FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Samhain" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Samhain
Samhain
Observed by Gaels,
Irish People,
Scottish People,
Welsh People,
Galician People,
Breton people
Asturian people,
Neopagans,
Celtic Reconstructionist Pagans
Type Pagan
Begins Northern Hemisphere=Evening of October 31
Southern Hemisphere=Evening of April 30
Ends Northern Hemisphere: November 1 or November 11
Southern Hemisphere: May 1
Celebrations Traditional first day of winter in Ireland
Related to Hallowe'en, All Saints Day, All Souls Day
Look up Samhain in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Samhain (pronounced /ˈsaʊn/ or /ˈsɑːwɪn/[1]; Irish /ˈsˠaunʲ/ from the Old Irish samain) is the word for November in the Gaelic languages. The Scottish Gaelic spelling is Samhainn or Samhuinn (for the feast), or an t-Samhain (for the month). The Festival of Samhain is a celebration of the end of the harvest season in Gaelic culture, and is generally, though incorrectly, regarded as 'The Celtic New Year'.[2][3][4] “Gael” redirects here. ... The Irish people (Irish: Muintir na hÉireann, na hÉireannaigh, na Gaeil) are a Western European ethnic group who originate in Ireland, in north western Europe. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... Language(s) Galician language, Eonavian, Spanish Religion(s) Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups other Spaniards, Portuguese, Irish, Scots, Welsh, French, Italians The Galicians are an ethnic group or nationality whose homeland is Galicia (or Galiza), which is a historial region in Southwestern Europe, embracing a territory situated in the north... The Bretons are a distinct celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. ... The Asturians are an ethnic group or nation living in the historical region of the Principality of Asturias, in the north of Spain. ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism (CR) is a polytheistic, animistic, religious and cultural movement. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the holiday. ... This article is about the Christian holiday. ... All Souls Day by William Bouguereau All Souls Day (formally, Commemoratio omnium Fidelium Defunctorum or Commemoration of all the Faithful Departed), also called Defuncts Day in Mexico and Belgium, is the day set apart for the commemoration of the faithful departed. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Samhain is the name of a Celtic holiday, celebrated by Gaelic peoples in Ireland, Scotland, The Isle of Man and throughout the diaspora. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... “Gael” redirects here. ...


The same word was used for a month in the ancient Celtic calendar, in particular the first three nights of this month, with the festival marking the end of the summer season and the end of the harvest. A modernized version of this festival continues today in some of the traditions of the Catholic All Souls' Day, the secular Halloween, and in folk practices of Samhain itself in the Celtic Nations. It is also been appropriated and twisted slightly by some variations of Neopagans.[2][4][5] The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the Christian religious holiday. ... This article is about the holiday. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ...

Contents

Origins

see also Celtic calendar.

The Gaulish calendar appears to have divided the year into two halves: the 'dark' half, beginning with the month Samonios (the October/November lunation), and the 'light' half, beginning with the month Giamonios (the April/May lunation). The entire year may have been considered as beginning with the 'dark' half, so that the beginning of Samonios may be considered the Celtic New Year's day. The celebration of New Year itself may have taken place during the 'three nights of Samonios' (Gaulish trinux[tion] samo[nii]), the beginning of the lunar cycle which fell nearest to the midpoint between the autumnal equinox and the winter solstice. The lunations marking the middle of each half-year may also have been marked by specific festivals. The Coligny calendar marks the mid-summer moon (see Lughnasadh), but omits the mid-winter one (see Imbolc). The seasons are not oriented at the solar year, viz. solstice and equinox, so the mid-summer festival would fall considerably later than summer solstice, around 1 August (Lughnasadh). It appears that the calendar was designed to align the lunations with the agricultural cycle of vegetation, and that the exact astronomical position of the Sun at that time was considered less important. The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gaulish is name given to the now-extinct Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Romans, the Franks and the British Celts invaded. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The autumnal equinox (or fall equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical autumn. ... This article is about the astronomical and cultural event of winters solstice, also known as midwinter. ... overview of the re-assembled tablet detail of Mid Samonios The Gaulish Coligny Calendar was found in Coligny, Ain, France (46°23′N 5°21′E) near Lyons in 1897, along with the head of a bronze statue of a youthful male figure. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Imbolc is one of the four principal festivals of the Irish calendar, celebrated either at the beginning of February or at the first local signs of Spring. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Equinox (disambiguation). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In medieval Ireland, Samhain became the principal festival, celebrated with a great assembly at the royal court in Tara, lasting for three days. After being ritually started on the Hill of Tlachtga, a bonfire was set alight on the Hill of Tara, which served as a beacon, signaling to people gathered atop hills all across Ireland to light their ritual bonfires. The custom has survived to some extent, and recent years have seen a resurgence in participation in the festival.[6] The Hill of Tara (Irish Teamhair na Rí, Hill of the Kings), located near the River Boyne, is a long, low limestone ridge that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin in County Meath, Leinster, Ireland. ... The Hill of Ward (aka Tlachtga), near Athboy, was the location for the pagan feast of Samhain, the precursor of modern day Halloween. ... The Hill of Tara (Irish Teamhair na Rí, Hill of the Kings), located near the River Boyne, is a long, low limestone ridge that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin in County Meath, Leinster, Ireland. ...


Celtic folklore

The Samhain celebrations have survived in several guises as a festival dedicated to the harvest and the dead. In Ireland and Scotland, the Féile na Marbh, the 'festival of the dead' took place on Samhain. All Souls Day by William Bouguereau All Souls Day (Commemoratio omnium fidelium defunctorum) is the day set apart in the Roman Catholic Church for the commemoration of the faithful departed. ...


The night of Samhain, in Irish, Oíche Shamhna and Scots Gaelic, Oidhche Shamhna, is one of the principal festivals of the Celtic calendar, and falls on the 31st of October. It represents the final harvest. In modern Ireland and Scotland, the name by which Halloween is known in the Gaelic language is still Oíche/Oidhche Shamhna. It is still the custom in some areas to set a place for the dead at the Samhain feast, and to tell tales of the ancestors on that night.[2][4][7] For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Traditionally, Samhain was time to take stock of the herds and grain supplies, and decide which animals would need to be slaughtered in order for the people and livestock to survive the winter. This custom is still observed by many who farm and raise livestock.[2][4][7]


Bonfires played a large part in the festivities celebrated down through the last several centuries, and up through the present day in some rural areas of the Celtic nations and the diaspora. Villagers were said to have cast the bones of the slaughtered cattle upon the flames. In the pre-Christian Gaelic world, cattle were the primary unit of currency and the center of agricultural and pastoral life. Samhain was the traditional time for slaughter, for preparing stores of meat and grain to last through the coming winter. The word 'bonfire', or 'bonefire' is a direct translation of the Gaelic tine cnámh. With the bonfire ablaze, the villagers extinguished all other fires. Each family then solemnly lit its hearth from the common flame, thus bonding the families of the village together. Often two bonfires would be built side by side, and the people would walk between the fires as a ritual of purification. Sometimes the cattle and other livestock would be driven between the fires, as well.[2][4][7] For the AC/DC box set, see Bonfire (album). ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... Emigrants Leave Ireland, engraving by Henry Doyle (1827-1892), from Mary Frances Cusacks Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868 // The Irish diaspora (Irish: Diaspóra na nGael) consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ...


