FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Salvinorin A" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Salvinorin A
Salvinorin A
Chemical name

(2S,4aR,6aR,7R,9S,10aS,10bR)-methyl
9-acetoxy-2-(furan-3-yl)-6a,10b-
dimethyl-4,10-dioxo-dodecahydro-1H-
benzo[f]isochromene-7-carboxylate
IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ...

Chemical formula C23H28O8
Molecular mass 432.46 g/mol
Melting point 238 - 240 °C
CAS number 83729-01-5
SMILES O=C1[C@@]2([H])[C@](CC[C@]3([H])[C@]
2(C)C[C@](C4=COC=C4)([H])OC3=O)(C)
[C@H]([C@](OC)=O)C[C@@H]1OC(C)=O
Chemical structure of salvinorin A

Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic molecule in the plant Salvia divinorum, which has a long history of use as an entheogen. Salvinorin A is a dissociative hallucinogenic compound that is active at the extremely low doses of 200–1000 μg, near the levels of LSD in quantitative potency, making it the most potent naturally occurring psychoactive drug known to date.[1] Salvinorin A is found together with several other structurally related salvinorins. Salvinorin is a trans-neoclerodane diterpenoid. It acts as a kappa opioid receptor agonist and is the first known compound acting on this receptor that is not an alkaloid. The psychoactive effects of salvinorin A are similar to those of other kappa opioid receptor agonists.[citation needed] A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated MM) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Image File history File links Salvinorin-A_structure. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... Binomial name Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva[1] Salvia divinorum, also known as Diviners Sage[2], Magic Mint[2], ska María Pastora[3], or simply Salvia (although the genus name is shared among many plants), is a powerful psychoactive plant, a member of the sage genus and the... An entheogen, in the strictest sense, is a psychoactive substance (most often some plant matter with hallucinogenic effects) that occasions an enlightening spiritual or mystical experience, within the parameters of a cult, in the original non-pejorative sense of cultus. ... A dissociative is a drug which reduces (or blocks) signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain, typically, but not necessarily, or limited to the physical senses. ... Certain drugs can affect the subjective qualities of perception, thought or emotion, resulting in altered interpretations of sensory input, alternate states of consciousness, or hallucinations. ... For other uses, see LSD (disambiguation). ... The terpenoids, sometimes referred to as isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals similar to terpenes, derived from five-carbon isoprene units assembled and modified in thousands of ways. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... Diagram of Ephedrine An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and animals. ...

Contents

History

Salvinorin A was isolated independently in 1982 by Alfredo Ortega in Mexico and in 1984 by Leander J. Valdes III in the USA. Its pharmacological mechanism was elucidated in the laboratory of Bryan L. Roth. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ...


Salvinorins A - F

Salvinorin A is one of several structurally related salvinorins. The des-acetylated analog salvinorin B is devoid of human activity. It was speculated that salvinorin C might be even more potent than salvinorin A, but human tests and receptor binding assays could not confirm this. Salvinorin A seems to be the only active naturally occurring salvinorin. Acetyl is the radical of acetic acid. ...

Salvinorins A - F: General formulas
Structure 1:Salvinorin A and B
Structure 1:
Salvinorin A and B
Structure 2:Salvinorin D - F
Structure 2:
Salvinorin D - F
Salvinorins A - F
Name R1 R2 Structure Activity
Salvinorin A -OCOCH3 - 1 active
Salvinorin B -OH - 1 inactive
Salvinorin C -OCOCH3 -OCOCH3 2 inactive
Salvinorin D -OH -OCOCH3 2 inactive
Salvinorin E -OCOCH3 -OH 2 inactive
Salvinorin F -H -OH 2 unknown

Image File history File links Salvinorins-AB.png Chemical structure of benzene salvinorin A and B Selfmade by cacycle Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Salvinorins-D-F.png Chemical structure of salvinorin D-F Selfmade by cacycle Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ...

Chemistry

Salvinorin A can be synthesized from the inactive Salvinorin B by acetylation. Acetylation describes a reaction, usually with acetic acid, that introduces an acetyl functional group into an organic compound. ...


Mechanism of Action

Salvinorin A is a potent kappa opioid receptor agonist in humans, which is primarily responsible for its psychoactive activity. Salvinorin A has no actions at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor, the principal molecular target responsible for the actions of classical hallucinogens.[2] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... In the field of neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT. 5-HT receptors are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types in animals and mediate the effects of serotonin...


See also

A dissociative is a drug which reduces (or blocks) signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain, typically, but not necessarily, or limited to the physical senses. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ...

External links

  • Links to external chemical sources.

References

  1. ^ Bryan L. Roth, Karen Baner, Richard Westkaemper, Daniel Siebert, Kenner C. Rice, SeAnna Steinberg, Paul Ernsberger, and Richard B. Rothman. Salvinorin A: A potent naturally occurring nonnitrogenous kappa opioid selective agonist. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/99/18/11934
  2. ^ ibid.
  • Charles Chavkin, Sumit Sud, Wenzhen Jin, Jeremy Stewart, Jordan K. Zjawiony, Daniel J. Siebert, Beth Ann Toth, Sandra J. Hufeisen, and Bryan L. Roth. "Salvinorin A, an Active Component of the Hallucinogenic Sage Salvia divinorum Is a Highly Efficacious kappa-Opioid Receptor Agonist: Structural and Functional Considerations." The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 2004, 308 (3), 1197-1203.
  • Thomas A. Munro, Mark A. Rizzacasa, Bryan L. Roth, Beth A. Toth, and Feng Yan. "Studies toward the pharmacophore of salvinorin A, a potent kappa opioid receptor agonist." J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48 (2), 345-348. PMID 15658846


Dissociative hallucinogens edit

Dextromethorphan, Ketamine, Nitrous oxide, PCP, Salvinorin-A, Tiletamine A dissociative is a drug which reduces (or blocks) signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain, typically, but not necessarily, or limited to the physical senses. ... Certain drugs can affect the subjective qualities of perception, thought or emotion, resulting in altered interpretations of sensory input, alternate states of consciousness, or hallucinations. ... Dextromethorphan (DM or DXM) is an antitussive drug that is found in many over-the-counter cold and cough preparations, usually in the form of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. ... Ketamine is a general dissociative anaesthetic for human and veterinary use. ... R-phrases S-phrases Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Phencyclidine (a contraction of the chemical name phenylcyclohexylpiperidine), abbreviated PCP, is a dissociative drug formerly used as an anesthetic agent, exhibiting hallucinogenic and neurotoxic effects. ... Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic constituent of the plant Salvia divinorum (diviners sage, Mexican mint), which has a long history of use as an entheogen. ... Tiletamine, 2-ethylamino-2-(2-thienyl) cyclohexanone Tiletamine is a dissociative anesthetic chemically and pharmacologically related to other anesthetics in this family such as ketamine and phencyclidine. ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m