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Encyclopedia > Samarkand

Coordinates: 39°39′15″N, 66°57′35″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Samarkand – Crossroads of Culturea
UNESCO World Heritage Site
A sitting man enjoying the scene of the Registan
State Party Flag of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv
Identification #603
Regionb Asia-Pacific

Inscription History UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (1080 × 720 pixel, file size: 150 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Samarkand Metadata This... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, Australia and the Pacific (Australasia). ...

Formal Inscription: 2001
25th Session

a Name as officially inscribed on the WH List
b As classified officially by UNESCO
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: سمرقند‎ , Uzbek: Samarqand, Самарқанд, Russian: Самарканд), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. Despite its status as the second city of Uzbekistan, the majority of the city's inhabitants are Persian-speaking Tajiks. The city is most noted for its central position on the Asian Silk Road between China and the west. Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Samarqand Province (Samarkand Province) (Uzbek: Samarqand viloyati/ Самарқанд вилояти) is an administration division, or viloyati of Uzbekistan located in the center of the country in the basin of Zarafshan River. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... This article is about the Central Asian Persians known as Tajiks. ... The Silk Road. ...


It is located at latitude 39° 39' 15, longitude 66° 57' 35E, at an altitude of 702 meters. In 2001, after several abortive attempts, UNESCO inscribed the 2700-year-old city on the World Heritage List as Samarkand - Crossroads of Cultures. 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...

Contents

Etymology

A minaret in Samarkand.
A minaret in Samarkand.
Downtown Samarkand with Bibi Khanym mosque.
Downtown Samarkand with Bibi Khanym mosque.

The name Samarkand is derived from the Sanskrit term Samara Khanda which literally means "region of war".[1] In Greek it was known as Marakanda. In Sogdian, the native local Iranian language in pre-Islamic times, kanθ means town, which is derived from Old Persian kanda, meaning a town or a region. They are found in city names like Tashkent (Taksha Khanda), Yarkand, Penjikent etc. Names of countries in the neighborhood like Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan (Turkestan) end with stan which also traces its etymology to Sanskrit and Old Persian sthana (place). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1764, 368 KB) Summary A minaret in Samarkand. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1764, 368 KB) Summary A minaret in Samarkand. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Tashkent Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: , English: ) is the current capital of Uzbekistan and also of Tashkent Province. ... Yarkand or Yecheng (modern Chinese name 叶城, pinyin: Yèchéng, also Chokkuka, anciently Suoju 莎車, also written Shache and Suoche; alt. ... Panjakent (also spelled Panjikent or Panjekent; Пенджикент in Russian) is a city in the Sughd province of Tajikistan on the Zeravshan river - population 33,000 (2000 census). ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ...


History

Samarkand is one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world, prospering from its location on the (Silk Road) trade route between China and Europe. At times Samarkand has been the greatest city of Central Asia. Founded circa 700 BC it was already the capital of the Sogdian satrapy under the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia when Alexander the Great conquered it in 329 BC (see Afrasiab, Sogdiana). Although an Iranian-speaking region, it was not united politically with Iran from Alexander and his generals to the Arab conquest. This is a list of the oldest, still surviving, towns and cities in the world. ... The Silk Road. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC 330 BC - 329 BC - 328 BC 327 BC 326... Afrasiab, near Samarkand, Uzbekistan is both a historical city and its legendary founder. ... Sogdiana, ca. ...


Under Abbasid rule, the secret of papermaking was obtained from two Chinese prisoners from the Battle of Talas in 751, which led to the first paper mill in the Islamic world to be founded in Samarkand. The invention then spread to the rest of the Islamic world, and from there to Europe (either through Spain or through crusaders). Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, Abbāsīyūn) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Chinese court official Cai Lun achieved a break-through improvement in papermaking process. ... This article contains translated text and needs attention from someone approaching dual fluency. ... International Paper Companys Kraft paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. ...


