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Encyclopedia > Samba
Samba
Stylistic origins
African and Portuguese music
Cultural origins
Early 20th century Rio de Janeiro
Typical instruments
surdo, tan-tan, pandeiro, cavaco, violão, tamborim, cuíca, repinique, caixa, chocalho, agogô, apito, timbal, banjo
Mainstream popularity Much in Brazil, Japan and elsewhere, especially Africa, derivative bossa nova is internationally known
Subgenres
Samba de breque - Samba-canção - Samba-enredo - Samba-pagode - Samba de roda
Fusion genres
Bossa nova - Fricote - Samba-reggae - Sambass (samba + drum'n'bass)

Samba (pronunciation ) is one of the most popular forms of music in Brazil. It is widely viewed as Brazil's national musical style. Look up samba in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Samba is a lively, rhythmical dance of Brazilian origin in 2/4 time danced under the Samba music. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Surdo drums in use The Surdo is a large bass drum used in many kinds of Brazilian music, most notably samba. ... Tan-Tan is a city in Morocco, in Province de Tan-Tan. ... The pandeiro (pronounced: IPA: ), is a type of hand frame drum. ... The cavaquinho is a small string instrument (like the ukulele) of the European guitar family with four wires or gut strings. ... Spanish guitar redirects here. ... A tamborim is a small, round Brazilian frame drum of Portuguese and African origin. ... Cuíca Cuíca is not a Brazilian friction drum often used in Samba music. ... Repinique A repinique is a medium sized drum used in samba baterias. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ... An Agogô is a multiple bell used in samba baterías (percussion ensembles). ... This article is about the musical instrument. ... The banjo is a brazilian instrument which is derived from the cavaquinho, especially associated with a samba subgenre called pagode. ... For other uses, see Bossa nova (disambiguation). ... Samba-canção is a kind of slow samba music from Brazil. ... A samba-enredo is a song that is sung by a samba school (or escola de samba) for the festivies of Carnaval. ... Pagode is a Brazilian style of music which originated in the Rio de Janeiro region as a subgenre of Samba. ... Samba is the most famous of the various forms of music arising from the amalgam of African and Portuguese music in Brazil. ... For other uses, see Bossa nova (disambiguation). ... Samba reggae is kind of music from Brazil. ... Drum and bass (drum n bass, DnB) is an electronic music style. ... Image File history File links Br-Samba. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name samba most probably comes from the Angolan semba (mesemba), a type of ritual music, but there are controversies. Portuguese ethnographer and folklorist Edmundo Correia Lopes talks about a dance from the Portuguese Guinea to which Brazilian people gave the name of samba, which would be, according to him, a very close relative to Brazilian samba. A traditional type of music from the Southern-African country of Angola. ... Portuguese Guinea was the name for what is today Guinea-Bissau from 1446 to September 10, 1974. ...


According to sambista and samba studies academic Nei Lopes, Image:Nei lopes. ...

the origin of the term samba has always been connected to semba, a Congo-Angolan style of dance characterized by the bellybutton-bump with which the gentleman distinguishes the lady, gesture which was reenacted in old afro-Brazilian dances. However, much more than bellybutton, the multilingual African term semba also means "pleasing, enchanting" (in Kimbundo), besides "honoring, revering" (in Kikongo). From semba originate disemba and masemba which, then yes, mean bellybutton-bump, respectively in Angolan Kimbundo and in Kikongo. Kimbundo (alternative spelling Quimbundo) A people group (The North Mbundu People) also, used to refer to the language they speak, a language which was heavily influenced by Portuguese who wielded colonial power over the group during the 16th and 17th century. ... Kongo is the Bantu language spoken by the Kongo people living in the tropical forests of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo and Angola. ...

Nei Lopes also points out it should be observed that the bellybutton-bumpy trump, much more than the "gross representation of the sexual act" as was pointed out by Portuguese missionaries of the colonial times, represented an affability, an act of seduction and a reverence from the man towards the woman.


"Samba" is also a surname among the people of the Wolof nation who primarily live in the Senegambia[citation needed] The Wolof are an ethnic group found in Senegal, The Gambia, and Mauritania. ... The name also refers to the geographic region around the two countries, covering the watershed of the Senegal River and Gambia River. ...


