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Encyclopedia > Salvador Allende
Salvador Allende
Salvador Allende

In office
November 3, 1970 – September 11, 1973
Preceded by Eduardo Frei Montalva
Succeeded by Augusto Pinochet

56th President of the Senate of the Republic of Chile
In office
1966 – 1969
Preceded by Tomás Reyes Vicuña
Succeeded by Tomás Pablo Elorza

Born June 26, 1908(1908-06-26)
Valparaíso, Chile
Died September 11, 1973 (aged 65)
Santiago, Chile
Nationality Chilean
Political party Socialist

Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens[1] (June 26, 1908September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup d'état of September 11, 1973. Please clarify copyright status of this image, i. ... Flag of the President of Chile The President of Chile is both the chief of state and the head of government. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was a Chilean political figure and president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ... The President of the Senate of Chile is the highest authority of the Senate of Chile. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Valparaíso is one of the main seaports of Chile, on the Pacific Ocean, and the capital of the Valparaíso Region. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Socialista de Chile or PS) is a political party in Chile, and part of the ruling Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Flag of the President of Chile The President of Chile is both the chief of state and the head of government. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ...


Allende's career in Chilean government spanned nearly forty years. As a Socialist Party politician, he became a senator, deputy, cabinet minister and after failing in the 1952, 1958, and 1964 presidential elections, he was elected President in 1970. He was the first Marxist leader of a nation to gain power through democratic process.[2] The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Socialista de Chile or PS) is a political party in Chile, and part of the ruling Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... Chile Congress building The Senate of the Republic of Chile is the upper house of Chiles bicameral Congress, as established in the current constitution. ... Congress building The National Congress (Spanish: Congreso Nacional) is the legislative branch of the government of the Republic of Chile. ... Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... Politics of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: President: 1925 - 1927 - 1931 - 1932 - 1938 - 1941 - 1946 - 1952 - 1958 - 1964 - 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 A presidential election was held in Chile on September 4, 1952. ... A presidential election was held in Chile on September 4, 1958. ... A presidential election was held in Chile on September 4, 1964. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...

Contents

Early life

Allende was born on June 26, 1908 in Valparaíso.[3] He was the son of Salvador Allende Castro and Laura Gossens Uribe. Allende's family belonged to the Chilean upper-class and had a long tradition of political involvement in progressive and liberal causes. His grandfather was a prominent doctor and reformist who founded one of the first secular schools in Chile [4]. is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other places with the same name, see Valparaiso (disambiguation). ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


Allende attended high school at the Liceo Eduardo de la Barra in Valparaíso. As a teenager, his main intellectual and political influence came from the shoe-maker Juan De Marchi, an Italian-born anarchist [4]. Allende then graduated with a medical degree in 1926 at the University of Chile. [4]. Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... The Medicinæ Doctor or Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or D.M.) is a doctorate level degree held by medical doctors. ... Universidad de Chile may refer to: Universidad de Chile (university) Universidad de Chile (football club) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


He co-founded the section of the Socialist Party of Chile (founded in 1933 with Marmaduque Grove and others) in Valparaíso [4] and became its chairman. He married Hortensia Bussi with whom he had three daughters. In 1933, he published his doctoral thesis Higiene Mental y Delincuencia in which he criticized Cesare Lombroso's presupposals [5] The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Socialista de Chile or PS) is a political party in Chile, and part of the ruling Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... Commodore Grove speaking at a political rally (1938) Air Commodore Marmaduque Grove Vallejo (July 6, 1878 - May 15, 1954) was a Chilean Air Force officer, political figure and member of the Government Junta of the Socialist Republic of Chile in 1932. ... Cesare Lombroso Cesare Lombroso (Verona, November 6, 1835 - Turin, October 19, 1909) was a historical figure in modern criminology, and the founder of the Italian Positivist School of criminology. ...


