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Encyclopedia > Samhan
Samhan
Korean name
Hangul: 삼한
Hanja: 三韓
Revised Romanization: Samhan
McCune-Reischauer: Samhan

During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. The name Samhan means "Three Han," and refers to these confederacies. The period is also sometimes referred to as the "Proto-Three-Kingdoms period." [1] (http://www.tgmuseum.org/museum/english/body_02/body02_1_05.htm) The Samhan period is usually reckoned to begin around the time of the fall of Wiman Joseon in 108 BCE, which appears to coincide with the decline of the Jin state, and to continue through the third century CE, after which time the Three Kingdoms period begins. Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language (as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China). ... Hanja (lit. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 113 BC 112 BC 111 BC 110 BC 109 BC - 108 BC - 107 BC 106 BC... Jin was an early Iron Age state which occupied some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, at the time when Wiman Joseon occupied the peninsula’s northern half. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... The Three Kingdoms of Korea were Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. The Three Kingdoms period in Korea is usually considered to run from the 4th century CE until Sillas triumph over Goguryeo in 668. ...

Contents

Geography

The History of Korea

Gojoseon
Samhan
Three Kingdoms :
 Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla
Unified Silla and Bohai
Later Three Kingdoms
Goryeo
Joseon
Japanese occupation
Divided Korea :
 N. Korea, S. Korea
This article is about the history of Korea. ... Go-Joseon, or Old Korea (2333 - 206 BC), was the first Korean kingdom. ... The Three Kingdoms of Korea were Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. The Three Kingdoms period in Korea is usually considered to run from the 4th century CE until Sillas triumph over Goguryeo in 668. ... Goguryeo (also known as Koguryo; : Gāogōulí) (37 BC-668) was an empire in Manchuria and northern Korea. ... Baekje was a kingdom in southwestern Korea. ... This article is about the ancient Korean kingdom of Silla. ... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Bo Hai / Bohai (or in the Korean context Balhae) was a kingdom in northeast Asia from AD 698 to 926, occupying parts of Manchuria, northern Korea, and Russian Far East. ... The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... The Goryeo (also Koryo) kingdom ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... The Joseon Dynasty (alternatively, Choson or Chosun) is usually preceded with the title Great. The House of the Junju Yi-Shi, The Royal Family of the Joseon Dynasty, or Ishi Wangjo, was the final ruling Imperial dynasty of Korea, lasting from 1392 until 1910. ... The History of Korea from 1900-1950 began undeniably with significant political, economic, and military influences from Japan. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line On August 10, 1945 there was a meeting of commissions of the ministry of the exterior, the ministry of war and the ministry of marines. ... A typical propaganda image from the DPRK Following World War II, Korea, which had been a colonial possession of Japan since 1910, was occupied by the Soviet Union (in the north) and the United States (in the south). ... The History of South Korea begins with the states establishment following the division of the Korean peninsula. ...

The exact locations occupied by the different Samhan tribes are disputed. It is also quite likely that some of their locations changed over time. Based on a passage in the Samguk Sagi, some historians have argued that Mahan was located in the northern region later occupied by Goguryeo, Jinhan in the region later occupied by Silla, and Byeonhan in the southwestern region later occupied by Baekje. However, this view is contradicted by the earlier San guo zhi, as well as various other Korean sources, and is not widely held by historians today. Most follow the San guo zhi in placing Mahan in the southwest, Jinhan in the southeast, and Byeonhan between them. Samguk Sagi (Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms) is a historical record of the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla. ... Goguryeo (also known as Koguryo; : Gāogōulí) (37 BC-668) was an empire in Manchuria and northern Korea. ... This article is about the ancient Korean kingdom of Silla. ... Baekje was a kingdom in southwestern Korea. ... The Sānguó Zhì (Chinese 三國志, or 三國誌), variously translated as Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms, Records of the Three States and Records of the Three Kingdoms was the official and authoritative historical text compiled by Chen Shou during the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420) on the period of the Three...