History

Pandeiro and cavaco, the nucleus of common samba instrumentation
Pandeiro and cavaco, the nucleus of common samba instrumentation

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 496 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1275 × 1542 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 496 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1275 × 1542 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Samba origins

The origin of samba is from an Afro-Brazilian couple dance, which was imported from certain circle dances that originated from Angola and the Congo. Characteristic of the umbigada or folk samba is the way the couples dance navel to navel. In its origins, singing always accompanied the dancing. [1] Just as important is influence from Portugal and Europe, from where come samba's relatively intricate harmonies and harmonic instrumentation. Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ...


Samba first appeared as a distinctive kind of music at the beginning of the 20th century in Rio de Janeiro (then the capital of Brazil) under the strong influence of immigrant black people from the Brazilian state of Bahia.[2] The title "samba school" ("escola de samba") originates from samba's formative years. The term was adopted by larger groups of samba performers in an attempt to lend acceptance to samba and its performance; local campuses were often the practice/performance grounds for these musicians and "escola" gave early performers a sense of legitimacy and organization to offset samba's somewhat controversial social atmosphere. Despite some similarities, jazz and samba have distinctively different origins and line of development - one of the factors which adds to this is that Brazilian slave owners allowed their slaves to continue their heritage of playing drums (unlike U.S. slave owners who feared use of the drum for communications). This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Capital (and largest city) Salvador Demonym Baiano Government  -  Governor Jacques Wagner  -  Vice Governor Edmundo Pereira Santos Area  -  Total 564. ... The samba schools are samba clubs that started in the early part of the 20th century in Rio de Janeiro Brazil. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ...


"Pelo Telefone" (1917), by Donga and Mauro Almeida, is generally considered the first samba recording. Its great success carried the new genre outside the black favelas. Who created the music is uncertain, but it was most probably the work of the group around Tia Ciata, among them Pixinguinha and João da Bahiana.[2] Look up favela in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alfredo da Rocha Vianna Filho, better known as Pixinguinha (1898-1973) was a Choro composer, arranger, flutist and saxophonist born in Rio de Janeiro. ...


"Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and is the birth place of the Samba. Much of the music in the heavily populated coastal areas shows a remarkable combination of African, Native Indian, and Iberian influences.


Modern Samba was developed from an earlier Brazilian musical style called Choro. Both Samba the dance and music can take many forms, from the vivacious call response of samba de enredo, the music of Carnaval to samba-cancon or song samba, a more relaxed guitar and rhythm variant. Bossa Nova, which translates to New Wave, hit America big time in the Sixties with "The Girl From Ipanema". This song by the legendary composer Antonio Carlos Jobim became a classic in jazz and elevator music.


In the 16th century, the portuguese discovered on the east coast of South America, a place they called the January River (Rio de Janeiro). Colonists soon settled and as the colony prospered, slaves were brought from south-west Africa to work in the plantations of Bahia, in the north-east of what became Brazil.


To adherents of the Afro-Brazilian religion, Candomble, Samba means to pray, to invoke your personal orixa (god/saint). The African rhythms enveloped in Latino music came from the Yoruba, Congo and other West African people, who were transported to the New World as slaves. In their homeland the rthythms were used to call forth various gods. Candomble preserves these rhythms to this day! It is these rhythms that has heavily influenced Brazilian music making Samba a unique genre of music." [[1]]


Samba from 1930 to 1960

In the 1930s, a group of musicians led by Ismael Silva founded the first Samba School, Deixa Falar, in the neighborhood of Estácio de Sá. They transformed the musical genre to make it fit better the carnival parade. In that decade, the radio spread the genre's popularity all around the country, and with the support of the nationalist dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas, samba became Brazil's "official music". The samba schools are samba clubs that started in the early part of the 20th century in Rio de Janeiro Brazil. ... Estácio de Sá (1520-1567) was a Portuguese soldier and officer who came to Brazil on orders of the Portuguese crown to wage war on the French invaders commanded by Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon (1510-1571), who had established themselves in 1555 at the Guanabara Bay in Rio de... Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (pron. ...