In 1938, Allende was in charge of the electoral campaign of the Popular Front headed by Pedro Aguirre Cerda [4]. The Popular Front's slogan was then "Bread, a Roof and Work!" [4]. After its electoral victory, he became Minister of Health in the Reformist Popular Front government which was dominated by the Bourgeoisie and the Radicals [4]. Entering the government, he relinquished his parliamentary seat for Valparaíso won in 1937. Around that time, he wrote La Realidad Médico Social de Chile (The social and medical reality of Chile). After the Kristallnacht in Nazi Germany, Allende and other members of the Parliament sent a telegram to Adolf Hitler denouncing the persecution of Jews [6]. Following Aguirre's death in 1941, he was again elected deputy while the Popular Front was being re-named Democratic Alliance. The Popular Front in Chile was an electoral and political left-wings coalition from 1937 to February 1941, during the Presidential Republic Era (1924-1973). ... Pedro Aguirre Cerda (February 6, 1879 - November 25, 1941) was a Chilean political figure. ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... Bourgeois redirects here. ... The Radical Party (Partido Radical) of Chile was a political party formed in 1863 by some dissatisfied liberals. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


In 1945, Allende became senator for the Valdivia, Llanquihue, Chiloé, Aisén and Magallanes provinces; then for Tarapacá and Antofagasta in 1953; for Aconcagua and Valparaíso in 1961; and once more for Chiloé, Aisén and Magallanes in 1969. He became president of the Chilean Senate in 1966. Valdivia is a province of Chile located in the southern Los Lagos Region. ... Llanquihue is a province in Los Lagos Region of Chile. ... Chiloé is one of the provinces of Los Lagos Region of Chile. ... There are several places in Chile which have Aysen as part of their name. ... Magallanes can refer to these places in the Philippines: Magallanes, Agusan del Norte Magallanes, Cavite Magallanes, Sorsogon This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Tarapacá may refer to Tarapacá Region, Chile Tarapacá Province (a former province of Peru, now Tarapacá Region, Chile) Tarapacá, Colombia (Municipality) Both the former province/ nowadays region and the municipality were involved in wars between Peru and his neighbors. ... For the copper-mining company named after the region, see Antofagasta plc. ... For other uses, see Aconcagua (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Valparaiso (disambiguation). ... Chile Congress building The Senate of the Republic of Chile is the upper house of Chiles bicameral Congress, as established in the current constitution. ...


His three unsuccessful bids for the presidency (in the 1952, 1958 and 1964 elections) prompted Allende to joke that his epitaph would be "Here lies the next President of Chile." In 1952, as candidate for the Frente de Acción Popular (Popular Action Front, FRAP), he obtained only 5.4% of the votes, partly due to a division within socialist ranks over support for Carlos Ibáñez and the prohibition of communism. In 1958, again as the FRAP candidate, Allende obtained 28.5% of the vote. This time, his defeat was attributed to votes lost to the populist Antonio Zamorano. In 1964, once more as the FRAP candidate, he lost again, polling 38.6% of the votes against 55.6% for Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei. As it became clear that the election would be a race between Allende and Frei, the political right – which initially had backed Radical Julio Durán – settled for Frei as "the lesser evil". Politics of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: President: 1925 - 1927 - 1931 - 1932 - 1938 - 1941 - 1946 - 1952 - 1958 - 1964 - 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 A presidential election was held in Chile on September 4, 1952. ... A presidential election was held in Chile on September 4, 1958. ... A presidential election was held in Chile on September 4, 1964. ... Carlos Ibáñez del Campo (November 3, 1877–April 28, 1960) was a Chilean dictator and political figure. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Christian Democrat Party of Chile (Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Chile) is a political party in Chile and governs as part of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was a Chilean political figure and president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... Politics of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: President: 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 The Social Democrat Radical Party (Partido Radical Socialdemócrata) is a social democratic, left wing and liberal party in Chile. ...


Allende's socialistic ideology and friendship with Cuban president Fidel Castro made him deeply unpopular within the administrations of successive U.S. presidents, from John F. Kennedy to Richard Nixon; they believed there was a danger of Chile becoming a communist state and joining the Soviet Union's sphere of influence. However, Senator Allende publicly condemned the Soviet invasion of Hungary (1956) and of Czechoslovakia (1968); but as President he made Chile the first Government in continental America to recognize the People's Republic of China (1971). Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official...