Villages were usually constructed deep in high mountain valleys, where they were relatively secure from attack. Mountain fortresses were also often constructed as places of refuge during war. The minor states which made up the federations are usually considered to have covered about as much land as a modern-day myeon, or township. Administrative divisions of North Korea Administrative divisions of South Korea Provinces of Korea has historical information Special cities of Korea is for more details This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Based on historical and archeological records, river and sea routes appear to have been the primary means of long-distance transportation and trade (Yi, 2001, p. 246). It is thus not surprising that Jinhan and Byeonhan, with their coastal and river locations, became particularly prominent in international trade during this time.


Three Hans

Byeonhan

Main article: Byeonhan

Byeonhan included 12 minor states, which later gave rise to the Gaya confederacy. It is usually considered to have been located in the Nakdong River valley. Byeonhan also known as Byeonjin (변진]]/弁辰]]) was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from the 1st century BC to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula. ... This article is about the Gaya confederacy of ancient Korea. ... The Nakdong River is the longest river in South Korea, and passes through major cities such as Daegu and Busan. ...


Jinhan

Main article: Jinhan

Jinhan included 12 minor states, one of which would later become Silla. It is usually considered to have been located along the East Sea coast. Jinhan was one of the three tribal confederations which dominated southern Korea during the Samhan period, around the beginning of the Common Era. ... This article is about the ancient Korean kingdom of Silla. ... The Sea of Japan, known as the East Sea in South Korea, the East Sea of Korea in North Korea, and the Japan Sea in China, is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bound by the Japanese islands of Hokkaido, Honshu and Kyushu and Sakhalin island to the...


Mahan

Main article: Mahan

Mahan was the largest of the three confederacies. It was reckoned to include 54 minor states, one of which was the precursor of Baekje. Mahan is usually considered to have been located in the southwest of the peninsula, covering Jeolla, Chungcheong, and portions of Gyeonggi. Mahan was a tribal confederation in Iron Age Korea around the beginning of the Common Era. ... Baekje was a kingdom in southwestern Korea. ... Jeolla (Jeolla-do) was one of the eight provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. ... Chungcheong (Chungcheong_do) was one of the eight provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. ... Gyeonggi is the most populous province in South Korea. ...


Political structure

Lee (1984) regards the Samhan as an example of "confederated kingdoms" composed of "walled-town states," an interpretation which is still widely accepted. Each appears to have had a ruling elite, whose power was a mix of politics and shamanism. Although each state appears to have had its own ruler, there is no evidence of systematic succession. Shamanism is a range of traditional beliefs and practices that involve the ability to diagnose, cure, and sometimes cause human suffering by traversing the axis mundi and forming a special relationship with, or gaining control over, spirits. ... An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death, resignation, or removal of its current occupant. ...


Technology

The Samhan saw the systematic introduction of iron into the southern Korean peninsula. This was taken up with particular intensity by the Byeonhan states of the Nakdong River valley, which manufactured and exported iron armor and weapons throughout Northeast Asia. General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metal Group, Period, Block 8 (VIIIB), 4, d Density, Hardness 7874 kg/m3, 4. ... Byeonhan also known as Byeonjin (변진]]/弁辰]]) was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from the 1st century BC to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula. ... The Nakdong River is the longest river in South Korea, and passes through major cities such as Daegu and Busan. ...


The introduction of iron technology also facilitated growth in agriculture, as iron tools made the clearing and cultivation of land much easier. It appears that at this time the modern-day Jeolla area emerged as a center of rice production (Kim, 1974). Species Oryza barthii Oryza glaberrima Oryza latifolia Oryza longistaminata Oryza punctata Oryza rufipogon Oryza sativa References ITIS 41975 2002-09-22 This article is about the food grain, not the university or Condoleezza Rice; see also rice (disambiguation). ...