In the following years samba music developed in several directions, from the gentle samba-canção to the drum orchestras which accompany the carnival parade. One of these new styles was the bossa nova, made primarily by middle class white people.[3] Bossa nova gained worldwide popularity through the works of João Gilberto and Antonio Carlos Jobim, among others, and arrived in North America via Gilberto's albums with American jazz saxophonist Stan Getz, and Jobim's soundtrack to the 1959 film Black Orpheus. Samba-canção is a kind of slow samba music from Brazil. ... For other uses, see Carnival (disambiguation). ... United States Marines on parade. ... For other uses, see Bossa nova (disambiguation). ... João Gilberto (born João Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira on June 10, 1931 in the town of Juazeiro, Bahia) is a Brazilian musician and considered one of the co-creators, with Tom Jobim, of bossa nova. ... Antônio Carlos Brasileiro de Almeida Jobim (January 25, 1927 in Rio de Janeiro – December 8, 1994 in New York City), or Tom Jobim (as he is fondly known in his home country), was a Brazilian composer, arranger, singer, pianist/guitarist and one of the primary forces behind the creation... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... Stanley Getz (February 2, 1927 in Philadelphia – June 6, 1991 in Malibu, California), usually known by his stage name Stan Getz, was an American jazz musician. ... Black Orpheus (Orfeu Negro in Portuguese) is a 1959 film made in Brazil by French director Marcel Camus. ...


Samba in the 1960's

In the 1960s, Brazil became politically divided with the arrival of a military dictatorship, and the leftist musicians of bossa nova started to gather attention to the music made in the favelas. Many popular artists were discovered at this time. Names like Cartola, Nelson Cavaquinho & Guilherme de Brito, Velha Guarda da Portela, Zé Keti, and Clementina de Jesus recorded their first albums. A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... Look up favela in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Angenor de Oliveira, known as Cartola (Portuguese for top hat), (October 11, 1908 – November 30, 1980) was born in Rio de Janeiro, in a neighborhood called Catete. ... Nelson Cavaquinho (b. ... Guilherme de Brito circa 2003 Guilherme de Brito (b. ... Clementina de Jesus was born on February 7, 1901, in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ...


Samba in the 1970's

In the 1970s, samba returned strongly to the air waves with composers and singers like Paulinho da Viola, Martinho da Vila, Clara Nunes, and Beth Carvalho dominating the hit parade. Great samba lyricists like Paulo César Pinheiro (especially in the praised partnership with João Nogueira) and Aldir Blanc started to appear around that time. Paulinho da Viola performing in 1997 Paulinho da Viola (born Paulo César Batista de Faria on November 12, 1942) is a Brazilian sambista, singer/songwriter, guitar, cavaquinho and mandolin player, known for his sophisticated harmonies and soft, gentle singing voice Born in Rio de Janeiro to a family deeply... Martinho da Vila (b. ... Clara Nunes is a popular samba artist in Brazil. ... Elizabeth Santos Leal de Carvalho (born May 5, 1946 in Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian samba singer, guitarist, cavaquinist and composer. ... João Nogueira (November 12, 1941 - June 5, 2000) was a Brazilian singer and composer, famous for his samba compositions. ... Aldir Blanc is a famous brazilian letrist, composing many songs with João Bosco, Guinga, and others. ...


Samba from 1980 to present

In the early 1980s, after having been eclipsed by the popularity of disco and Brazilian rock, Samba reappeared in the media with a musical movement created in the suburbs of Rio de Janeiro. It was the pagode, a renewed samba, with new instruments – like the banjo and the tan-tan – and a new language that reflected the way that many people actually spoke with the inclusion of heavy gíria (slang). The most popular artists were Zeca Pagodinho, Almir Guineto, Grupo Fundo de Quintal, Jorge Aragão, and Jovelina Pérola Negra.[4]. This article is about the music genre. ... Brazilian rock refers to rock music produced in Brazil and usually sung in Brazilian Portuguese. ... Pagode is a Brazilian style of music which originated in the Rio de Janeiro region as a subgenre of Samba. ... The banjo is a brazilian instrument which is derived from the cavaquinho, especially associated with a samba subgenre called pagode. ... Tan-Tan is a city in Morocco, in Province de Tan-Tan. ... For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ... Zeca Pagodinho performing Zeca Pagodinho (b. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Grupo Fundo de Quintal or simply Fundo de Quintal (stands roughly for Back of the Yard Group) is the name of an influential samba group and movement which appeared in Rio de Janeiro at the end of the 1970s. ... Jorge Aragão performing alongside Leci Brandão in Pompano Beach, Florida Jorge Aragão (b. ...