Divination is a common folkloric practice that has also survived in rural areas. The most common uses were to determine the identity of one's future spouse, the location of one's future home, and how many children a person might have. Seasonal foods such as apples and nuts were often employed in these rituals. Apples were peeled, the peel tossed over the shoulder, and its shape examined to see if it formed the first letter of the future spouse's name. Nuts were roasted on the hearth and their movements interpreted - if the nuts stayed together, so would the couple. Egg whites were dropped in a glass of water, and the shapes foretold the number of future children. Children would also chase crows and divine some of these things from how many birds appeared or the direction the birds flew.[2][4][7][8]


Ireland

The Ulster Cycle is peppered with references to Samhain. Many of the adventures and campaigns undertaken by the characters therein begin at the Samhain Night feast. One such tale is Echtra Nerai ('The Adventure of Nera') concerning one Nera from Connacht who undergoes a test of bravery put forth by King Ailill. The prize is the king's own gold-hilted sword. The terms hold that a man must leave the warmth and safety of the hall and pass through the night to a gallows where two prisoners had been hanged the day before, tie a twig around one man's ankle, and return. Others had been thwarted by the demons and spirits that harassed them as they attempted the task, quickly coming back to Ailill's hall in shame. Nera goes on to complete the task and eventually infiltrates the sídhe where he remains trapped until next Samhain. Taking etymology into consideration, it is interesting to note that the word for summer expressed in the Echtra Nerai is samraid. The Ulster Cycle, formerly the Red Branch Cycle, is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. ... Nera is a warrior of Connacht in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... Statistics Area: 17,713. ... Ailill (Aillell, Oilioll) mac Máta was king of Connacht and husband of Medb in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... These gallows in Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park are maintained by Arizona State Parks. ... Sídhe (IPA , shee, modern Irish: sí; Scottish Gaelic: sìth) is an Irish and Scottish Gaelic word referring first to earthen mounds that were thought to be home to a supernatural race related to the fey and elves of other traditions, and later to these inhabitants themselves. ...


The other cycles feature Samhain as well. The Cath Maige Tuireadh (Battle of Mag Tuired) takes place on Samhain. The deities Morrígan and Dagda meet and have sex before the battle against the Fomorians; in this way the Morrígan acts as a sovereignty figure and gives the victory to The Dagda's people, the Tuatha Dé Danann. Cath Maige Tuireadh (the (second) Battle of Magh Tuiredh) is a tale of the Irish Mythological Cycle in which the Tuatha Dé Danann defeat their enemies, the Fomorians. ... The Morrígan (terror or phantom queen) or Mórrígan (great queen) (aka Morrígu, Mórríghan, Mór-Ríogain) is a figure from Irish mythology who appears to have once been a goddess, although she is not referred to as such in the texts. ... The Dagda is an important god of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology, the Fomorians, Fomors, or Fomori (Irish Fomóiri, Fomóraig) were a semi-divine race who inhabited Ireland in ancient times. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... “Áes dána” redirects here. ...


The tale The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn includes an important scene at Samhain. The young Fionn Mac Cumhail visits Tara where Aillen the Burner, one of the Tuatha Dé Danann, puts everyone to sleep at Samhain and burns the place. Through his ingenuity Fionn is able to stay awake and slays Aillen, and is given his rightful place as head of the fianna. The Boyhood Deeds of Fionn (Irish: Macgnímartha Finn) is a medieval Irish narrative belonging to the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology. ... Fionn mac Cumhail (earlier Finn or Find mac Cumail or mac Umaill, pronounced roughly Finn mac Cool) was a legendary hunter-warrior of Irish mythology, also known in Scotland and the Isle of Man. ... The Hill of Tara (Irish Teamhair na Rí, Hill of the Kings), located near the River Boyne, is a long, low limestone ridge that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin in County Meath, Leinster, Ireland. ... In Irish mythology, Aillen or Áillen was a monster from Mag Mell, the underworld. ... “Áes dána” redirects here. ... In Irish mythology, the Fianna were Irish warrior-hunters who served the High King of Ireland in the 3rd century AD. Their adventures were recorded in the Fenian Cycle. ...


Brittany

In parts of western Brittany, Samhain is still heralded by the baking of kornigou, cakes baked in the shape of antlers to commemorate the god of winter shedding his 'cuckold' horns as he returns to his kingdom in the Otherworld. The Romans identified Samhain with their own feast of the dead, the Lemuria. This, however, was observed in the days leading up to May 13. With Christianization, the festival in November (not the Roman festival in May) became All Hallows' Day on November 1 followed by All Souls' Day, on November 2. Over time, the night of October 31 came to be called All Hallow's Eve, and the remnants festival dedicated to the dead eventually morphed into the secular holiday known as Halloween. This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... For the Poet Laureate of Milwaukee, see Antler (Poet). ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A cuckold is a married man whose wife has sex with other men. ... The term otherworld could refer to: the afterlife Other World, in Irish Mythology. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... In Roman religion, the Feast of the Lemures, called the Lemuralia or Lemuria, was a feast during which the ancient Romans performed rites to exorcise the malevolent and fearful ghosts of the dead from their homes. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... All Saints in Poland The festival of All Saints, also sometimes known as All Hallows, or Hallowmas, is a feast celebrated in honour of all the saints and martyrs, known or unknown. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... All Souls Day by William Bouguereau All Souls Day (formally, Commemoratio omnium Fidelium Defunctorum or Commemoration of all the Faithful Departed), also called Defuncts Day in Mexico and Belgium, is the day set apart for the commemoration of the faithful departed. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... For other uses, see Holiday (disambiguation). ... This article is about the holiday. ...


Wales

The Welsh equivalent of this holiday is called Nos Galan Gaeaf. As with Samhain, this marks the beginning of the dark half of the year and it officially begins at sundown on the 31st.


