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Encyclopedia > Samarium
62 promethiumsamariumeuropium
-

Sm

Pu
General
Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62
Chemical series lanthanides
Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f
Appearance silvery white
Atomic mass 150.36(2) g/mol
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f6 6s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 24, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.52 g/cm³
Liquid density at m.p. 7.16 g/cm³
Melting point 1345 K
(1072 °C, 1962 °F)
Boiling point 2067 K
(1794 °C, 3261 °F)
Heat of fusion 8.62 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 165 kJ/mol
Heat capacity (25 °C) 29.54 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1001 1106 1240 (1421) (1675) (2061)
Atomic properties
Crystal structure rhombohedral
Oxidation states 3
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.17 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 544.5 kJ/mol
2nd: 1070 kJ/mol
3rd: 2260 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 185 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 238 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering antiferromagnetic
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly) 0.940 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 13.3 W/(m·K)
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly)
12.7 µm/(m·K)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 2130 m/s
Young's modulus (α form) 49.7 GPa
Shear modulus (α form) 19.5 GPa
Bulk modulus (α form) 37.8 GPa
Poisson ratio (α form) 0.274
Vickers hardness 412 MPa
Brinell hardness 441 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-19-9
Notable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of samarium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
144Sm 3.07% Sm is stable with 82 neutrons
146Sm syn 1.03×108y α 2.529 142Nd
147Sm 14.99% 1.06×1011y α 2.310 143Nd
148Sm 11.24% 7×1015y α 1.986 144Nd
149Sm 13.82% >2×1015 y α 1.870 145Nd
150Sm 7.38% Sm is stable with 88 neutrons
152Sm 26.75% Sm is stable with 90 neutrons
154Sm 22.75% Sm is stable with 92 neutrons
References

Samarium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Sm and atomic number 62. General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number europium, Eu, 63 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 151. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Image File history File links Sm-TableImage. ... For information about the period table of elements, see Periodic table. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... Categories: Chemical elements ... sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex sex... The lanthanide series comprises the 15 elements from lanthanum to lutetium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 57 through 71. ... A periodic table group is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... 6 *Lanthanides 7 **Actinides IUPAC has not recommended a specific format for the periodic table, so different conventions are permitted and are often used for the group number of lanthanides and actinides. ... A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the Lanthanides. ... The f-block of the periodic table of elements consists of those elements for which, in the atomic ground state, the highest-energy electrons occupy f-orbitals. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Samarium sample. ... The atomic mass of a chemical element (also known as the relative atomic mass or average atomic mass or atomic weight) is the average atomic mass of all the chemical elements isotopes as found in a particular environment, weighted by isotopic abundance. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule or other body. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 131. ... Properties The electron is a lightweight fundamental subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge. ... A quantum mechanical system can only be in certain states, so that only certain energy levels are possible. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... In jewelry, a solid gold piece is the alternative to gold-filled or gold-plated jewelry. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (69-73 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is the SI unit of temperature, and is one of the seven SI base units. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is the SI unit of temperature, and is one of the seven SI base units. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... The standard enthalpy change of fusion, also known as the heat of fusion, is the amount of thermal energy which must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change states from a solid to a liquid or vice versa. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Rose des Sables (Sand Rose), formed of gypsum crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In chemical nomenclature, the oxidation number (formerly known as the Stock number) of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would bear if all the ligands were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom. ... It has been suggested that strong base be merged into this article or section. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the attraction that an atom has for the bonding pair of electrons in a covalent bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... The atomic radius is the distance from the atomic nucleus to the outmost stable electron orbital in an atom that is at equilibrium. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Picometre (American spelling: picometer) is an SI measure of length that is equal to 10−12 of a metre. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... In physics, magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (69-73 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (69-73 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins. ... The speed of sound c (from Latin celeritas, velocity) varies depending on the medium through which the sound waves pass. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (also known as the modulus of elasticity, elastic modulus or tensile modulus) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus S, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain: S = shear stress/shear strain = (F/A)/Φ. Another commonly accepted symbol is G. Shear modulus is usually measured in ksi (kips per square... The bulk modulus K of a fluid or solid is the inverse of the compressibility: where p is pressure and V is volume. ... When a sample of material is stretched in one direction, it tends to get thinner in the other two directions. ... The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s and uses a pyramid-shaped indenter made of diamond. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Samarium (Sm) Standard atomic mass: 150. ... Isotopes are forms of an element whose nuclei have the same atomic number - the number of protons in the nucleus - but different mass numbers because they contain different numbers of neutrons. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 939. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle through the electromagnetic force and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Atomic mass 144. ... A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle through the electromagnetic force and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Atomic mass 144. ... A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle through the electromagnetic force and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Atomic mass 144. ... A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Alpha decay is a form of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus ejects an alpha particle through the electromagnetic force and transforms into a nucleus with mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Atomic mass 144. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 939. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 939. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 939. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... A chemical element, often called simply element, is a substance that cannot be divided or changed into other chemical substances by ordinary chemical methods. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. ... In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (Z) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ...