Samba, as a result, morphed during this period, embracing types of music that were growing popular in the Caribbean (rap, reggae, and rock). Examples of Samba fusions with popular Caribbean music is samba-rap, samba-rock and samba-reggae, all of which were efforts to not only entertain, but to unify all Blacks throughout the Americas culturally and politically, through song. In other words, samba-rap and the like, often carried lyrics that encouraged Black pride, and speak out against social injustices.[5] Samba, however, is not accepted by all as the national music of Brazil, or as a valuable art form. What appears to be new is the local response flow, in that instead of simply assimilating outside influences into a local genre or movement, the presence of foreign genres is acknowledged as part of the local scene: samba-rock, samba-rap.But this acknowledgment does not imply mere imitation of the foreign models or, for that matter, passive consumption by national audiences. Light-skinned, "upper-class," Brazilians often associated Samba with dark-skinned blacks because of its arrival from West Africa. As a result, there are some light-skinned Brazilians who claim that samba is the music of low-class, dark-skinned, Brazilians and, therefore, is a "...thing of bums and bandits." [6] West Indies redirects here. ... RAP may mean: the IATA airport code for Rapid City Regional Airport Rassemblement pour lalternative progressiste, a Québecois political party. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... This article is about the genre. ... Samba-rock - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Samba reggae is kind of music from Brazil. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...



Samba continued to act as a unifying agent during the 1990s, when Rio stood as a national Brazilian symbol. Even though it was not the capital city, Rio acted as a Brazilian unifier, and the fact that samba originated in Rio helped the unification process. In 1994, the World Cup had its own samba composed for the occasion, "Copa 94." The 1994 World Cup, in which samba played a major cultural role, holds the record for highest attendance in World Cup history [[2]]. Samba is thought to be able to unify because individuals participate in it regardless of social or ethnic group. Today samba is viewed as perhaps the only uniting factor in a country fragmented by political division [7]


The Afro-Brazilians played a significant role in the development of the samba over time. This change in the samba was an integral part of Brazilian nationalism, which was called "Brazilianism". "What appears to be new is the local response to that flow, in that instead of simply assimilating outside influences into a local genre or movement, the presence of foreign genres is acknowledged as part of the local scene: samba-rock, samba-reggae, samba-rap. But this acknowledgment does not imply mere imitation of the foreign models or, for that matter, passive consumption by national audiences." Gerard Béhague Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology ) Pg. 84


Samba in Japan

Samba is extremely popular in Japan, especially in its more traditional forms; so much that some sambistas like Nelson Sargento, Monarco, and Wilson Moreira have recorded specifically for the Japanese market and frequently tour the country. Image:Wilson moreira. ...


Samba today

Today, samba is still one of the most popular musical genres in America.


Samba in the future

In the future, samba becomes the biggest type of music and is listened to everywhere in the world.