From the 6th to 13th centuries it grew larger and more populous than modern Samarkand and was controlled by the Western Turks, Arabs (who converted the area to Islam), Persian Samanids, Kara-Khanid Turks, Seljuk Turks, Kara-Khitan, and Khorezmshah before being sacked by the Mongols in 1220. A small part of the population survived, but Samarkand suffered at least another Mongol sack by Khan Baraq to get treasure he needed to pay an army with. The town took many decades to recover from these disasters. The Western Turkic Khaganate, was formed after the internecine wars in the beginning of the 7th century (600-603 AD) when the Göktürk Khaganate (founded in the 6th century in Northern Mongolia by the Ashina clan) broke into two pieces – Eastern and Western. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎); is a member of a Non-Semetic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... The Kara-Khitan Khanate (Simplified Chinese: 西辽; Traditional Chinese: 西遼; pinyin: XÄ« Liaó) (1124 or 1125-1218), also known as Western Liao was established by Yelü Dashi (耶律大石) who led around 100,000 Khitan remnants after escaping Jurchen conquest of their native country, the Khitan dynasty (also known as Liao Dynasty). ... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim state formed by Oghuz Turks in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope...


In 1370, Timur the Lame, or Tamerlane, decided to make Samarkand the capital of his projected world empire, which extended from India to Turkey. For the next 35 years, he built a new city, populating it with artisans and craftsmen from all of the places he had captured. Timur gained a reputation for wisdom and generosity, and Samarkand grew to become the center of the region of Transoxiana. Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - Tēmōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ...


In the 16th century, Shaybanids moved their capital to Bukhara, and Samarkand went into decline. After an assault by the Persian king, Nadir Shah, the city was abandoned in the 18th century. The Shaybanid dynasty was a 16th century Uzbek dynasty founded by Muhammad Shaybani. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: ‎, Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid...


In 1868, the city came under Russian rule, when the citadel was stormed by a force under Colonel Alexander Abramov (1836-1886). Shortly thereafter the small Russian garrison of 500 men were themselves besieged. The assault was led by Abdul Malik Tura, the rebellious elder son of the Bukharan Emir, together with the Bek of Shahrisabz, and the attack was beaten off with heavy losses. Abramov, now a general, became the first Governor of the Military Okrug which the Russians established along the course of the River Zeravshan, of which Samarkand was the administrative centre. It later became the capital of the Samarkand Oblast of Russian Turkestan, and grew in importance still further when the Trans-Caspian railway reached the city in 1888. It became the capital of the Uzbek SSR in 1925 before being replaced by Tashkent in 1930. 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Major General A.K. Abramov, Commander of Zeravshan District Alexander Konstantinovich Abramov (Russian: )(1836-1886) was a Russian general. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... Beck Hansen (born Bek David Campbell, July 8, 1970) is an American musician and songwriter. ... Shahrisabz or Shahr-e Sabz (from the Persian meaning green city), also known as Kesh, is a city in Uzbekistan approximately 50 mi. ... Okrug is a term to denote administrative subdivision in some Slavic states. ... The Zeravshan or Zarafshan river, whilst smaller and less well-known than the two great rivers of Central Asia, the Oxus or Amu-Darya and the Jaxartes or Syr-Darya, is if anything more valuable as a source of irrigation in the region. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... Russian Turkestan (Russian: Ру́сский Туркеста́н), also known as Turkestansky Krai (Туркеста́нский край), was a subdivision (Krai or Governor... The Trans-Caspian railway (later called the Central Asiatic Railway) is a railway that follows the path of the Silk Road through much of western Central Asia. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Tashkent Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: , English: ) is the current capital of Uzbekistan and also of Tashkent Province. ...


Major Sights

Registan

Main article: Registan
Registan is the ensemble of three madrasahs.
Registan is the ensemble of three madrasahs.