Contents


Notable characteristics

Samarium is a rare earth metal, with a bright silver luster, that is reasonably stable in air; it ignites in air at 150°C. Three crystal modifications of the metal also exist, with transformations at 734 and 922°C, respectively. A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ...


Applications

Uses of Samarium include:

  • Carbon-arc lighting for the motion picture industry (together with other rare earth metals).
  • Doping CaF2 crystals for use in optical masers or lasers.
  • As a neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.
  • For alloys and headphones.
  • Samarium-Cobalt magnets; SmCo5 is used in making a new permanent magnet material with the highest resistance to demagnetization of any known material, and an intrinsic coercive force as high as 2200 kA/m.
  • Samarium(II) iodide is used as a chemical reagent in organic synthesis, for example in the Barbier reaction.
  • Samarium oxide is used in optical glass to absorb infrared light.
  • Samarium compounds act as sensitizers for phosphors excited in the infrared.
  • Samarium oxide is a catalyst for the dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethanol.

For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... A Hydrogen RF discharge, the first element inside an Hydrogen Maser (see description below), courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech. ... Lasers range in size from microscopic diode lasers (top) with numerous applications, to football field sized neodymium glass lasers (bottom) used for inertial confinement fusion, nuclear weapons research and other high energy density physics experiments. ... Isotopes of certain elements absorb free neutrons creating higher isotopes of the same element. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Samarium-cobalt magnets (SmCo5) are composed of samarium and cobalt. ... Samarium(II) iodide (SmI2) is a green solid composed of samarium and iodine, with a melting point of 520 °C [1]. It can be formed by high temperature decomposition of SmI3 (the more stable iodide), but a convenient lab preparation is to react Sm powder with 1,2-diiodoethane in... A reagent is any substance used in a chemical reaction. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... The Barbier reaction is an organic reaction between a alkyl halide and a carbonyl group as an electrophilic substrate in the presence of aluminium, zinc, indium, tin or its salts. ... A catalyst (Greek: καταλύτης, catalytÄ“s) is a substance that accelerates the rate (speed) or ease of a chemical reaction (see also catalysis) without itself being changed at the end of the chemical reaction . ...

History

Samarium was first discovered spectroscopically in 1853 by Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac by its sharp absorption lines in didymium, and isolated in Paris in 1879 by French chemist Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran from the mineral samarskite ((Y,Ce,U,Fe)3(Nb,Ta,Ti)5O16). Like the mineral, it was named after a Russian mine official, Colonel Samarski. 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Chemist Julie Perkins of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory pours from a Florence flask. ... Jean Charles Galinard de Marignac (April 24, 1817–April 15, 1894) was a Swiss chemist whose work with atomic weights suggested the possibility of isotopes and the packing fraction of nuclei and whose study of the rare earth elements led to his discovery of ytterbium in 1878 and codiscovery of... A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ... Didymium is a mixture of the elements praseodymium and neodymium. ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, with the skyscrapers of La Défense business district 5 km/ 3 mi behind. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Paul Émile (François) Lecoq de Boisbaudran (April 18, 1838 - May 28, 1912) was a French chemist born in Cognac. ... Samarskite is a radioactive mineral with the empirical formula of Categories: Mineral stubs | Minerals ...


Biological role

Samarium has no known biological role, but is said to stimulate the metabolism. Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος (metabolismos)) is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms anggjgjhnd cell (b). ...