'Celtic New Year' questioned

Popular and scholarly literature over the last century has given birth to the near-universal assumption that Samhain was the 'Celtic New Year'. Some historians have begun to question this belief. In his study of the folk calendar of the British Isles, Stations of the Sun, historian Ronald Hutton writes that there are no references earlier than the 18th century, in either church or civic records, which attest to this usage.[9] Although it may be correct to refer to Samhain as 'Summer's End', this point of descent into the year's darkness may need better proof for us to cite this 'end' as also being a definitive 'beginning'. Whether or not the ancient Celts saw Samhain as the beginning of the year, or just one turning point among others in the cycle of the seasons, Samhain is still largely regarded as the Celtic New Year in the living Celtic cultures, both in the Six Celtic Nations and the diaspora. For instance, the contemporary calendars produced by the Celtic League begin and end at Samhain.[10] Ronald Hutton is Professor of History at the University of Bristol and is an occasional commentator on British television and radio on the history of paganism in the British Isles. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... The Celtic League is a political and cultural organisation in the modern Celtic nations of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, Cornwall and the Isle of Man. ...


Etymology

The Irish word Samhain is derived from the Old Irish samain, samuin, or samfuin, all referring to 1 November (latha na samna: 'samhain day'), and the festival and royal assembly held on that date in medieval Ireland (oenaig na samna: 'samhain assembly'). Its meaning is glossed as 'summer's end', and the frequent spelling with f suggests analysis by popular etymology as sam ('summer') and fuin ('sunset', 'end'). The Old Irish sam ('summer') is from Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) *semo-; cognates are Welsh haf, Breton hañv, English summer and Old Norse language sumar, all meaning 'summer', and the Sanskrit sáma ("season"). (Pokorny, IEW (1959), s.v. "sem-3", p. 905) Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A fake etymology is an invented explanation (etymology) for the origin of a word. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (The Indo-European Etymological Dictionary) by the Czech scholar and Irish nationalist Julius Pokorny, was published in 1959. ...


Whitley Stokes in KZ 40:245 (1907) suggests an etymology from Proto-Celtic *samani ('assembly'), cognate to Sanskrit sámana, and the Gothic samana. J. Vendryes in Lexique Étymologique de l'Irlandais Ancien (1959) concludes that these words containing *semo- ('summer') are unrelated to samain, remarking that furthermore the Celtic 'end of summer' was in July, not November, as evidenced by Welsh gorffennaf ('July'). We would therefore be dealing with an Insular Celtic word for 'assembly', *samani or *samoni, and a word for 'summer', saminos (derived from *samo-: 'summer') alongside samrad, *samo-roto-. The Irish samain would be etymologically unrelated to 'summer', and derive from 'assembly'. But note that the name of the month is of Proto-Celtic age, cf. Gaulish SAMON[IOS] from the Coligny calendar, and the association with 'summer' by popular etymology may therefore in principle date to even pre-Insular Celtic times. Whitley Stokes (February 28, 1830 - April 13, 1909) was a British lawyer and Celtic scholar. ... Historische Sprachforschung (HS) is a German journal of Indo-European studies, established by Adalbert Kuhn in 1852. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... The Insular Celtic hypothesis concerns the origin of the Celtic languages. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... overview of the re-assembled tablet detail of Mid Samonios The Gaulish Coligny Calendar was found in Coligny, Ain, France (46°23′N 5°21′E) near Lyons in 1897, along with the head of a bronze statue of a youthful male figure. ... The Insular Celtic language hypothesis groups the Goidelic languages, which include Irish, Scottish Gaelic and the recently extinct Manx, together with the Brythonic languages, of which the modern ones are Welsh, Breton, and the moribund Cornish. ...


Confusingly, Gaulish Samonios (October/November lunation) corresponds to GIAMONIOS, the seventh month (the April/May lunation) and the beginning of the summer season. Giamonios, the beginning of the summer season, is clearly related to the word for winter, Proto-Indo-European *g'hei-men- (Latin hiems, Slavic zima, Greek kheimon, Hittite gimmanza), cf. Old Irish gem-adaig ('winter's night'). It appears, therefore, that in Proto-Celtic the first month of the summer season was named 'wintry', and the first month of the winter half-year 'summery', possibly by ellipsis, '[month at the end] of summer/winter', so that samfuin would be a restitution of the original meaning. This interpretation would either invalidate the 'assembly' explanation given above, or push back the time of the re-interpretation by popular etymology to very early times indeed. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... This article is about the punctuation symbol. ...


Bealtaine, Lúnasa and Samhain are still today the names of the months of May, August and November in the Irish language. Similarly, an Lùnasdal and an t-Samhain are the modern Scottish Gaelic names for August and November. This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


Neopaganism

Samhain is observed by various Neopagans in various ways. As forms of Neopaganism can differ widely in both their origins and practices, these representations can vary considerably despite the shared name. Some Neopagans have elaborate rituals to honor the dead, and the deities who are associated with the dead in their particular culture or tradition. Some celebrate in a manner as close as possible to how the Ancient Celts and Living Celtic cultures have maintained the traditions, while others observe the holiday with rituals culled from numerous other unrelated sources, Celtic culture being only one of the sources used.[11][12][5] Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ...


Celtic Reconstructionism

Celtic Reconstructionist Pagans tend to celebrate Samhain on the date of first frost, or when the last of the harvest is in and the ground is dry enough to have a bonfire. Like other Reconstructionist traditions, Celtic Reconstructionists place emphasis on historical accuracy, and base their celebrations and rituals on traditional lore from the living Celtic cultures, as well as research into the older beliefs of the polytheistic Celts. At bonfire rituals, some observe the old tradition of building two bonfires, which celebrants and livestock then walk or dance between as a ritual of purification.[13][12][2][4][7] Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism (CR) is a polytheistic, animistic, religious and cultural movement. ... Romuva Spring JorÄ— festival in Kulionys, Lithuania in 2006. ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ...


According to Celtic lore, Samhain is a time when the boundaries between the world of the living and the world of the dead become thinner, at times even fading away completely, allowing spirits and other supernatural entities to pass between the worlds to socialize with humans. It is the time of the year when ancestors and other departed souls are especially honored. Though Celtic Reconstructionists make offerings to the spirits at all times of the year, Samhain in particular is a time when more elaborate offerings are made to specific ancestors. Often a meal will be prepared of favorite foods of the family's and community's beloved dead, a place set for them at the table, and traditional songs, poetry and dances performed to entertain them. A door or window may be opened to the west and the beloved dead specifically invited to attend. Many leave a candle or other light burning in a western window to guide the dead home. Divination for the coming year is often done, whether in all solemnity or as games for the children. The more mystically inclined may also see this as a time for deeply communing with the deities, especially those whom the lore mentions as being particularly connected with this festival.[2][4][7][13][12]


Wicca

Samhain is one of the eight annual festivals, often referred to as 'Sabbats', observed as part of the Wiccan Wheel of the Year. It is considered by most Wiccans to be one of the most important of the four 'greater Sabbats'. It is generally observed on October 31st in the Northern Hemisphere, starting at sundown. Samhain is considered by most Wiccans as a celebration of death and of the dead, and it often involves paying respect to ancestors, family members, elders of the faith, friends, pets and other loved ones who have died. In some rituals the spirits of the departed are invited to attend the festivities. It is seen as a festival of darkness and death, which is balanced at the opposite point of the wheel by the spring festival of Beltane, which Wiccans celebrate as a festival of life and fertility.[14] In neopaganism, a Sabbat is one of the eight major seasonal festivals which make up the Wheel of the Year. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... In Neopaganism, the Wheel of the Year is the natural cycle of the seasons, commemorated by the eight Sabbats. ... This article is about the Gaelic holiday. ...