Subgenres

Common Samba

Samba is characterized by a syncopated 2/4 rhythm with a muted beat and a main beat, usually played by a surdo (bass drum) or tan-tan. Another important element is the cavaquinho, also known as cavaco (a small, four-stringed instrument of the guitar family, brought by the Portuguese; Hawaiian ukulele is a derivative). The cavaquinho is the connection between the harmony section and the rhythm section; its presence usually differentiates real samba from softer variations such as Bossa Nova (although some samba recordings do not use the cavaquinho, including many by Chico Buarque). The pandeiro (tamborine drum) is the most present percussive instrument, the one whose beat is the most "complete". A violão (acoustic guitar) is usually present, and its presence in samba popularized the 7-string variation, because of the highly sophisticated counterpoint lines used in the genre in the lower pitched strings. Samba lyrics range from love songs, through futebol (soccer), to politics and many other subjects. This subgenre supersets all others. Surdo drums in use The Surdo is a large bass drum used in many kinds of Brazilian music, most notably samba. ... Tan-Tan is a city in Morocco, in Province de Tan-Tan. ... The cavaquinho is a small string instrument (like the ukulele) of the European guitar family with four wires or gut strings. ... The cavaco, more commonly known as the cavaquinho, is a Portuguese musical instrument, from the region of Braga (because of the small size Braguinha - little Braga), resembling a small guitar with four steel strings. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... The ukulele (from Hawaiian: , pronounced ), variantly spelled ukelele (particularly in the UK), or alternately abbreviated uke, is a chordophone classified as a plucked lute; it is a subset of the guitar family of instruments, generally with four strings or four courses of strings. ... For other uses, see Bossa nova (disambiguation). ... Chico Buarque (full name: Francisco Buarque de Hollanda; born June 19, 1944 in Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian singer, composer, dramatist and writer. ... The pandeiro (pronounced: IPA: ), is a type of hand frame drum. ... Spanish antique tambourine The tambourine is musical instrument of the percussion family consisting of a single drumhead mounted on a ring with small metal jingles. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... Seven-string acoustic guitar as it is used in Brazilian choro music. ... Soccer redirects here. ...


Famous artists who play "common samba" include Beth Carvalho, Paulinho da Viola, Zeca Pagodinho, Wilson Moreira, Teresa Cristina & Grupo Semente. Elizabeth Santos Leal de Carvalho (born May 5, 1946 in Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian samba singer, guitarist, cavaquinist and composer. ... Paulinho da Viola performing in 1997 Paulinho da Viola (born Paulo César Batista de Faria on November 12, 1942) is a Brazilian sambista, singer/songwriter, guitar, cavaquinho and mandolin player, known for his sophisticated harmonies and soft, gentle singing voice Born in Rio de Janeiro to a family deeply... Zeca Pagodinho performing Zeca Pagodinho (b. ... Image:Wilson moreira. ...


Partido Alto

Main article: Partido Alto

This phrase is used to name a type of samba which is characterized by a highly percussive pandeiro beat, with use of the palm of the hand in the center of the instrument for snaps.[8] Partido alto harmony is always in a major key. Usually played by a set of percussion instruments (surdo, pandeiro, tamborim) and accompanied by cavaquinho and/or violão, partido alto is commonly divided in two parts, a chorus and the verses. Partideiros (partido alto musicians) often improvise on the verses, with disputes being common, and highly skilled improvisors have made their fame and career on samba, as Zeca Pagodinho, who is not only a great overall sambista but one of the best improvisors. The pandeiro (pronounced: IPA: ), is a type of hand frame drum. ... In music theory, the major scale is one of the diatonic scales. ... Surdo drums in use The Surdo is a large bass drum used in many kinds of Brazilian music, most notably samba. ... The pandeiro (pronounced: IPA: ), is a type of hand frame drum. ... A tamborim is a small, round Brazilian frame drum of Portuguese and African origin. ... The cavaquinho is a small string instrument (like the ukulele) of the European guitar family with four wires or gut strings. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... Zeca Pagodinho performing Zeca Pagodinho (b. ...


Famous partido alto artists include Candeia, Jovelina Pérola Negra, Grupo Fundo de Quintal, Zeca Pagodinho, and Bezerra da Silva. Grupo Fundo de Quintal or simply Fundo de Quintal (stands roughly for Back of the Yard Group) is the name of an influential samba group and movement which appeared in Rio de Janeiro at the end of the 1970s. ... Zeca Pagodinho performing Zeca Pagodinho (b. ...


