami languages
Sami
Sámegiella
Spoken in: Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia 
Region: Lapland
Total speakers: Approximately 20,000
Language family: Uralic
 Finno-Ugric
  Finno-Lappic
   Lappic
    Sami 
Official status
Official language of: None. Official status in some parts of Norway; recognized as a minority language in several municipalities of Sweden and Finland.
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: se (Northern Sami)
ISO 639-2: sma, sme, smi, smj, smn, sms
ISO/DIS 639-3: variously:
sia — Akkala
sjd — Kildin
sjk — Kemi
sjt — Ter
smn — Inari
sms — Skolt
sju — Ume
sje — Pite
sme — North
smj — Lule
sma — South 

Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. Sami is frequently (and erroneously) believed to be a single language. It is the native tongue of the Sami people. There are several terms used for the Sami languages: Saami, Sámi, Samic, Saamic, Lappish and Lappic. The last two are, along with the term Lapp, considered derogatory by some. National anthem Sámi soga lávlla Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area ca. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... Akkala Sami is a Sami language that was spoken in Russia. ... Kildin Saami is spoken by apprx 500 people at the Kola Peninsula in northwestern Russia. ... Kemi Sami is a Sami language that was originally spoken in the southernmost district of Finnish Lapland as far south as the Sami siidas around Kuusamo. ... Ter Sami is a Sami language spoken in the eastern region of the Kola peninsula. ... Inari Saami (Säämegiella) is spoken in northern Finland. ... Skolt Sami (Sää´mÇ©iõll) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland and nearby parts of Russia. ... Ume Sami is a Sami language spoken in Sweden and Norway. ... Pite Sami is a Sami language spoken in Sweden and Norway. ... Northern Saami (also, Sámi or Sami, formerly Lapp) is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Southern Saami is divided into two main dialects: Southern Saami sensu stricto and Ume Saami. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps and Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... A word or phrase is pejorative or derogatory (sometimes misspelled perjorative) if it expresses contempt or disapproval; dyslogistic (noun: dyslogism) is used synonymously (antonyms: meliorative, eulogistic, noun eulogism). ...

Contents


Classification

The Sami languages are divided into two groups: the western and the eastern ones. The groups may be further divided into various subgroups and ultimately individual languages. Parts of the Sami language area form a dialect continuum in which the neighbouring languages may be to fair degree mutually intelligible, but two more widely separated groups will not understand each others' speech. There are, however, sharp and absolute language boundaries, in particular between Northern Sami, Inari Sami and Skolt Sami, the speakers of which are not able to understand each other without learning or long practice. A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ...


Western Sami languages

Eastern Sami languages Southern Saami is divided into two main dialects: Southern Saami sensu stricto and Ume Saami. ... Ume Sami is a Sami language spoken in Sweden and Norway. ... Pite Sami is a Sami language spoken in Sweden and Norway. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Northern Saami (also, Sámi or Sami, formerly Lapp) is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages. ...

Inari Saami (Säämegiella) is spoken in northern Finland. ... Kemi Sami is a Sami language that was originally spoken in the southernmost district of Finnish Lapland as far south as the Sami siidas around Kuusamo. ... Skolt Sami (Sää´mÇ©iõll) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland and nearby parts of Russia. ... Akkala Sami is a Sami language that was spoken in Russia. ... Kildin Saami is spoken by apprx 500 people at the Kola Peninsula in northwestern Russia. ... Ter Sami is a Sami language spoken in the eastern region of the Kola peninsula. ...

Geographic distribution

The Sami languages are spoken by the Sami people living in Lapland in Northern Europe. The Lapland region stretches over the four countries Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, reaching from the southern part of central Scandinavia in the southwest to the tip of the Kola Peninsula in the east. The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps and Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... National anthem Sámi soga lávlla Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area ca. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe named after the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ...


During the Middle and Early Modern Ages now extinct Sami languages have also been spoken in the central and southern parts of Finland and Karelia. Historical documents as well as Finnish and Karelian oral tradition contain many mentions of the earlier Sami inhabitation in these areas. Place names of Sami origin are widespread in Finland, Karelia, Norway and Sweden. Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... This article is about Karelia, the land of the Karelians, in its broadest meaning. ... it comes from tribal times and it was passed down by mouth ... In geography and cartography, a toponym is a place name, a geographical name, a proper name of locality, region, or some other part of Earths surface or its natural or artificial feature. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ...