While the Wiccan version of Samhain is not a form of reconstruction, and is largely mixed with other traditions in a form of universalism, it is influenced by the Celtic holiday from which the name was taken.[5] Romuva Spring JorÄ— festival in Kulionys, Lithuania in 2006. ... This article is about Universalism in religion and theology. ...


See also

This article is about the Gaelic holiday. ... This article is about the holiday. ... Imbolc is one of the four principal festivals of the Irish calendar, celebrated either at the beginning of February or at the first local signs of Spring. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... overview of the re-assembled tablet detail of Mid Samonios The Gaulish Coligny Calendar was found in Coligny, Ain, France (46°23′N 5°21′E) near Lyons in 1897, along with the head of a bronze statue of a youthful male figure. ... The Irish calendar does not observe the typical astronomical seasons (beginning, in the Northern Hemisphere, on the equinoxes and solstices), or the meteorological seasons (beginning on March 1, June 1, September 1 and December 1), but rather centers the seasons around the solstices and equinoxes (so that, for instance, midsummer...

References

  1. ^ OED
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2 pp.190-232
  3. ^ Chadwick, Nora (1970) The Celts London, Penguin. ISBN 0-14-021211-6 p. 181
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h McNeill, F. Marian (1961, 1990) The Silver Bough, Vol. 3. William MacLellan, Glasgow ISBN 0-948474-04-1 pp.11-46
  5. ^ a b c Hutton, Ronald. The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy. Oxford, Blackwell, 327-341. ISBN 0-631-18946-7. 
  6. ^ Samhain 2007 photos and account of Samhain ritual on the Hill of Tara (and worldwide), Oct. 31, 2007
  7. ^ a b c d e f O'Driscoll, Robert (ed.) (1981) The Celtic Consciousness New York, Braziller ISBN 0-8076-1136-0 pp.197-216: Ross, Anne "Material Culture, Myth and Folk Memory" (on modern survivals); pp.217-242: Danaher, Kevin "Irish Folk Tradition and the Celtic Calendar" (on specific customs and rituals)
  8. ^ Campbell, John Gregorson (1900, 1902, 2005) The Gaelic Otherworld. Edited by Ronald Black. Edinburgh, Birlinn Ltd. ISBN 1-84158-207-7 pp.559-62
  9. ^ Hutton, Ronald (1996) Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford, Oxford University Press ISBN 0192880454
  10. ^ The Celtic League Calendar
  11. ^ Adler, Margot (1979, revised edition 2006) Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers, and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston, Beacon Press ISBN 0-8070-3237-9. pp.3, 243-299
  12. ^ a b c McColman, Carl (2003) Complete Idiot's Guide to Celtic Wisdom. Alpha Press ISBN 0-02-864417-4. pp.12, 51
  13. ^ a b Bonewits, Isaac (2006) Bonewits's Essential Guide to Druidism. New York, Kensington Publishing Group ISBN 0-8065-2710-2. pp.179, 183-4, 128-140
  14. ^ Starhawk (1979, 1989) The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess. New York, Harper and Row ISBN 0-06-250814-8 pp.193-6 (revised edition)

Ronald Hutton is Professor of History at the University of Bristol and is an occasional commentator on British television and radio on the history of paganism in the British Isles. ... The Hill of Tara (Irish Teamhair na Rí, Hill of the Kings), located near the River Boyne, is a long, low limestone ridge that runs between Navan and Dunshaughlin in County Meath, Leinster, Ireland. ...

Further reading

  • Carmichael, Alexander (1992). Carmina Gadelica. Lindisfarne Press ISBN 0-940262-50-9
  • Chadwick, Nora (1970) The Celts. London, Penguin ISBN 0-14-021211-6
  • Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland. Dublin, Mercier ISBN 1-85635-093-2
  • Evans-Wentz, W. Y. (1966, 1990) The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries. New York, Citadel ISBN 0-8065-1160-5
  • MacKillop, James (1998). Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-280120-1
  • McNeill, F. Marian (1959) The Silver Bough, Vol. 1-4. William MacLellan, Glasgow

The Carmina Gadelica is a collection of prayers, hymns, charms, incantations, blessings, runes and other literary-folkloric poems and songs collected, and translated, by amateur folklorist Alexander Carmichael (1832-1912) in the Gaelic-speaking regions of Scotland between 1855 and 1910. ... This article is an autobiography, and may not conform to Wikipedias NPOV policy. ... Walter Yeeling Evans-Wentz (b. ... F. Marian McNeill was a Scottish folklorist, best known for writing The Silver Bough (not to be confused with The Golden Bough), a four-volume set of Scottish Folklore, considered essential by many in the field. ...