Occurrence

Samarium is never found free in nature, but, like other rare earth elements, is contained in many minerals, including monazite, bastnasite and samarskite; monazite (in which it occurs up to an extent of 2.8%) and bastnasite are also used as commercial sources. Misch metal containing about 1% of samarium has long been used, but it was not until recent years that relatively pure samarium has been isolated through ion exchange processes, solvent extraction techniques, and electrochemical deposition. The metal is often prepared by electrolysis of a molten mixture of samarium(III) chloride with sodium chloride or calcium chloride[1]. Samarium can also be obtained by reducing its oxide with lanthanum. Monazite powder In geology, the mineral monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate containing rare earth metals and an important source of thorium, lanthanum, and cerium. ... In geology, the mineral bastnasite is one of a family of three carbonate-fluoride minerals. ... Samarskite is a radioactive mineral with the empirical formula of Categories: Mineral stubs | Minerals ... Mischmetal (from German: Mischmetall - mixed metals) is a pyrophoric alloy of rare earth elements in various naturally occurring proportions. ... Ion exchange is a process in which ions are exchanged between a solution and an ion exchanger, an insoluble solid or gel. ... In chemistry, liquid-liquid extraction (or more briefly, solvent extraction) is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture. ... // Overview Samarium(III) chloride (SmCl3), also known as samarium trichloride, is a compound of samarium and chlorine. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula NaCl. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , RTECS number EV9800000, anhydrous EV9810000, dihydrate EV9830000, hexahydrate Supplementary data page Structure & properties n, εr, etc. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ...


Compounds

Compounds of Samarium include:

See also samarium compounds. A fluoride ion is the ionic form of fluorine. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and are also called chlorides. ... // Overview Samarium(III) chloride (SmCl3), also known as samarium trichloride, is a compound of samarium and chlorine. ... A bromide is a phrase, or person who uses phrases, which have been used and repeated so many times as to become either insincere in their meaning, or seem like an attempt at trying to explain the obvious. ... An iodide ion is an iodine atom with a −1 (negative one) charge. ... Samarium(II) iodide (SmI2) is a green solid composed of samarium and iodine, with a melting point of 520 °C [1]. It can be formed by high temperature decomposition of SmI3 (the more stable iodide), but a convenient lab preparation is to react Sm powder with 1,2-diiodoethane in... An oxide is a chemical compound of oxygen with other chemical elements. ... The term sulfide (sulphide in British) refers to several types of chemical compounds containing sulfur in its lowest oxidation number of -2. ... The selenide ion is Se2-. A selenide is a chemical compound in which selenium serves as a anion with oxidation number of -2, much as sulfur does in a sulfide. ... Telluride is either: A compound of a metal with the element Tellurium. ...


Isotopes

Naturally occurring samarium is composed of 4 stable isotopes, 144Sm, 150Sm, 152Sm and 154Sm, and 3 radioisotopes, 147Sm, 148Sm and 149Sm, with 152Sm being the most abundant (26.75% natural abundance). 32 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 148Sm with a half-life of 7x1015 years, 149Sm with a half-life of more than 2x1015 years, and 147Sm with a half-life of 1.06x1011 years. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lifes that are less than 1.04x108 years, and the majority of these have half lifes that are less than 48 seconds. This element also has 5 meta states with the most stable being 141mSm (t½ 22.6 minutes), 143m1Sm (t½ 66 seconds) and 139mSm (t½ 10.7 seconds). Isotopes are forms of an element whose nuclei have the same atomic number - the number of protons in the nucleus - but different mass numbers because they contain different numbers of neutrons. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atom caused by the excitation of a proton or neutron in its nucleus so that it requires a change in spin before it can release its extra energy. ...


The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 152Sm, is electron capture, and the primary mode after is beta minus decay. The primary decay products before 152Sm are element Pm (promethium) isotopes, and the primary products after are element Eu (europium) isotopes. In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number europium, Eu, 63 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 151. ...


Precautions

As with the other lanthanides, samarium compounds are of low to moderate toxicity, although their toxicity has not been investigated in detail. Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


References

  1. N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1984.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Samarium
Look up samarium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Samarium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (524 words)
Samarium is a rare earth metal, with a bright silver luster, that is reasonably stable in air; it ignites in air at 150°C.
Samarium oxide is a catalyst for the dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethanol.
Samarium is never found free in nature, but, like other rare earth elements, is contained in many minerals, including monazite, bastnasite and samarskite; monazite (in which it occurs up to an extent of 2.8%) and bastnasite are also used as commercial sources.
Samarium - Wikipedia (297 words)
Samarium is een scheikundig element met symbool Sm en atoomnummer 62.
Samarium is in 1853 ontdekt door de Zwitserse chemicus Jean Charles Galissard toen hij scherpe absorptiebanden aantrof bij het bekijken van het element dat toen bekend was als didymium met een spectrofotometer.
Samarium is een helder glanzend metaal dat bij standaard temperatuur en druk niet wordt aangetast door zuurstof.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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