Official status

Adopted in April 1988, Article 110a of the Norwegian Constitution states: "It is the responsibility of the authorities of the State to create conditions enabling the Sami people to preserve and develop its language, culture and way of life." The Sami Language Act went into effect in the 1990s. Sami is an official language of the municipalities of Kautokeino, Karasjok, Kåfjord, Nesseby, Sør-Varanger and Tana. County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2011 Administrative centre Kautokeino Mayor (2004) Klemet Erland Hætta (Samefolkets liste - Sámi Peoples Party) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 1 9,708 km² 8,964 km² 3. ... County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2021 Administrative centre Karasjok Mayor (2004) Kjell H. Sæther (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 2 5,453 km² 5,205 km² 1. ... County Troms Landscape Municipality NO-1940 Administrative centre Olderdalen Mayor (2003) Bjørn Inge Mo (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 106 991 km² 950 km² 0. ... County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2027 Administrative centre Nyborg Mayor (2003) Ann Jorid Henriksen (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 57 1,436 km² 1,367 km² 0. ... County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2030 Administrative centre Kirkenes Mayor (2005) Tone Hatle (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 6 3,968 km² 3,468 km² 1. ... County Finnmark Landscape Municipality NO-2025 Administrative centre Tana Mayor (2003) Ingrid Smuk Rolstad (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l and Northern Sami Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 5 4,049 km² 3,833 km² 1. ...


In Finland, the Sami language act of 1991 granted Sami people the right to use the Sami languages for all government services. The Sami language act of 2003 made Sami an official language in Enontekiö, Inari, Sodankylä and Utsjoki municipalities. Enontekiö (Eanodat in Northern Sami, Enontekis in Swedish) is a municipality of Finland. ... The name may refer to one of the folloing. ... Sodankylä (SoaÄ‘egilli in Northern Sami, Syäˊđjel in Skolt Sami) is a town and municipality of Finland. ... Utsjoki (Ohcejohka in Northern Sami, Uccjokk in Skolt Sami) is a municipality in Finland. ... The municipalities (kunta in Finnish, kommun in Swedish) represent the local level of administration in Finland and act as the fundamental administrative units of the country. ...


On April 1, 2002 Sami became one of five recognized minority languages in Sweden. It can be used in dealing with public authorities in the municipalities of Arjeplog, Gällivare, Jokkmokk and Kiruna. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... In 1999, Sweden legally recognized five minority languages of Sweden due to its adoption of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. ... The Municipalities or Kommuner represent the local level of self government in Sweden. ... This page deals with both Arjeplog Municipality and the urban area (tätort) Arjeplog Arjeplog Municipality is a municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern Sweden, where Arjeplog is the seat with 2,000 inhabitants. ... Gällivare Municipality is a Municipality in Norrbotten County, in northern Sweden. ... This page deals with both Jokkmokk Municipality and the urban area (tätort) Jokkmokk Jokkmokk Municipality is a Swedish municipality in northern Sweden where the town Jokkmokk is seat with 3,200 inhabitants. ... Kiruna municipality is a Swedish municipality in northernmost Sweden where the Swedish city Kiruna (pop. ...

Geographic distribution of the majority dialects
Geographic distribution of the majority dialects

See also: Sami parliaments of Finland, Norway, and Sweden Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1107x1329, 327 KB) Summary A map of Sami dialects numbered. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1107x1329, 327 KB) Summary A map of Sami dialects numbered. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sami government. ...


Languages and dialects

In 2001 there were ten known Sami languages. The largest six of these have standard written languages; the four others are not written, and there are fewer than 50 people speaking them. The ISO 639-2 code for all Sami languages without its proper code is "smi". The six written languages are: 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ...

  • Northern Sami (Norway, Sweden, Finland): With an estimated 15,000 speakers, this accounts for probably more than 75% of all Sami speakers in 2002. ISO 639-1/ISO 639-2: se/sme
  • Lule Sami (Norway, Sweden): The second largest group with an estimated 1,500 speakers. ISO 639-2: smj
  • Southern Sami (Norway, Sweden): ISO 639-2: sma
  • Inari Sami (Enare Sami) (Inari, Finland): SIL code: LPI, ISO 639-2: smn
  • Skolt Sami (Näätämö and the Nellim-Keväjärvi districts, Inari municipality, Finland, also spoken in Russia, previously in Norway) SIL code: LPK, ISO 639-2: sms
  • Kildin Sami (Kildin Island, Russia) SIL code: LPD