External links

The Continental Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that are neither Goidelic nor Brythonic. ... Celtiberian (also Hispano-Celtic) is an extinct Celtic language spoken by the Celtiberians in northern Spain before and during the Roman Empire. ... Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken in Galatia in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BC up to the 4th century AD. Of the language only a few glosses and brief comments in classical writers and scattered names on inscriptions survive. ... Lepontic is an extinct Celtic language that was once spoken in Northern Italy between 700 BCE and 400 BCE. The language is only known from a few inscriptions discovered that were written in a variety of the Northern Italic alphabet, which was related to the Old Italic alphabet. ... Noric language was the ancient Celtic language spoken in the Roman province of Noricum. ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... Imbolc is one of the four principal festivals of the Irish calendar, celebrated either at the beginning of February or at the first local signs of Spring. ... This article is about the Gaelic holiday. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of Celtic tribes and associated celtic peoples with their geographical localization. ... The gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology are known from a variety of sources. ... See: list of Scots list of Irish people list of Welsh people list of English people list of Breton people Celt Category: Lists of people by ancestry ... A list of English language words derived from Celtic languages. ... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Irish and Scottish mythology, Cailleach was the Mother of All. The word Cailleac means old woman. She was a sorceress. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1004x800, 1034 KB) Gundestrupkarret (the Gundestrup Cauldron). ... Abandinus is a Celtic deity, currently known only from a single inscription from Godmanchester in Cambridgeshire, England: an inscribed bronze votive feather is dedicated to him with the text to the god Abandinus, Vatiaucus gave this from his own resources. ... In Continental Brythonic (Gallic) Celtic mythology, Abellio (also Abelio and Abelionni) was a god of apple trees, worshipped in the Garonne Valley in southwest France. ... In Celtic mythology, Abnoba was a forest and river goddess, worshipped in the Black Forest and surrounding areas. ... In Celtic mythology, Adsullata was a river goddess, associated with the River Savus in the Balkans. ... In Celtic mythology, Agrona was a goddess of strife and war worshipped in Britain. ... In Celtic mythology, Alaunus was a Gaulish god of the sun, healing and prophecy. ... In Celtic mythology, Alisanos or Alisaunus was the local god of the Cite dOr. ... In Celtic mythology, Ambisagrus was a Gaulish god of thunder and lightning. ... In Celtic mythology, Ancamna was a water goddess worshipped in Gaul and Britain. ... In Celtic mythology, Andarta was a warrior goddess, worshipped especially in Gaul. ... Andraste or Andate, according to Dio Cassius, was a Celtic goddess of victory invoked by Boudicca while fighting against the Roman occupation of Britain in AD 61. ... In Celtic mythology, Anextiomarus was a tribal god worshipped in Britain. ... In Celtic mythology, Arduinna was the eponymous goddess of the Ardennes forest. ... In Celtic mythology, (specifically known from Switzerland), Artio was a goddess of wildlife, specifically the bear, and was worshipped at Berne, which actually means bear. She was often called Artio of Muri. ... In Celtic mythology, Avernus was the god of the Gallic Averni. ... The Aufaniae were Celtic mother goddesses worshipped throughout Celtic Europe. ... In Celtic mythology and especially Gaul, Aveta or Lyregwyn was a goddess of female-fertility, childbirth and midwives, also associated with all fresh water. ... In Celtic mythology, Belatu-Cadros, or Belatucadros (fair shining one or the fair slayer), was a deity worshipped in northern Britain, particularly in Cumberland and Westmoreland. ... In Celtic mythology, Belenus (also Belinus, Belenos, Belinos, Belinu, Bellinus, Belus, Bel) was a deity worshipped in Gaul, Britain and Celtic areas of Italy and Austria. ... In Celtic mythology, Belisama (also Belesama, Belisma) was a goddess worshipped in Britain. ... In Celtic mythology, Borvo (to boil), also Bormo, Bormanus, was a deity worshipped in Gaul. ... In Gallo-Roman and Romano-British religion, Brigantia was a goddess who is attested several places in Britain and Europe. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... In Gallo-Roman religion, Buxenus was an epithet of the Gaulish Mars, known from a single inscription found in Velleron in the Vaucluse. ... In Celtic mythology, particularly Breton, Camma was a hunting goddess. ... In Celtic mythology, Camulus or Camulos was the god of war of the Remi, a Celtic tribe, who lived in the area of todays Belgium. ... Depiction of Cernunnos from the Pilier des nautes, Paris Cernunnos in Celtic polytheism is the deified spirit of horned male animals, especially of stags, a nature god associated with produce and fertility. ... Cissonius (also Cisonius, Cesonius) was an ancient Gaulish god. ... In Celtic mythology, Clota was the patron goddess of the River Clyde. ... In Celtic mythology, Cocidius was a deity worshipped in northern Britain. ... In Celtic mythology, Condatis (waters meet) was a deity worshipped primarily in northern Britain but also in Gaul. ... In Celtic mythology, Contrebis or Contrebus (he who dwells among us) was the patron god of Lancaster. ... In Celtic mythology, Coventina was a goddess of wells and springs. ... In Celtic mythology, Damara was a fertility goddess worshipped in Britain. ... In Celtic mythology, Damona (Divine cow) was a fertility goddess worshipped in Gaul as the consort of Borvo. ... In Celtic mythology, Dea Matrona (divine mother goddess) was the goddess of the river Marne in Gaul. ... Dis Pater, or Dispater, was a Roman and Celtic god of the underworld, later subsumed by Pluto or Jupiter. ... For other uses of Epona, see Epona (disambiguation) Image:Epona link. ... Aericura (Aerecura, Heracura, Eracura) was a goddess worshipped in ancient times, often thought to be Celtic in origin, associated with the Roman underworld god Dis Pater: she appears with him in a statue found at Oberseebach, Switzerland and in several magical texts from Austria, once in the company of Cerberus... Image of Esus on the Pillar of the Boatmen. ... In Celtic mythology, and especially in Gaul and the Pyrenees, Fagus was a god of beech trees. ... In Celtic mythology, Grannus (also Gramnos, Gramnnos) was a god of healing and mineral springs. ... In Celtic mythology, the three Hooded Spirits were healing and fertility deities. ... In Celtic mythology, Icaunus was the god of the river Yonne in Gaul. ... In Gallo-Roman religion, Loucetios (Latinized as Leucetius) was a Gaulish god invariably identified with Mars. ... Lugus was a deity widely hypothesized to have been worshipped in Gaul, Britain, Ireland, Spain and other ancient Celtic regions. ... In Celtic mythology, Luxovius was the god of the waters of Luxeuil, worshipped in Gaul. ... In Celtic mythology, Maponos or Maponus (divine son) was a god of youth known mainly in northern Britain but also in Gaul. ... The Matres or Matronae were ancient