One of the most awesome sights in Central Asia, if not one of the most remarkable in the world, the Registan was the center of medieval Samarkand. It consists of three huge madrassas, forming three sides surrounding a huge square. Categories: Central Asia geography stubs | Buildings and structures in Uzbekistan ... Image File history File linksMetadata Registan_sunset. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Registan_sunset. ... Madrassa in the Gambia The word madrassa in the Arabic language (and other languages of the Islamic nations such as Persian, Turkish, Indonesian etc. ...

  • Ulugh Beg Madrassa on the west was finished in 1420 under Ulugh Beg himself, and contains mosaics with astronomical themes. About 100 students were taught the sciences, astronomy, and philosophy in addition to theology.
  • Sherdar Madrassa on the east was completed in 1636 by the Shaybanid Emir Yalangtush as a mirror image of Ulugh Beg Madrassa, except with decoration of roaring lions.
  • Tilla-Kari Madrassa in between was completed in 1660, with a golden decoration and with a pleasant courtyard.

Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ... Ulugh Beg, here depicted on a Soviet stamp, was one of Islams greatest astronomers during the Middle Ages. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... This article is 58 kilobytes or more in size. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Events February 24 - King Christian of Denmark gives an order that all beggars that are able to work must be sent to Brinholmen Island to build ships or as galley rowers March 26 - Utrecht University founded in The Netherlands. ... The Shaybanid dynasty was a 16th century Uzbek dynasty founded by Muhammad Shaybani. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ...

Bibi-Khanym Mosque

Main article: Bibi-Khanym Mosque

Some argue that this gigantic ruined mosque was built by Timur's Mongol wife, Bibi-Khanym, while Timur was away campaigning. They claim that Bibi-Khanym was from India. According to one of the legends, the architect fell madly in love with her, and refused to complete the job unless she agreed to kiss him. The kiss left a mark, and the outraged Timur ordered both killed. There is no trustworthy source which mentions a wife of Timur who was known by the name 'Bibi-Khanym' (which literally means 'womens-woman or queen of all women' in Persian. Timur's senior wife, a powerful old woman called Saray-mulk-Khanum, in honour of whom the mosque was named, does not call to mind the beautiful heroine of charming fairy tale. The cupola of the main chamber is raised up to 40 m. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - Tēmōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


In any event, the mosque, with its main gate over 35 meters tall, is one of the largest and most grandiose buildings in Samarkand. It mostly collapsed in an earthquake in 1897, but it has now been heavily restored by the USSR Government, obliterating what was left of the original tilework. 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Shah-i-Zinda

Main article: Shah-i-Zinda

Perhaps the most beautiful of Samarkand’s sights is the “Tomb of the Living King". The complex is based on the grave of Qusam ibn Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad, who brought Islam to this area. His shrine is one of the oldest buildings in Samarkand. The approach to the tomb is a vast necropolis built on the ruins of the ancient Sogdian city. The major tombs belong to Timur and Ulugh Beg’s extended family and favorites, and are covered in fantastic majolica tile work. Shah-i-Zinda (شاه زنده in Persian meaning The Living King) is the mausoleums of the Timurid cemetery in the Registan quarter in Samarkand (todays Uzbekistan). ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... Majolica is earthenware with a white tin glaze, decorated by applying colorants on the raw glazed surface. ...


Gur-e Amir Mausoleum

After the death of his grandson Muhammad-Sultan in 1403 Timur ordered the mausoleum built for him. With time, the Gur-e Amir became the family mausoleum of the Timurid dynasty. See main article at Gur-e Amir Events July 21 - Battle of Shrewsbury. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - Tēmōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405... Timurs mausoleum Gur-e Amir at Samarkand Gur-e Amir is the mausoleum of the Asian conqueror Timur in Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan). ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... Timurs mausoleum Gur-e Amir at Samarkand Gur-e Amir is the mausoleum of the Asian conqueror Timur in Samarkand (now in Uzbekistan). ...

Statue of Timur in Samarkand, Uzbekistan
Statue of Timur in Samarkand, Uzbekistan

From http://www. ... From http://www. ...