The remaining living languages are Ter Sami, Pite Sami and Ume Sami, which very few (likely under 20) speakers left. Akkala (Babino) Sami is known to have had one living speaker still in 2002, but now the language is probably extinct. Another Sami language, Kemi Sami, has been extinct for over 100 years. Northern Saami (also, Sámi or Sami, formerly Lapp) is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... Southern Saami is divided into two main dialects: Southern Saami sensu stricto and Ume Saami. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... Inari Saami (Säämegiella) is spoken in northern Finland. ... Inari (Aanaar in Inari Sami, Anár in Northern Sami, Aanar in Skolt Sami, Enare in Swedish) is a municipality in Finland. ... SIL International is a non-profit, Christian, scientific organization with the main purpose to study, develop and document lesser-known languages for the purpose of expanding linguistic knowledge, promoting world literacy and aiding minority language development. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... Skolt Sami (Sää´mÇ©iõll) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland and nearby parts of Russia. ... Inari (Aanaar in Inari Sami, Anár in Northern Sami, Aanar in Skolt Sami, Enare in Swedish) is a municipality in Finland. ... SIL International is a non-profit, Christian, scientific organization with the main purpose to study, develop and document lesser-known languages for the purpose of expanding linguistic knowledge, promoting world literacy and aiding minority language development. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... Kildin Saami is spoken by apprx 500 people at the Kola Peninsula in northwestern Russia. ... SIL International is a non-profit, Christian, scientific organization with the main purpose to study, develop and document lesser-known languages for the purpose of expanding linguistic knowledge, promoting world literacy and aiding minority language development. ... Ter Sami is a Sami language spoken in the eastern region of the Kola peninsula. ... Pite Sami is a Sami language spoken in Sweden and Norway. ... Ume Sami is a Sami language spoken in Sweden and Norway. ... Akkala Sami is a Sami language that was spoken in Russia. ... Kemi Sami is a Sami language that was originally spoken in the southernmost district of Finnish Lapland as far south as the Sami siidas around Kuusamo. ...


Orthography

The Northern Sami language has had more than one orthography, but in 1948 a common orthography was created. It was last modified in 1985. The orthography of a language is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs correctly, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... This article is about the year. ...


Northern Sami uses seven characters not found in the Scandinavian languages or the Finnish language: The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... Finnish ( (help· info)) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92%) and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. ...

  • a-acute (Á/á) /aː/ (front vowel; notice the contrast between the back vowel [ɑ] and the front vowel [æ])
  • c-caron (Č/č) /ʧ/
  • d-stroke (Đ/đ) /ð/
  • engma (Ŋ/ŋ) /ŋ/
  • s-caron (Š/š) /ʃ/
  • t-stroke (Ŧ/ŧ) /θ/
  • z-caron (Ž/ž) /ʒ/

The Lule Sami language has a common orthography but with fewer special characters, only a-acute and n-acute. The character n-acute (Ń/ń) is the eng sound found in the English word "song". Instead of n-acute (found in Unicode, but not in ASCII), many use ñ or even ng. Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... For other uses, see ASCII (disambiguation). ...


Southern Sami uses written using Norwegian or Swedish characters, some variants of Swedish (ä, ö) or Norwegian (æ, ø) characters. Inari Sami uses seven special characters. Kildin Sami uses Cyrillic typesetting, Russian characters with some special characters. The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Movable metal type Typesetting involves the presentation of textual material in an aesthetic form on paper or some other medium. ...


Skolt Sami uses a Latin orthography, with the following special characters: Skolt Sami (Sää´mǩiõll) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland and nearby parts of Russia. ...

  • circumflex-A (Â/â)
  • a-ring (Å/å)
  • a-trema (Ä/ä)
  • o-tilde (Õ/õ)
  • ezh (Ʒ/ʒ)
  • ezh-caron (Ǯ/ǯ)
  • s-caron (Š/š)
  • z-caron (Ž/ž)
  • c-caron (Č/č)
  • g-caron (Ǧ/ǧ),
  • k-caron (Ǩ/ǩ)
  • d-stroke (Đ/đ)
  • g-stroke (Ǥ/ǥ)
  • engma (Ŋ/ŋ)

See also

External links

  • Sami alphabets: Basics (in Norwegian) and references - from Skolelinux, in Norwegian
  • Lappic language tree - at ethnologue.org
  • Kimberli Mäkäräinen "Sámi-related odds and ends," including 5000+ word vocabulary list
  • Dictionaries - at University of Tromsø
  • Samisk språkråd - Sami language department of the Norwegian Sami parliament (in Norwegian and Northern Sami)
  • Finland - Sámi Language Act
  • Sami Language Resources All about Sami Languages with glossaries, scholarly articles, resources

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sami language - definition of Sami language in Encyclopedia (647 words)
Sami is a general name for a group of Finno-Ugric languages spoken in parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia, in Northern Europe.
The Sami languages in the Scandinavian Peninsula form a continuum where dialects from areas close to each other are mutually intelligible but the distance in language increases with geographical distance.
Samisk språkråd (http://www.samisk-sr.no) - Sami language department of the norwegian Sami parliament (in Norwegian and Northern Sami)
The Sami in Finland — Virtual Finland (3093 words)
The Sami practised Fishing, hunting and small-scale reindeer herding in an area reaching from Lake Ladoga to the Arctic Ocean and from the White Sea to the Köli Ridge.
Sami culture is based on the divers and sustainable use of their territory in order fulfill the basic needs of the people.
The administration of the educational centre is dominated by Sami, and new teachers are to be proficient in Sami.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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