deities venerated in northwestern Europe in Roman and earlier times. ... In Continental Brythonic mythology, and especially in Gaul, Nantosuelta was a goddess of water and fertility. ... In Celtic mythology, Nemetona (shrine) was the goddess of temples and sacred groves. ... Nemausus is often said to have been the Celtic patron god of Nemausus (Nîmes). ... Nodens, or Nodons, was a Celtic deity worshipped in Britain. ... Ogmios was a Gaulish deity, usually depicted as a bald old man with a bow and club who leads an apparently happy band of men with chains attached to their ears and tongues. ... In Celtic mythology, Robur was the god of oak trees, worshipped primarily in Gaul alongside Abellio, Fagus and Buxenus. ... In Continental Celtic mythology, Rosmerta was a goddess of fire, fertility and warmth, as well as flowers and death. ... In Celtic mythology, Rudianos was a war god worshipped in Gaul. ... In Celtic mythology, Segomo (victor, mighty one) was a war god worshipped in Gaul, and possibly in Britain and Ireland. ... In ancient Celtic polytheism, the female deification of the outpouring wellspring // Centres of worship Senua (also called Senuna) was worshipped in Roman Britain. ... In Celtic and Roman mythology, Sequanna (or Sequana) was the goddess of the river Seine and its environs. ... In Celtic mythology, Sirona was a goddess worshipped predominantly in East Central Gaul and along the Danubian limes. ... Relief of Smertrius from the Pillar of the Boatmen, Paris. ... Sucellus was the god of agriculture, forests and alcoholic drinks in Lusitanian mythology. ... In Celtic mythology, Sulis is the local goddess of the thermal springs that still feed the spa baths at Bath, which the Romans called Aquae Sulis (the waters of Sulis). Her name appears on inscriptions at Bath, but nowhere else. ... // In ancient Celtic polytheism, Sul or Sulis (also found as Sulevis: see Suleviae) was the deification of spring-water, especially of thermal spring-water, conceived as a nourishing, life-giving Mother goddess. ... In Celtic mythology, Tamesis was goddess of water, particularly fresh water. ... In Celtic mythology Taranis was a god of thunder worshipped in Gaul and Britain and mentioned, along with Esus and Toutatis, by the Roman poet Lucan in his epic poem Pharsalia. ... Toutatis or Teutates, ancient god of Celts and Gauls, whose name means father of the tribe. ... In Insular Brythonic mythology, Verbeia was the goddess of the Wharfe River in North Yorkshire, England. ... In Continental Brythonic mythology, Vosegus was the patron god of the Vosges Forest in Gaul. ... In Irish mythology, Abartach or Abarta (performer of feats) was one of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Irish mythology, Abhean was the harper of the Tuatha de Danaan. ... In Irish mythology, Aengus (Áengus, Óengus, Angus, Aonghus, Anghus) aka Aengus Óg (Aengus the Young), Mac ind Óg (son of the young), Maccan or Mac Óg (young son) was a member of the Tuatha Dé Danann and probably a god of love, youth and poetic inspiration. ... In Irish mythology, Alastir was the younger brother of Cormac. ... In Irish mythology, Aoi Mac Ollamain or Ai is the god of poetry, and is one of the Tuatha De Danaan. ... In Irish mythology, Aibell (Aoibhell, Aeval) was a goddess or fairy queen of Munster. ... In Irish mythology, Aimend was a sun goddess. ... In Irish mythology, Áine (also Aillen) was a goddess of love, growth, cattle and the sun. ... In Irish mythology, the goddess Airmed was one of the Tuatha de Danaan. ... In Irish mythology, Anann (Anu, Ana) was a mother goddess. ... In Irish mythology, the Badb ( crow in Old Irish; modern Irish Badhbh means vulture or carrion-crow) was a goddess of war who took the form of a crow, and was thus sometimes known as Badb Catha (battle crow). ... In Irish mythology, Balor (Balar, Bolar) of the Evil Eye was a king of the Fomorians, a race of giants. ... In Irish mythology, Banba, sometimes spelled Banbha, was the patron spirit of Ireland, wife of King MacCuill, and a goddess of war and fertility. ... In Irish mythology, the goddess Beag was one of the Tuatha de Danaan. ... In Early Irish mythology, Bébinn was a goddess associated with birth and the sister of the river-goddess, Boann. ... Bé Chuille is a figure from Celtic Mythology, also known as Becuille and Bé Chuma. ... In Irish mythology, Birog was a druidess who aided Cian in climbing Balors crystal tower where had imprisoned his daughter, Ethlinn. ... In Irish mythology, Boann or Boand (white cow) was the goddess of the River Boyne. ... In Irish mythology, Bodb Derg (Old Irish: Bodb the Red; Middle and Modern Irish Bodhbh Dearg ) was a son of Eochaid Garb. ... In Irish mythology, the god Brea was one of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Irish mythology as it is presently constituted, Brigit or Brighit (exalted one) was the daughter of Dagda (and therefore one of the Tuatha Dé Danann) and wife of Bres of the Fomorians. ... In Irish mythology, Bres, aka Eochaid Bres, Eochu Bres (Eochaid/Eochu the Beautiful), was a king of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Irish mythology as it is presently constituted, Brigit or Brighit (exalted one) was the daughter of the Dagda (and therefore one of the Tuatha Dé Danann) and wife of Bres of the Fomorians. ... In Irish mythology, Bronach was a goddess of cliffs. ... In Irish mythology, Buarainech was the father of Balor, the King of the Fomorians. ... In Irish mythology, Caer Ibormeith was a daughter of Ethal and Prince Anubal of Connacht. ... In Irish mythology, Canola was the mythical inventor of the harp. ... In Irish mythology, Carman was a goddess of evil magic. ... In Celtic mythology, Crom Cruach was one of the chief gods of Ireland. ... In Irish mythology, Cessair (or Ceasair) was the leader of the first inhabitants of Ireland before the Biblical Flood, in what may be a Christianisation of a legend that pre-dates the conversion, but may alternatively be the product of post-conversion pseudohistory. ... In Irish mythology, Cethlenn was the wife of Balor and, by him, the mother of Ethlinn. ... In Irish mythology, Cian ( ancient, distant), son of Dian Cecht of the Tuatha Dé Danann, is best known as the father of Lug by the Fomorian princess Ethniu. ... In Irish mythology, Cliodhna was a goddess of beauty. ... In Irish mythology, Corb was one of the Fomorians. ... In Irish mythology, Creidhne (or Credne) was a son of Brigid and Tuireann and the artificer of the Tuatha Dé Danann, working in bronze, brass and gold. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... In the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology, Cú Roí (Cú Ruí, Cú Raoi) mac Dáire is a king of Munster and a sorcerer who can change his form at will. ... The Dagda is an important god of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology, Danu or Dana was the mother goddess of the Tuatha Dé Danann (peoples of the goddess Danu), although little is recorded about her as a character. ... In Irish mythology, Dian Cecht was a god of healing. ... In Irish mythology, Elatha (or Elathan) was a prince of the Fomorians and the father of Bres by Ériu of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Irish mythology Étaín (sometimes spelt Edain, Aideen, Éadaoin, Aedín) is the heroine of The Wooing Of Étaín, one of the oldest and richest stories of the Mythological Cycle. ... In Irish mythology, Ethniu (Eithne, Ethliu, Ethlinn, and a variety of other spellings - see below) was the daughter of Balor, king of the Fomorians. ... In Irish mythology, Ethne was an ancient goddess who drank milk from a sacred Indian cow. ... In Irish mythology, Ériu (), daughter of Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann, was the eponymous patron goddess of Ireland. ... In Irish mythology, Fand was Queen of the Fairies, and wife of Manannan. ... In Irish mythology, Fionnuala (from fionn ghualainn or fair-shouldered) was a daughter of Lir. ... In Irish mythology, Fódla (later Fódhla, Fóla), daughter of Ernmas of the Tuatha Dé Danann, was one of the patron goddesses of Ireland. ... In Irish mythology Goibniu or Goibhniu (pronounced Goive-nu) was a son of Brigid and Tuireann and the smith of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Celtic mythology, Lir (the sea) was the god of the sea, father of Manannan mac Lir, Bran, Branwen and Manawydan by Penarddun and a son of Danu and Beli. ... In Celtic mythology, Luchtaine (or Luchta) was a son of Brigid and Tuireann and a god of craftwork and smithing. ... For other subjects with similar names, see Lug. ... In Irish mythology, Macha is a goddess linked with war, horses and kingship. ... In Irish and Manx mythology, Manannán mac Lir is the god of the sea. ... In Irish mythology, Miach was a son of Dian Cecht of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Irish mythology Midir (or Midhir) was a son of the Dagda of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... In Irish mythology, Mug Ruith (or Mogh Roith, slave of the wheel) was a powerful blind druid of Munster who lived on Valentia Island, County Kerry. ... The Morrígan (terror or phantom queen) or Mórrígan (great queen) (aka Morrígu, Mórríghan, Mór-Ríogain) is a figure from Irish mythology who appears to have once been a goddess, although she is not referred to as such in the texts. ... In Irish mythology Neit was a god of war, and husband of Nemain. ... In Irish mythology Nemain (or Nemhain) was a goddess of war, and possibly an aspect of the Mórrígan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Irish mythology, Nuada or Nuadu (later Nuadha), known by the epithet Airgetlám (Silver Hand/Arm), was a king of the Tuatha Dé Danann. ... OGMA-Indústria Aeronáutica de Portugal, S.A., founded in 1918, is a major representative of the Portuguese Aviation Industry, dedicated to aircraft and aircraft component maintenance, repair and manufacturing. ... In Irish mythology, Plor na mban (the flower of the lady) was the beautiful daughter of Oisin and Niamh. ... Sheela-na-Gigs or Sheela Na Gigs are grotesque figurative carvings of naked females displaying an exaggerated vulva. ... Tailtiu (Tailltiu, Tailte, Teia Tephi) is the name of a presumed goddess from Irish mythology and the town in County Meath that was named after her. ... In Celtic mythology, King Tethra of the Fomorians ruled Mag Mell after dying in the First Battle of Mag Tuireadh. ... Caílte (or Caoilte) mac Rónáin was a nephew of Fionn mac Cumhail and a member of the fianna in the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology. ... Conall Cernach (Conall the Victorious) is a heroic warrior of the Ulaid in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology, Conchobar mac Nessa (also Conchobor, Conchubar, Conchobhar, Conchubhar, Conchúr, Conchúir, Conor) was king of Ulster during the events of the Ulster Cycle. ... Conán mac Morna, also known as Conán Maol (the bald), is a member of the fianna and an ally of Fionn mac Cumhail in the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology. ... Conn Cétchathach (Conn of the Hundred Battles) was a legendary High King of Ireland. ... Cormac Mac Airt is probably the most famous of the ancient kings of Ireland, and is now thought to have been an authentic historical king. ... Cuchulain Slays the Hound of Culain, illustration by Stephen Reid from Eleanor Hulls The Boys Cuchulain, 1904 Cúchulainn ( ) (Irish Hound of Culann; also spelled Cú Chulainn, Cú Chulaind, Cúchulain, or Cuchullain) is an Irish mythological hero who appears in the stories of the Ulster Cycle, as well... In Irish mythology, Cumhal (earlier Cumal, pronounced roughly Coo-al or Cool) son of Trénmór (strong-great) was a leader of the fianna and the father of Fionn mac Cumhail. ... In Irish mythology, Deichtine or Deichtire was the sister of Conchobar mac Nessa and the mother of Cúchulainn. ... Deirdre or Derdriu is the foremost tragic heroine in Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology, Diarmuid Ua Duibhne (also known as Diarmuid of the love spot) was son of Donn and a warrior of the Fianna. ... In the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology, Emer, it can also be spelt Eimear but it can also spelt Emer in modern Irish Emer, daughter of Forgall the Wily, was Cúchulainns wife. ... In Irish mythology, Ferdiad (also Fer Diad, Ferdia) was the son of Daire (or son of Damáin son of Daire) and the champion of the men of Domnand (Fir Domnann) from Irrus Domnann in Connacht. ... In Irish mythology, Fergus (or Fearghus) mac Róich (or mac Róeg) is the former king of Ulster during the events of the Ulster Cycle. ... Fionn mac Cumhaill (pronounced /fʲiːn̪ˠ mË ak kuwaːlʲ/ in Irish or /fɪn mɘ kuːl/ in English) (earlier Finn or Find mac Cumail or mac Umaill, later Anglicised to Finn McCool) was a mythical hunter-warrior of Irish mythology, occurring also in the mythologies of Scotland... Lugaid (Lughaid, Lughaidh) is a popular medieval Irish name, thought to be derived from the god Lug. ... (, Medb, Medhbh, Meabh, Maeve, Maev) is queen of Connacht in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Oscar in Irish mythology was the warrior son of Oisín and a fairy woman called Niamh, who also bore his sister, Plor na mBan. ... Les Lavandières (as they are known in Brittany), Bean Nighe (as they are called in Scottish myth) or Midnight Washerwomen are Celtic myth. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Irish and Scottish mythology, Cailleach was the Mother of All. The word Cailleac means old woman. She was a sorceress. ... Crom Dubh or Crum-dubh etc meaning black and crooked in Scottish and Irish Gaelic, was a Celtic god, for which see The Voyage of Bran, Book II, p49. ... Deò-ghrèine or Deò-grèine (with accents going either way) meaning “ray of sunshine” can refer to the following: 1 - Fionn MacCumhail/Finn MacCool’s famous banner, also known as “Deò-ghrèine MhicCumhail” after him. ... Shoaler 3 July 2005 13:04 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Oisín. ... Scota, in Irish mythology and pseudohistory, was an Egyptian princess to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry, explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Aífe (Modern Irish Aoife ) is the name of several characters from Irish mythology: 1. ... In Irish mythology, Connla or Conlaoch was a son of Aífe and Cuchulainn. ... Scáthach (shadowy) is the female warrior who trains Cúchulainn in the arts of war in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology Uathach was the name of Scáthachs daughter. ... In Welsh mythology, Amaethon was a god of agriculture, a son of the goddess Don. ... In Welsh mythology, Arawn was the Lord of the Underworld, which was called Annwn. ... In Welsh mythology, Arianrhod (silver wheel) was a daughter of Beli and Don. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... According to one Welsh tradition, Afallach was the father of Modron. ... Beli Mawr (Beli the Great) was a Welsh ancestor deity. ... In Welsh mythology, Blodeuwedd is the later name of Blodeuedd, a woman made from flowers by Math and Gwydion. ... Bran the Blessed, also known as Bran Vendigaid, Bendigeidfran or Branovices, is a giant and king of Britain in Welsh mythology. ... In Welsh mythology, Branwen was a daughter of Llyr and Penarddun and has been interpreted as a goddess of love and beauty. ... Cassivellaunus was a historical British chieftain who led the defence against Julius Caesars second expedition to Britain in 54 BC. He also appears in British legend as Cassibelanus, one of Geoffrey of Monmouths kings of Britain, and in the Mabinogion and Welsh Triads as Caswallawn, son of Beli... In Welsh mythology, Ceridwen was a magician, mother of Taliesin, Morfran, and a beautiful daughter. ... In Welsh mythology, Cigva (or Cigfa) was the wife of King Pryderi of Dyfed. ... In Welsh mythology, Creiddylad was a goddess, daughter of Llyr. ... In Welsh mythology, Culhwch (pronounced Kilhooch, the ch sound being the same as the Scottish Loch) was a hero who rescued Mabon from Annwn. ... The cyhyraeth (IPA: [kahiːrɪθ]), also spelled as cyheuraeth (probably from the noun cyhyr muscle, tendon; flesh + the termination -aeth; meaning skeleton, a thing of mere flesh and bone; spectre, death-portent, wraith),[1] is a ghostly spirit in Welsh mythology, a disembodied moaning voice that sounds before a person... The name Dewi commonly refers to one of the following: In Celtic mythology, Dewi was an ancient god, worshipped primarily in Wales. ... Dôn was a Welsh mother goddess, equivalent of the Irish Danu. ... Saint Dwynwen is the Welsh patron saint of lovers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Welsh mythology, Efnysien or Efnisien was the son of Penarddun and Euroswydd. ... In Welsh mythology (mentioned in the Mabinogion), Elen was a heroine who magically built highways across her country so that the soldiers could more easily defend it from attackers. ... In Welsh mythology, Euroswydd is the father of Nisien and Efnysien by Penarddun, daughter of Beli Mawr. ... In the Welsh mythology, Govannon of Gofannon was a smith and the son of the goddess Don. ... In Welsh mythology, Gwydion is a magician appearing prominently in the Fourth branch of the Mabinogi and the ancient poem Cad Goddeu. ... In Welsh mythology, Gwyn or Gwynn ap Nudd was the ruler of Annwn (the Underworld). ... In Welsh mythology, Hafgan was a rival of Arawns for the position of the god of the underworld. ... In Welsh mythology, Lleu Llaw Gyffes (sometimes called Llew Llaw Gyffes) is a character appearing in the fourth of the Four Branches of the Mabinogion, the tale of Math fab Mathonwy. ... In Welsh mythology, LlÅ·r is the father of Bran, Branwen and Manawydan by Penarddun. ... Lludd Llaw Eraint, Lludd of the Silver Hand, son of Beli Mawr, is a legendary hero from Welsh mythology. ... In Welsh mythology, Mabon (divine son) was the son of Modron (divine mother). He was a hunter god who was stolen from his mother three days after his birth. ... In Welsh mythology, Manawydan, son of Llyr, is the equivalent of the Irish Manannan mac Lir and a presumed sea god. ... In Welsh mythology, Math fab Mathonwy, also called Math ap Mathonwy (Math, son of Mathonwy) was a king of Gwynedd who needed to rest his feet in the lap of a virgin unless he was at war, or he would die. ... In Welsh mythology, Modron (divine mother) was a daughter of Avalloc, derived from the Gaul goddess Dea Matrona. ... In Welsh mythology, Nisien was the son of Penarddun and Eurosswydd and twin of Efnisien. ... King Leondegrance (sometimes Leodegrance, or some other minor variation) was, in Arthurian legend, the father of Queen Guinevere. ... In Welsh mythology, Olwen (white track) was a daughter of Ysbaddaden. ... In Welsh mythology, Penarddun was the wife of Llyr. ... In Welsh mythology, King Pryderi of Dyfed was the son of Pwyll and Rhiannon. ... This article is about the Welsh hero; for the impact crater on Europa, see Pwyll (crater). ... For the Stevie Nicks/Fleetwood Mac song, see Rhiannon (Will You Ever Win). ... Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... Annwn or Annwfn (Middle Welsh Annwvn, sometimes inaccurately written Annwyn, Annwyfn or Annwfyn) was the Otherworld in Welsh mythology. ... In Irish mythology, Mag Mell (plain of joy), also called Tír na nÓg (land of the young), Land of the Living, the Many-colored Land and the Promised Land, was a mythical realm achievable through death and/or glory. ... The Riders of the Sidhe (John Duncan, 1911) In Irish mythology the aos sí (older form, aes sídhe) are a powerful, supernatural race comparable to the fairies or elves of other traditions. ... Tír na nÓg, called in English the Land of Eternal Youth or the Land of the Ever-Young, was the most popular of the Otherworlds in Irish mythology, perhaps best known from the myth of Oisín and Niamh of the Golden Hair. ... In Irish mythology, Claíomh Solais (also known as The Sword of Light) was a sword that came from Gorias and belonged to Nuada Airgeadlámh (Nuada of the Silver hand), who was leader of the Tuatha Dé Danann and King of Ireland. ... In Irish mythology, Fragarach, known as The Answerer or The Retaliator was the sword of Manannan mac Lir and Lugh Lamfada. ... The Gáe Bulg (also Gáe Bulga, Gáe Bolg, Gáe Bolga, meaning notched spear, belly spear, bellows-dart, or possibly lightning spear) was the spear of Cúchulainn in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... In Irish mythology the Tuatha Dé Danaan (peoples of the goddess Danu) had once lived near the Danube River but wandered to the Northern Isles where they learned many skills and magic in its four cities Fáilias, Gorias, Murias and Finias. ... Imbolc is one of the four principal festivals of the Irish calendar, celebrated either at the beginning of February or at the first local signs of Spring. ... This article is about the Gaelic holiday. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Samhain (1362 words)
With the rise of Christianity, Samhain was changed to Hallowmas, or All Saints' Day, to commemorate the souls of the blessed dead who had been canonized that year, so the night before became popularly known as Halloween, All Hallows Eve, or Hollantide.
Personal prayers in the form of objects symbolizing the wishes of supplicants or ailments to be healed were cast into the fire, and at the end of the ceremonies, brands were lit from the great fire of Tara to re-kindle all the home fires of the tribe, as at Beltane.
At Samhain, the apple harvest is in, and old hearthside games, such as apple-bobbing, called apple-dookin’ in Scotland, reflect the journey across water to obtain the magic apple.
Halloween: The Fantasy and Folklore of All Hallows (The American Folklife Center, Library of Congress) (1322 words)
The Celts believed that at the time of Samhain, more so than any other time of the year, the ghosts of the dead were able to mingle with the living, because at Samhain the souls of those who had died during the year traveled into the otherworld.
Samhain became the Halloween we are familiar with when Christian missionaries attempted to change the religious practices of the Celtic people.
Samhain, with its emphasis on the supernatural, was decidedly pagan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m