Various U.S. corporations (including ITT, Anaconda and Kennecott) owned property and mineral rights in Chile. The Nixon administration feared that these companies might be nationalized by a socialistic government, and was openly hostile to Allende. During Nixon's presidency, U.S. officials attempted to prevent Allende's election by financing political parties aligned with opposition candidate Jorge Alessandri and supporting strikes in the mining and transportation sectors. For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see ITT (disambiguation). ... The Anaconda Copper Mine was a large copper mine in Butte. ... Kennecott Copper Corporation had its start when Enos A. Wall realized the potential of copper deposits in Bingham Canyon in Utah in 1887 and acquired claims to the land. ... Mineral rights, mining rights, oil rights or drilling rights, are the rights to remove minerals, oil, or sometimes water, that may be contained in and under some land. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez (May 19, 1896–August 31, 1986) was President of Chile from 1958 to 1964. ...


Election

Chilean workers marching in support of Allende in 1964.
Chilean workers marching in support of Allende in 1964.

Allende won the 1970 Chilean presidential election as leader of the Unidad Popular ("Popular Unity") coalition. On September 4, 1970, he obtained a narrow plurality of 36.2 percent to 34.9 percent over Jorge Alessandri, a former president, with 27.8 percent going to a third candidate (Radomiro Tomic) of the Christian Democratic Party (PDC), whose electoral platform was similar to Allende's. According to the Chilean Constitution of the time, if no presidential candidate obtained a majority of the popular vote, Congress would choose one of the two candidates with the highest number of votes as the winner. Tradition was for Congress to vote for the candidate with the highest popular vote, regardless of margin. Indeed, former president Jorge Alessandri had been elected in 1958 with only 31.6 percent of the popular vote, defeating Allende. Download high resolution version (1024x678, 259 KB)Subject: Marchers for Salvador Allende Source: Library of Congress [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Salvador Allende Categories: United States government images ... Download high resolution version (1024x678, 259 KB)Subject: Marchers for Salvador Allende Source: Library of Congress [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Salvador Allende Categories: United States government images ... Politics of Chile President of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: Presidential: 1925 - 1927 - 1931 - 1932 - 1938 - 1941 - 1946 - 1952 - 1958 - 1964 - 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 A presidential election was held in Chile on 4 September 1970. ... Popular Unity (Spanish: Unidad Popular or UP) was the coalition of Chilean political parties that coalesced behind the successful candidacy of Salvador Allende for the 1970 Chilean presidential election. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez (May 19, 1896–August 31, 1986) was President of Chile from 1958 to 1964. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Politics of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: President: 1925 - 1927 - 1931 - 1932 - 1938 - 1941 - 1946 - 1952 - 1958 - 1964 - 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 The Christian Democratic Party of Chile (Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Chile) is a political party in Chile and governs as part of the...


The United States tried to influence the result of the election, but failed. ITT Corporation gave at least $350,000 to Jorge Alessandri. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) funded Alessandri's campaign through the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation and other channels[7] similar to their actions in the 1964 elections. For other uses, see ITT (disambiguation). ... Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez (May 19, 1896–August 31, 1986) was President of Chile from 1958 to 1964. ... CIA redirects here. ...


The CIA claimed that Allende's campaign also received $350,000 from Cuba.[8] The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


On October 22 General René Schneider, Commander in Chief of the Chilean Army, was shot resisting a kidnap attempt by a group led by Roberto Viaux; hospitalized, he died of his wounds three days later. Viaux's kidnapping plan had been supported by the CIA, although it seems that then-US Secretary for Foreign Affairs Henry Kissinger had ordered the plans turned off.[9] Schneider was a known defender of the "constitutionalist" doctrine that the army's role is exclusively professional, its mission being to protect the country's sovereignty and not to interfere in politics. is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Generals C. Prats and R. Schneider (right) General René Schneider Chereau (1913-1970) was the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army at the time of the 1970 Chilean presidential election, when he was assassinated during a kidnapping attempt. ... General Roberto Viaux Marambio (born 1917- dead 2005) was the primary planner of the failed coup détat attempt in Chile on October 22, 1970, aimed at preventing Socialist Salvador Allendes election. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Schneider Doctrine was a political doctrine originally espoused by Chilean General René Schneider, which allowed the election of Salvador Allende as President of Chile, and was the main ideological obstacle to a military coup détat against him. ...


René Schneider's murder was widely disapproved of and, for the time, ended military opposition to Allende,[9] whom the parliament finally chose on October 24. On October 26, President Eduardo Frei named General Carlos Prats as commander in chief of the army to replace René Schneider. is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was a Chilean political figure and president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ...