Main Bazaar

Extending around and behind Bibi Khanym Mosque, things have been unchanged for centuries.


The Ruins of Afrasiab

Northeast of the Main Bazaar is the 2.2 sq km archaeological site of ancient Samarkand (Marakanda) or Afrasiab, mostly exposed to the elements. The Afrasiab Museum has some 7th century Sogdian frescos. Of note is the purported tomb of Daniel, the Old Testament prophet. The restored building is a long, low structure with five domes, containing an immense 18-meter long sarcophagus. According to legend, Daniel’s body grows by half an inch per year, thus the long tomb. Afrasiab, near Samarkand, Uzbekistan is both a historical city and its legendary founder. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... Daniel (Hebrew: דָּנִיֵּאל; transliterated as Daniyyel in Standard Hebrew and Dāniyyêl in Tiberian Hebrew, Arabic: Danyal, دانيال) is the name of at least three people from the Hebrew Bible: A Jewish exile in Babylon, the subject of the Book of Daniel and the most well-known of the three Daniels. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ...


Ulugh Beg Observatory

Ulugh Beg was probably more famous as an astronomer than a ruler. His works on astronomy were known even in Europe. In the 1420s, he built an immense, 3-story tall sextant, one of the largest ever constructed, in order to measure the positions of the stars with unprecedented accuracy. The ruins were unearthed in 1908. Ulugh Beg, here depicted on a Soviet stamp, was one of Islams greatest astronomers during the Middle Ages. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... Events and Trends Categories: 1420s ... A sextant is a measuring instrument generally used to measure the angle of elevation of a celestial object above the horizon. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


State Museum

This crumbling and largely ignored museum contains serious exhibitions on local archaeology, history, and folk crafts.


Notable People born in Samarkand

Mulla Abdulkarim Sipandi Samarqandi (1829-1909) famous bilingual poet. ...

In fiction

  • Samarkand can appear as an archetype of romantic exoticism, notably in the work by James Elroy Flecker: The Golden Journey to Samarkand.
  • Samarkand is one of the cities Audre Lorde describes visiting in her collection of essays and speeches, Sister Outsider.
  • In the science fiction setting of BattleTech, there is a human-populated world named New Samarkand.
  • Angela Carter's short story The Kiss discusses the legend of Tamburlaine's mosque in Samarkand.
  • In Islamic literature and discussions, Samarkand has taken on a semi-mythological status and is often cited as an ideal of Islamic philosophy and society, a place of justice, fairness, and righteous moderation.
  • For part of the history espoused in Clive Barker's Galilee, the city of Samarkand is held as a shining light of humanity, and one of the characters longs to go there.
  • Nigerian writer Wole Soyinka, winner of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Literature, explores the metaphysical significance of the marketplace in a volume of poetry entitle, Samarkand and Other Markets I Have Known, 2002.
  • Robert E. Howard wrote a short story in 1932 for Oriental Stories titled "Lord of Samarkand."
  • The city of Zanarkand in the video game Final Fantasy X may be inspired by Samarkand, both in its name and its status as a beacon of civilization.
  • In the American film classic It's a Wonderful Life, the character George Bailey (played by James Stewart) shops for a suitcase, saying, "I want something for a thousand and one nights, with plenty of room for labels from Italy and Baghdad, Samarkand... a great big one."
  • In Fitzroy MacLean's 'Eastern Approaches'