Relations

The external relations of the Samhan peoples were largely limited to their contact with the Chinese commanderies located in the northern part of the peninsula. The commanderies, among which Lelang commandery predominated, appear to have maintained separate diplomatic relations with each individual state rather than with the heads of the confederacies as such. This policy may have hindered the development of full-fledged states in the region, as Lee (1984) contends. Yi (2001) notes that these "emissary trade" relations were also a way for local leaders to enhance their own power. Lelang (樂浪郡 le4 lang4 jun4) was one of the Chinese commanderies which was kept in the Korean Peninsula over 400 years until Goguryeo conquers it in 313 A.D. History In 108 B.C. Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty conquered the area under Youqu (右渠), a grandson of Wei...


For much of the Samhan period, the relations of the Chinese commanderies with the Samhan states mirrored those of China with its tributaries; a politically-driven trading system in which "tribute" was exchanged for titles or prestige gifts such as bronze mirrors. Official seals were used to identify each tribal leader and confirm his authorization to trade with the commandery. However, this system appears to have changed after the fall of the Kingdom of Wei in the third century. The San guo zhi reports that the Lelang commandery handed out official seals and garments freely to local commoners. Yi (2001, p. 245) states that "By the third century, the Chinese garments and official seals no longer symbolized political authority ... instead, they began to be used as a certification of qualification to trade with the Chinese commanderies." A mirror is a reflective surface that is smooth enough to form an image. ... Seal on envelope A seal is an impression printed on, embossed upon, or affixed to a document (or any other object) in order to authenticate it, in lieu of or in addition to a signature. ... The Kingdom of Wei (ch. ... The Sānguó Zhì (Chinese 三國志, or 三國誌), variously translated as Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms, Records of the Three States and Records of the Three Kingdoms was the official and authoritative historical text compiled by Chen Shou during the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420) on the period of the Three...


The Chinese commanderies also played an important economic role as a supplier of luxury goods and market for local products. Through informal trade, Chinese coins began to circulate; Han dynasty coins have been excavated throughout the Korean peninsula. A popular Chinese luxury item in the informal trade was beads, which the San guo zhi reports were more popular than gold or silver with Samhan consumers. This was exchanged for local products such as iron or raw silk. Trade relations also existed with the emergent states of Japan at this time, most commonly involving the exchange of ornamental Japanese bronzeware for Korean iron. These trade relations shifted in the third century, when the Yamatai federation of Kyushu gained monopolistic control over Japanese trade with Byeonhan. Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... A bead is a small, decorative object that is pierced for threading or stringing. ... Silk (< OE sioloc probably < L. SERICVS / Gr. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... The Japanese (日本人, Nihon-jin) are the native people of the Japanese Archipelago. ... Kyushu region, Japan Kyūshū (九州) is the third largest island of Japan and most southerly and westerly of the four main islands. ...


After the second century CE, as direct Chinese influence waned, iron ingots came into use as currency for the trade based around Jinhan and Byeonhan.


See also

  • List of Korea-related topics
  • History of Korea

This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ... This article is about the history of Korea. ...

References

  • Kim, J.-B. (1974). Characteristics of Mahan in ancient Korean society. Korea Journal 14(6), 4-10. [2] (http://www.ekoreajournal.net/archive/detail.jsp?VOLUMENO=14&BOOKNUM=6&PAPERNUM=1)
  • Lee, K.-b. (1984). A new history of Korea. Tr. by E.W. Wagner & E.J. Schulz, based on 1979 rev. ed. Seoul: Ilchogak. ISBN 89-337-0204-0
  • Yi, H.-h. (2001). International trade system in East Asia from the first to the fourth century. Korea Journal 41(4), 239-268. [3] (http://www.ekoreajournal.net/archive/detail.jsp?VOLUMENO=41&BOOKNUM=4&PAPERNUM=11)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Samhan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (866 words)
During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula.
The Samhan period is usually reckoned to begin around the time of the fall of Wiman Joseon in 108 BC, coinciding with the decline of the Jin state, and to continue through the third century CE, around which time the Three Kingdoms period begins.
Until the rise of Goguryeo, the external relations of Samhan were largely limited to the Chinese commanderies located in the northern part of the peninsula.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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