Allende assumed the presidency on November 3, 1970 after signing a “Statute of Constitutional Guarantees” proposed by the Christian Democrats in return for their support in Congress. In an extensive interview with Regis Debray, Allende explained his reasons for agreeing to the guarantees.[10] Some critics have interpreted Allende's responses as an admission that signing the "Statute" was only a tactical move on his part.[11] is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section should be merged with Régis Debray Régis Debray is a French intellectual, journalist, government official, professor. ...


Presidency

Main article: Chile under Allende
Allende stamp.
Allende stamp.

Upon assuming power, Allende began to carry out his platform of implementing socialistic programs in Chile, called La vía chilena al socialismo ("the Chilean Path to Socialism"). This included nationalization of large-scale industries (notably copper mining and banking), and government administration of the health care system, educational system, a program of free milk for children (given out arbitrarily by GAP "Group of Personal Friends of the President"), and a greatly expanded plan of land seizure and redistribution (already begun under his predecessor Eduardo Frei Montalva,[12] who had nationalized between one-fifth and one-quarter of all properties liable to takeover [Collier & Sater, 1996]). The Allende government's intention was to seize all holdings of more than eighty basic irrigated hectares [Faundez, 1988]. Allende also intended to improve the socio-economic welfare of Chile's poorest citizens; a key element was to provide employment, either in the new nationalised enterprises or on public work projects. Chileans marching in support of Allende Salvador Allende was the president of Chile from 1970 until 1973, and head of the Popular Unity government; he was the first Marxist ever to be elected to the national presidency of a democracy. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... The most commonly present source of copper ore is chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), which accounts for about 50% of copper production. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ...


Chilean presidents were allowed a maximum term of six years, which may explain Allende's haste to restructure the economy. Not only did he have a significant restructuring program organized (the Vuskovic plan), he had to make it a success if a Socialist successor to Allende was going to be elected. In the first year of Allende's term, the short-term economic results of Minister of the Economy Pedro Vuskovic's expansive monetary policy were favorable: 12% industrial growth and an 8.6% increase in GDP, accompanied by major declines in inflation (down from 34.9% to 22.1%) and unemployment (down to 3.8%). However, these results were not sustained, and in 1972, the Chilean escudo had runaway inflation of 140%. The average Real GDP contracted between 1971 and 1973 at an annual rate of 5.6% ("negative growth"); and the government's fiscal deficit soared while foreign reserves declined [Flores, 1997]. The combination of inflation and government-mandated price-fixing, together with the "disappearance" of basic commodities from supermarket shelves, led to the rise of black markets in rice, beans, sugar, and flour.[13] The Chilean economy also became the victim of a US campaign against the Allende government[14]. The Vuskovic Plan was the basis for the economic policy of the Popular Unity (UP) government of President Salvador Allende. ... Pedro Vuskovic Bravo (February 25, 1924 – May 10, 1993) was a Chilean economist, political figure, minister and author of the economic plan implemented by Salvador Allende during his government. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ...


The Allende government announced it would default on debts owed to international creditors and foreign governments. Allende also froze all prices while raising salaries. His implementation of these policies was met with strong opposition by landowners, employers, businessmen and transporters associations, some middle-class sectors like some civil servants and professional unions, the rightist opposition, led by National Party, the Roman Catholic Church (which in 1973 was displeased with the direction of educational policy[15]), and eventually the Christian Democrats. It also was a reason for growing tensions with foreign multinational corporations and the government of the United States. For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Christian Democrat Party of Chile (Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Chile) is a political party in Chile and governs as part of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... multinational corporation (or transnational corporation) (MNC/TNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ...


Allende also undertook Project Cybersyn, a system of networked telex machines and computers. Cybersyn was developed by British cybernetics expert Stafford Beer. The network transmitted data from factories to the government in Santiago, allowing for economic planning in real-time. [16] Project Cybersyn was a Chilean attempt at real-time computer-controlled planned economy in the years 1970-1973 (during the government of president Salvador Allende). ... Telex can refer to more than one thing: For the communications network, see Telegraphy. ... For other uses, see Cybernetics (disambiguation). ... Anthony Stafford Beer (September 25, 1926 - August 23, 2002) was a British theorist, academic, and consultant, best known for his work in the fields of operational research and management cybernetics. ...