Louis Cha or Zha Liangyong (sometimes Cha Leung Yung), OBE (born June 6, 1924), known to most by his penname Jinyong (Jin Yong) or Kam-yung (Cantonese), is one of the most influential modern Chinese-language novelists who is also the co-founder of the Hong Kong daily Ming Pao. ... The Legend of Condor Heroes (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the most acclaimed wuxia novel by Jinyong, first published in 1957 in Hong Kong Commercial Daily. ... The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (كتاب ألف ليلة و ليلة in Arabic or هزار و یک شب in Persian), also known as The book of a Thousand Nights and a Night... James Elroy Flecker (November 5, 1884- January 3, 1915) was an English poet, novelist and playwright. ... Amin Maalouf (Arabic: ; born (25 February 1949 in Beirut) is a Lebanese author. ... Omar Khayyám, (Persian: عمر خیام, born: May 31, 1048 in Nishapur, Iran (Persia) – died: December 4, 1131), was a Persian poet, mathematician, philosopher and astronomer. ... Audre Geraldine Lorde (February 18, 1934 in Harlem, New York City - November 17, 1992) was a writer and an activist. ... Kim Stanley Robinson at the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Kim Stanley Robinson (born March 23, 1952) is an American science fiction writer, probably best known for his award-winning Mars trilogy. ... The Years of Rice and Salt (2002, ISBN 0553580078) is an alternate history novel written by science fiction author Kim Stanley Robinson, a thought experiment about a world without Christianity. ... BattleTech is a wargaming and science fiction franchise, launched by FASA Corporation and currently owned by WizKids. ... Once Upon a Mattress is a critically-acclaimed musical comedy that opened on Broadway on May 11, 1959 and ran for 460 performances. ... Angela Carter (May 7, 1940 – February 16, 1992) was an English novelist and journalist, known for her post-feminist magical realist and science fiction works. ... Clive Barker (born October 5, 1952) is an English author, film director and visual artist. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Edith Wharton (January 24, 1862 – August 11, 1937) was an American novelist, short story writer, and designer. ... The Age of Innocence is a 1920 novel by Edith Wharton which won the 1921 Pulitzer Prize. ... The Amulet of Samarkand is the first book in the Bartimaeus Trilogy written by Jonathan Stroud. ... The Bartimaeus Trilogy is a fantasy series by Jonathan Stroud and was published as a series of three novels between 2003 and 2006. ... Jonathan Stroud Jonathan Anthony Stroud (27 October 1970, Bedford, England) is an author of fantasy books, mainly for children and youths. ... Akinwande Oluwole Wole Soyinka (born 13 July 1934) is a Nigerian writer, poet and playwright. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906 – June 11, 1936)[1] was a classic American pulp writer of fantasy, horror, historical adventure, boxing, western, and detective fiction. ... // Spira ) is the world in which the role-playing games Final Fantasy X and Final Fantasy X-2 take place. ... Final Fantasy X ) is a console role-playing game developed and published by Square Co. ...

Non-fiction

  • In The Travels, of Marco Polo, where Polo records his journey along the Silk Roads, Samarkand is described as a "a very large and splendid city..." Here also is related the story of Christian church in Samarkand, which miraculously remained standing after a portion of its central supporting column was removed.
  • Murder in Samarkand by Craig Murray is a book about the UK Ambassador to Uzbekistan's experiences in this role, until he was fired in October 2004.
  • See No Evil by Robert Baer is an autobiography about the author's experiences working for the CIA, at one point visiting Samarkand while serving in Tajikstan in the early 1990's.
  • Robert D. Kaplan's 1996 political travelogue The Ends Of The Earth has him traversing through a number of places in Africa, Europe, and Asia. In that book, one of the countries is Uzbekistan, and Samarkand is one of the places in Uzbekistan he visits, along with a young translator whose namesake is Ulug Beg.

A page of The Travels of Marco Polo The Travels of Marco Polo is the usual English title of Marco Polos travel book, Il Milione. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... Deconstructing a Roman pillar. ... Craig Murray (born October, 1958)[1] is a writer and broadcaster[1] and was the United Kingdoms Ambassador to Uzbekistan. ... See No Evil: The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIAs War Against Terrorism is a 2003 memoir by Robert Baer, a former CIA operative. ... Robert Baer, also known as Bob Baer (born July 1, 1952), is an author and former case officer at the CIA. Reared in Aspen, Colorado, Robert Baer aspired to become a professional skier. ... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ... The Republic of Tajikistan (Тоҷикистон), formerly known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, is a country in Central Asia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ulugh Beg, here depicted on a Soviet stamp, was one of Islams greatest astronomers during the Middle Ages. ...