Pagode

Main article: Pagode

This is the most widespread form of samba in Brazil. It started as a movement in the 1980s when three new instruments were introduced with Grupo Fundo de Quintal and others at Cacique de Ramos: the tan-tan - a more dynamic surdo; the banjo (samba) (with the same dimensions and tuning as the cavaquinho); and the repique de mão ("ringing of the hands") - an instrument derived from the repique de anel, based on the samba enredo repiniques, and commonly used for percussive turnarounds. Usually sung by one singer and accompanied by cavaco, violão and at least one pandeiro, pagode is sung at most parties and informal meetings, being universally found at open-air bars and cafés. Lyrics are playful, usually around love engagement or some funny stunt. Pagode is a Brazilian style of music which originated in the Rio de Janeiro region as a subgenre of Samba. ... Grupo Fundo de Quintal or simply Fundo de Quintal (stands roughly for Back of the Yard Group) is the name of an influential samba group and movement which appeared in Rio de Janeiro at the end of the 1970s. ... Tan-Tan is a city in Morocco, in Province de Tan-Tan. ... Surdo drums in use The Surdo is a large bass drum used in many kinds of Brazilian music, most notably samba. ... The banjo is a brazilian instrument which is derived from the cavaquinho, especially associated with a samba subgenre called pagode. ... The cavaquinho is a small string instrument (like the ukulele) of the European guitar family with four wires or gut strings. ... The cavaquinho is a small string instrument (like the ukulele) of the European guitar family with four wires or gut strings. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... The pandeiro (pronounced: IPA: ), is a type of hand frame drum. ...


Famous pagode artists include Grupo Fundo de Quintal, Leci Brandão, Jorge Aragão, Almir Guineto and Zeca Pagodinho. Grupo Fundo de Quintal or simply Fundo de Quintal (stands roughly for Back of the Yard Group) is the name of an influential samba group and movement which appeared in Rio de Janeiro at the end of the 1970s. ... Leci Brandão or Leci Brandão da Silva, born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on September 12th, 1944 - (living/2006), is a known Brazilian singer and composer of Brazilian Popular Music (Música Popular Brasileira or MPB). ... Jorge Aragão performing alongside Leci Brandão in Pompano Beach, Florida Jorge Aragão (b. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zeca Pagodinho performing Zeca Pagodinho (b. ...


Pagode Romântico

This is a newer manifestation of pagode, that keep the same rhythm of the traditional Pagode but includes a little of romantic melody, often frowned upon by the most serious sambistas, and considered to have started gaining force in São Paulo. It has strong use of what many consider apelative love lyrics, and the way of singing changed to a more delicate, sensually appealing tone, although artists who perform these songs sometimes sing some more traditional sambas in between too.[4] It became very popular among lower classes and somewhat popular among the urban middle classes in Brazil. In the new millennium also neo-pagode has diminished in popularity, though it still receives some airplay. Today both styles of Pagode are popular together.
Famous artists associated with pagode romântico include Exaltasamba, Raça Negra, Katinguelê, Turma do Pagode, Karametade and Kiloucura.[4]

This article is about the city. ...

Neo-pagode

The now umbrella term pagode is also used to label a derivative developed in the northeastern state of Bahia in the 90s. This newer music uses either stronger sexually appealing lyrics or childish lyrics. Some groups were considered a sign of decadence for brazilian music by many.[citation needed] This third style presents some other influences such as Samba duro, Samba-de-roda,.
Famous neo-pagode artists include: É o Tchan, Gera Samba, Harmonia do Samba, Swing e Simpatia, Terra Samba.

Capital (and largest city) Salvador Demonym Baiano Government  -  Governor Jacques Wagner  -  Vice Governor Edmundo Pereira Santos Area  -  Total 564. ... É o Tchan is a popular axé music group from Bahia, Brasil. ...

Samba de breque

A now defunct type of samba that had as a distinctive feature being interpolated with spoken parts, often dialogues. Singers had to have an excellent vocal gift, as well as ability to make different voices. Lyrics usually told stories and were funny. Breque does not mean "to break": it was the old Brazilian slang for "brake" because the songs featured many "stops". This article is about the vehicle component. ...


Famous artists: Moreira da Silva


Samba-canção

Main article: Samba-canção

Radio-friendly romantic and slower variation of the rhythm, samba-canção was mostly the Brazilian counterpart to popular Latin American rhythms like Tango or Bolero, both very popular in Brazil until the 1960s. This style of samba also received a lot the influences of American Ballad from 1950 to 1990. Themes ranged from lyrical to tragical. Samba-canção is a kind of slow samba music from Brazil. ... Tango is a style of music that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay. ... Lineart drawing of a man dancing the Bolero, with castanets For other uses, see Bolero (disambiguation). ...