Allende with Argentine president Héctor José Cámpora.
Allende with Argentine president Héctor José Cámpora.

In 1971, Chile re-established diplomatic relations with Cuba, joining Mexico and Canada in rejecting a previously-established Organization of American States convention prohibiting governments in the Western Hemisphere from establishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Shortly afterward, Cuban president Fidel Castro made a month-long visit to Chile. The visit, in which Castro held massive rallies and gave public advice to Allende, was seen by those on the political right as proof to support their view that "The Chilean Path to Socialism" was an effort to put Chile on the same path as Cuba. Héctor José Cámpora Demaestre (1909-1980) was a former president of Argentina from May 25 until July 13, 1973. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Portuguese, Spanish Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza Chile (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ...


October 1972 saw the first of what were to be a wave of confrontational strikes. The strikes were led first by truckers, and later by small businessmen, some (mostly professional) unions, and some student groups. Other than the inevitable damage to the economy, the chief effect of the 24-day strike was to induce Allende to bring the head of the army, general Carlos Prats, into the government as Interior Minister.[13] Allende also instructed the government to begin requisitioning trucks in order to keep the nation from coming to a halt. Government supporters also helped to mobilize trucks and buses but violence served as a deterrent to full mobilization, even with police protection for the strike breakers. Allende's actions were eventually declared unlawful by the Chilean appeals court and the government was ordered to return trucks to their owners.[17] General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ...


Throughout this presidency racial tensions between the poor descendants of indigenous people and slaves who supported Allende’s reforms and the white settler elite increased.[18]


In addition to the earlier-discussed provision of employment, Allende also raised wages on a number of occasions throughout 1970 and 1971; these wage hikes were negated by in-tandem inflation of Chile's fiat currency. Although price rises had also been high under Frei (27% a year between 1967 and 1970), a basic basket of consumer goods rose by 120% from 190 to 421 escudos in one month alone, August 1972. In the period 1970-72, while Allende was in government, exports fell 24% and imports rose 26%, with imports of food rising an estimated 149%.[19] Although nominal wages were rising, there was not a commensurate increase in the standard of living. Look up fiat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Export income fell due to a decline in the price of copper on international markets; copper being the single most important export (more than half of Chile's export receipts were from this sole commodity[20]). Adverse fluctuation in the international price of copper negatively affected the economy throughout 1971-2: The price of copper fell from a peak of $66 per ton in 1970 to only $48-9 in 1971 and 1972.[21] For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ...


Throughout his presidency, Allende remained at odds with the Chilean Congress, which was dominated by the Christian Democratic Party. The Christian Democrats (who had campaigned on a socialist platform in the 1970 elections, but drifted away from those positions during Allende's presidency, eventually forming a coalition with the National Party), continued to accuse Allende of leading Chile toward a Cuban-style dictatorship, and sought to overturn many of his more radical policies. Allende and his opponents in Congress repeatedly accused each other of undermining the Chilean Constitution and acting undemocratically. The National Party (Spanish: Partido Nacional) was a political party of Chile in opposition to Salvador Allende in the 1970 Chilean presidential election. ...


Allende's increasingly bold socialist policies (partly in response to pressure from some of the more radical members within his coalition), combined with his close contacts with Cuba, heightened fears in Washington. The Nixon administration began exerting economic pressure on Chile via multilateral organizations, and continued to back Allende's opponents in the Chilean Congress. Almost immediately after his election, Nixon directed CIA and U.S. State Department officials to "put pressure" on Allende's government. For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Nixon redirects here. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...


The coup

Main article: 1973 Chilean coup d'état
The overthrow of President Allende in some ways resembles the fictional events depicted in Jack London's dystopian novel "The Iron Heel" (1908) - which is expressed in this cover for one of the book's later editions
The overthrow of President Allende in some ways resembles the fictional events depicted in Jack London's dystopian novel "The Iron Heel" (1908) - which is expressed in this cover for one of the book's later editions

There were rumors of a possible coup since at least 1972; in 1973, partly due to Allende's economic policies and partly as a result of the rapidly declining price of copper (Chile's main export), the economy took a major downturn. By September, high inflation (508% for the entire year) and shortages had plunged the country into near-chaos.[22] Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Image File history File links TIH.jpg‎ Source: [1] This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned either by the artist who created the cover or the publisher of the book. ... Image File history File links TIH.jpg‎ Source: [1] This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned either by the artist who created the cover or the publisher of the book. ... For other persons named Jack London, see Jack London (disambiguation). ... The Iron Heel is a novel by American writer Jack London, first published in 1908. ...