Trivia

  • In 1943, a United States Liberty ship named the SS Peter Cooper was launched. It was renamed the SS Samarkand after being loaned to the British. In 1971 the ship was scrapped.
  • In Minehead, a seaside town in Somerset, England, there is a giftshop on the Avenue which has taken the name 'Samarkand'.
  • In NOIDA, an industrial township in India, a popular multi-cuisine restaurant is named 'Samarkand'.
  • In Bangalore, a popular Afghani restaurant is named 'Samarkand'. This restaurant serves ethnic Samarkhand food in an ethinic Samarkhand environment. The restaurant is located in Infantry Road.
  • The Bookshop Sketch featured in ITVs 'At Last the 1948 Show' refers to a fictional book called "Thirty Days In the Samarkand Desert with a Spoon", by A.E.J. Elliott. The sketch was used also in Monty Python’s Flying Circus, where the book was referred to as "Thirty Days in the Samarkand Desert with the Duchess of Kent" by A. E. J. Elliott, O.B.E.

1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... The Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. ... The SS Samarkand (Hull Number 1769, launched as the SS Peter Cooper) was a Liberty ship built in the United States during World War II. Originally named after Peter Cooper, an American industrialist, inventor and philanthropist, the ship was laid down by Alabama Drydock & Shipbuilding Company on July 24, 1943... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... Minehead is a coastal town in West Somerset, England with a population of around 10,000. ... Somerset is a county in the south-west of England. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... For Greater Noida see Greater Noida This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bangalore (renamed as Bengaluru) (Kannada: ; pronunciation: in Kannada and in English) is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. ... At Last the 1948 Show was a satirical TV show made by David Frosts Paradine Productions (although they werent credited on the actual programmes) in association with Rediffusion London for Britains ITV network during 1967, bringing Cambridge Footlights type-humour to a broader audience. ... This article discusses the series itself. ...

Sister cities

These cities were major cities of Greater Khorasan: Nader Afshars tomb in Mashad. ...

Other sister cities: Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ... Merv – Persian name: مرو; formerly Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana (Greek: Αντιόχεια η Μαργιανή) – in current-day Turkmenistan, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near todays Mary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: ‎, Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Pasaport Quays view from Konak Pier Ä°zmir (Ottoman Turkish: إزمير Ä°zmir, Greek: Σμύρνη SmýrnÄ“, Armenian: Ô»Õ¦Õ´Õ«Ö€ Izmir, Italian: Smirne, Ladino: Izmir, without the Turkish dotted I) is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coordinates: County Thurston County Incorporated January 28, 1859  - Mayor Mark Foutch Area    - City 48. ...

See also

IATA CODE: SKD Samarkand Airport Airlines and destinations Uzbekistan Airways - (Saint Petersburg, Tashkent, Moscow (Domodedovo Airport), Kazan) Domodedovo Airlines Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise - (Saint Petersburg) Categories: ...

Photo gallery

External links

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Samarkand

  Results from FactBites:
 
Malika Samarkand Hotel – Member of Malika Hotels in Samarkand (239 words)
Samarkand is situated in the valley of the river Zarafshan.
The history of Samarkand is about 2,500 years old and has witnessed a lot of upheavals during the times of Alexander the Great, the Arabic Conquest, Genghis-Khan Conquest and lastly Tamerlane's.
Hence, the culture of Samarkand was developed and mixed together with the Iranian, Indian, Mongolian and a bit of the Western and Eastern cultures.
Facts about Samarkand (471 words)
Samarkand is considered to be one of the ancient cities of the world.
In 1925, Samarkand was proclaimed the capital of the Uzbek SSR.
However, the city of Samarkand is unrivalled in the richness and diversity of its architectural and historical heritage in the whole of Central Asia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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