Famous artists: Ângela Maria, Maysa, Nélson Gonçalves, Cauby Peixoto, Lindomar Castilho, Jamelão and Agnaldo Rayol. Maysa Figueira Monjardim (born June 6, 1936 in São Paulo; died January 22, 1977) was a singer, composer, and actress from Brazil. ... José Bispo Clementino dos Santos (born May 12, 1913 in Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian samba singer known as Jamelão. ...


Samba-enredo

Main article: Samba-enredo

A samba-enredo is a song performed by a samba school in Rio de Janeiro during its yearly Carnival parade. The term also refers to particular style of samba music typical of such songs. Samba-enredo is well known internationally due to Rio de Janeiro's longstanding status as a major tourist destination during Carnival and to the fact that many percussion groups have formed around the world inspired by this type of samba. A samba-enredo is a song that is sung by a samba school (or escola de samba) for the festivies of Carnaval. ... A samba-enredo is a song that is sung by a samba school (or escola de samba) for the festivies of Carnaval. ... The samba schools are samba clubs that started in the early part of the 20th century in Rio de Janeiro Brazil. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... For other uses, see Carnival (disambiguation). ...


Sambas-enredo are recorded and played on the radio during the period leading up to Carnival. They are generally performed by male vocalists accompanied by cavaquinho and a large bateria (percussion group) producing a dense, complex texture known as batucada. They heavily emphasize the second count of the measure driven by the bass notes of the surdo drums. The cavaquinho is a small string instrument (like the ukulele) of the European guitar family with four wires or gut strings. ... Mestre Cobra Mansa leading a Capoeira bateria. ... Batucada is a substyle of samba and refers to an African influenced Brazilian percussive style, usually performed by an ensemble. ... Surdo drums in use The Surdo is a large bass drum used in many kinds of Brazilian music, most notably samba. ...


Rio de Janeiro's baterias have provided inspiration for the formation of percussion groups around the world, especially in Western countries. These groups generally do not use vocals or cavaquinho, focusing instead on percussion grooves and numerous breaks. These groups operate year round, unlike in Brazil where activity is now confined to the months preceding Carnaval. Mestre Cobra Mansa leading a Capoeira bateria. ...


Samba-enredo used to be played year round, though often as an exercise on virtuosity.


Famous artists: Neguinho da Beija Flor, Jamelão, Martinho da Vila. José Bispo Clementino dos Santos (born May 12, 1913 in Rio de Janeiro) is a Brazilian samba singer known as Jamelão. ... Martinho da Vila (b. ...


Samba de Gafieira

See also: Samba dance and Gafieira dance style.

Samba de Gafieira is a lively, big band-influenced dance jazz of the pre-bossa nova nightclubs, and is one of Brazil's least well-known styles because it was eclipsed by the suave glamour of the bossa crowd and the various waves of rock and samba crossovers that followed. Gafieiras were dancehalls, homes to dancers and dance bands, and (in the best Brazilian tradition) many of the best bandleaders, such as Severino Araujo, Radames Gnattali and Zacharias, drew on many sources to craft their music. They played the kinetic frevo and choro styles, incorporated the muscularity and elegance of North American swing, and eventually gave in to the wave of mellower pop instrumentals and vocal music of the so-called "radio singers" era. For the modern ballroom Samba, see Samba (ballroom). ...


Other variants

  • Bossa nova ("new beat") is essentially a type of samba, played with jazz instruments and sung with softer voices.
  • Samba-Reggae, also known is a new poppish type of samba from Bahia (from 2001 onwards). The rhythm is influenced by Reggaeton, Calypso and Latin melodies.
  • Samba de Roda is a ritual dance preserved in some Bahian towns. It usually refers to Samba being performed in a Capoeira roda (roda refers to the formation of the capoeiristas (capoeira players) in a circle)
  • Samba-exaltação ("Exaltation Samba") is a subgenre inaugurated by Ary Barroso's popular song "Aquarela do Brasil".