Despite declining economic indicators, Allende's Popular Unity coalition actually increased its vote to 43% in the parliamentary elections early in 1973. However, by this point, what had started as an informal alliance with the Christian Democrats[23] was anything but; the Christian Democrats now joined with the right-wing National Party to oppose Allende's government, the two parties calling themselves the Confederación Democrática (CODE). The conflict between the executive and legislature paralyzed initiatives from either side.[24]


On June 29, 1973, a tank regiment under the command of Colonel Roberto Souper surrounded the presidential palace (La Moneda) in an unsuccessful coup attempt known as the Tanquetazo.[25] On August 9, General Carlos Prats was made Minister of Defense, but this decision proved so unpopular with the military that, on August 22, he was forced to resign not only this position but his role as Commander-in-Chief of the Army; he was replaced in the latter role by General Augusto Pinochet.[24] is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Colonel Roberto Souper was a Chilean military leader who launched a violent but unsuccessful coup against the regime of Salvatore Allende. ... The Palacio de La Moneda (Spanish for Mint Palace), or simply La Moneda, is the seat of the President of the Republic of Chile. ... El tanquetazo (Spanish for the tank attack) refers to the failed coup attempt against the Popular Unity government of Socialist president Salvador Allende Gossens in Chile on June 29, 1973. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ...


In August 1973, a constitutional crisis was clearly in the offing: the Supreme Court publicly complained about the government's inability to enforce the law of the land and, on August 22, the Chamber of Deputies (with the Christian Democrats now firmly uniting with the National Party) accused Allende's government of unconstitutional acts and called on the military ministers to assure the constitutional order. Among other things, Allende was accused of disregarding the courts, attempting to restrict freedom of speech, and supporting unauthorized seizures of farms and private industry for the purpose of establishing state control of the economy. The Chamber of Deputies also attacked Allende for seeking to "establish a totalitarian system absolutely opposed to the representative system of government established by the Constitution. [1]" Supreme Court building in Santiago The Supreme Court of Chile is the highest court of appeal in Chile. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Congress building The Chamber of Deputies of the Republic of Chile (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of Chiles bicameral Congress. ...


In early September 1973, Allende floated the idea of resolving the crisis with a plebiscite. His speech outlining such a solution was scheduled for September 12, but he was never able to deliver it. On September 11, 1973, the Chilean military staged a coup against Allende. A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ...


Death

Just prior to the capture of La Moneda (the Presidential Palace), with gunfire and explosions clearly audible in the background, Allende made what would become a famous farewell speech to Chileans on live radio, speaking of himself in the past tense, of his love for Chile and of his deep faith in its future. He stated that his commitment to Chile did not allow him to take an easy way out and be used as a propaganda tool by those he called "traitors" (accepting an offer of safe passage), clearly implying he intended to fight to the end. Allendes last photograph alive Salvador Allende, President of Chile, died during the Chilean coup of 1973. ... The Palacio de La Moneda (Spanish for Mint Palace), or simply La Moneda, is the seat of the President of the Republic of Chile. ... ...

"Workers of my country, I have faith in Chile and its destiny. Other men will overcome this dark and bitter moment when treason seeks to prevail. Keep in mind that, much sooner than later, the great avenues will again be opened through which will pass free men to construct a better society. Long live Chile! Long live the people! Long live the workers!"
President Salvador Allende's farewell speech, September 11, 1973.[26]

Shortly afterwards, Allende died. An official announcement declared that he had committed suicide with an automatic rifle,[27] purportedly the AK-47 assault rifle given to him as a gift by Fidel Castro, which bore a golden plate engraved "To my good friend Salvador from Fidel, who by different means tries to achieve the same goals."[28][verification needed] is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... The AK-47 is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ...