For other uses, see Bossa nova (disambiguation). ... Samba reggae is kind of music from Brazil. ... Reggaeton (also spelled Reggaetón, and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of urban music which became popular with Latin American youth during the early 1990s and spread over the course of 10 years to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences. ... Calypso might refer to one of several things: Calypso is the name of a sea nymph in Greek mythology; Calypso music is a style of Caribbean folk music; Calypso is the name of an album sung by Harry Belafonte; Calypso is the name of a moon of Saturn; 53 Kalypso... Samba is the most famous of the various forms of music arising from the amalgam of African and Portuguese music in Brazil. ... Capoeira (IPA: ,Tupi-Guarani word for - clear area) is a Brazilian blend of martial art, game, and dance originated in Brazil, from the regions known as Bahia, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo. ... Ary Barroso (born November 7, 1903 in Ubá, Minas Gerais and died February 9, 1964 in Rio de Janeiro) was a Brazilian composer. ... Aquarela do Brasil (Watercolor of Brazil), also known in the English-speaking countries simply as Brazil, is one of the most popular Brazilian songs of all times, written by Ary Barroso on a rainy night in 1939. ...

Other forms

Many Brazilian singers eventually recorded samba, though they were not faithful to the original character of the genre. Jorge Ben Jor for instance mixed samba with rock, funk and jazz and composed songs dealing with unusual themes, like esotherism ("Os Alquimistas Estão Chegando" -- The Alchemists are Coming) or history of India ("Taj Mahal"). Jorge Ben Jor is a Brazilian popular musician, born in Rio de Janeiro on March 22, 1942 (some sources say 1940). ...


See also

Choro, also called chorinho, is a Brazilian popular music style. ... Noel de Medeiros Rosa (Rio de Janeiro, 11 December 1910 - 4 May 1937) was a brazilian singer, composer and guitar/banjo player. ... A samba-enredo is a song that is sung by a samba school (or escola de samba) for the festivies of Carnaval. ... Samba-rock - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Carmen Miranda, pron. ... Adoniran Barbosa, (6 July 1912 - 23 November 1982), was a famous brazilian singer and composer. ... This is a list of English language words that come from any of the sub-Saharan African languages. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ Gerard Béhague, Samba, <http://www.grovemusic.com> 
  2. ^ a b cliquemusic.uol.com.br - Samba
  3. ^ Motta, Nelson (2001). Noites tropicais. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 461. ISBN. 
  4. ^ a b c cliquemusic.uol.com.br - Pagode
  5. ^ The Local and the Global in Brazilian Popular Music )." Latin American Music Review 27, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2006).
  6. ^ R.J.'s Gringo Guides, "The Roots of Racism in Samba in Brazil", retrieved 14 Feb 2008.
  7. ^ Behague, Gerard. "Rap, Reggae, Rock, or Samba: The Local and the Global in Brazilian Popular Music )." Latin American Music Review 27, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2006).
  8. ^ Almeida da Anunciação, Luiz. A Percussão dos Ritmos Brasileiros - Sua Técnica e Sua Escrita - Caderno 2 - O Pandeiro Estilo Brasileiro. Rio de Janeiro: EBM/Europa, 106. 
  • The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova and the Popular Music of Brazil. by McGowan, Chris and Pessanha, Ricardo. 2nd edition. Temple University Press. 1998.
  • Samba On Your Feet [3] documentary by Eduardo Montes-Bradley on the history of samba in Brazil with particular emphasis in Rio de Janeiro. The film is in Portuguese with English subtitles and aproaches the subject from an interesting perspective.

February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

External links

  • Brazilian Beats Fansite for Brazilian Beats Series of classic and modern Samba Fusions
  • All Brazilian Music samba page
  • One of the first formal samba definition (1997)
  • Loronix promotes forgotten music not commercially available.
  • Dance Samba Spain (Madrid) - www.andreabrasilmadrid.es.
  • Samba from the Favelas, some podcasts from 'RadioFavela - The Sound of Rio'
Lusophone countries music
Angola | Brazil | Cape Verde | East Timor | Guinea-Bissau | Macau | Malaysia | Mozambique | Portugal | São Tomé and Príncipe | Sri Lanka
São Tomé and Príncipe is an island country off the coast of Africa. ...

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