In his 2004 documentary Salvador Allende, Patricio Guzmán incorporates a graphic image of Allende's corpse in the position it was found after his death. According to Guzmán's documentary, Allende simply shot himself with a gun, and not a rifle. Salavador Allende is a 2004 documentary film about Chilean president Salvador Allende, from his election campaign to the coup détat which ended up his presidency. ...


Foreign involvement in Chile during Allende's Term

Soviet involvement

Statue in front of the Palacio de la moneda
Statue in front of the Palacio de la moneda

According to Vasili Mitrokhin, a former KGB bureaucrat, regular Soviet contact with Allende after his election was maintained by his KGB case officer, Svyatoslav Kuznetsov, who was instructed by the centre to “exert a favourable influence on Chilean government policy”. According to Allende’s KGB file, he “was made to understand the necessity of reorganising Chile's army and intelligence services, and of setting up a relationship between Chile’s and the USSR’s intelligence services”. Allende was said to react positively. Download high resolution version (598x798, 218 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (598x798, 218 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The KGB sword and shield emblem appears on the covers of the three published works by Mitrokhin, co-author Christopher Andrew. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ...


In October 1971, on instructions from the Politburo, Allende was given $30,000 “in order to solidify the trusted relations” with him. On December 7, in a memorandum to the Politburo, the KGB proposed giving Allende another $60,000 for what was termed “his work with political party leaders, military commanders and parliamentarians.”[29] Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ...


According to Christopher Andrew's account of the Mitrokhin archives, "In the KGB’s view, Allende's fundamental error was his unwillingness to use force against his opponents. Without establishing complete control over all the machinery of the State, his hold on power could not be secure. [29]"


US involvement

The possibility of Allende winning Chile's 1970 election was deemed a disaster by a US government desirous of protecting US business interests and preventing any further spread of communism during the Cold War. In September 1970, President Nixon informed the CIA that an Allende regime in Chile would not be acceptable and authorized $10 million to stop Allende from coming to power or unseat him [30]. The CIA's plans to impede Allende's investiture as President of Chile were known as "Track I" and "Track II"; Track I sought to prevent Allende from assuming power via so-called "parliamentary trickery", while under the Track II initiative, the CIA tried to convince key Chilean military officers to carry out a coup.[30] Meeting between General A. Pinochet and US Secretary of State H. Kissinger (1974). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Nixon redirects here. ...


After the 1970 election, the Track I operation attempted to incite Chile's outgoing president, Eduardo Frei Montalva, to persuade his party (PDC) to vote in Congress for Alessandri. Under the plan, Alessandri would resign his office immediately after assuming it and call new elections. Eduardo Frei would then be constitutionally able to run again (since the Chilean Constitution did not allow a president to hold two consecutive terms, but allowed multiple non-consecutive ones), and presumably easily defeat Allende. The Chilean Congress instead chose Allende as President, on the condition that he would sign a "Statute of Constitutional Guarantees" affirming that he would respect and obey the Chilean Constitution, and that his reforms would not undermine any element of it. Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was a Chilean political figure and president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... The Christian Democrat Party of Chile (Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Chile) is a political party in Chile and governs as part of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez (May 19, 1896 – August 31, 1986) was President of Chile from 1958 to 1964, and was the candidate of the centre-right in Chiles crucial presidential election of 1970. ... Congress building The Chamber of Deputies of the Republic of Chile (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of Chiles bicameral Congress. ...


Track II was abortive, as parallel initiatives already underway within the Chilean military rendered it moot.[31]


The United States has acknowledged having played a role in Chilean politics prior to the coup, but its degree of involvement in the coup itself is debated. The CIA was notified by its Chilean contacts of the impending coup two days in advance, but contends it "played no direct role in" the coup.[32] The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


President Allende's economic policy had involved nationalizations of many key companies, notably U.S.-owned copper mines. This had been a significant reason behind the United States opposition to Allende's reformist socialist government, in addition to his establishing diplomatic relations and cooperation agreements with Cuba and the Soviet Union. Much of the internal opposition to Allende's policies came from business sector, and recently-released U.S. government documents confirm that the U.S. funded the truck drivers' strike,[33] which had exacerbated the already chaotic economic situation prior to the coup. The nationalization of the Chilean copper industry, (Chilenization) during the Salvador Allende government was the espoused basis for a later international boycott, which further isolated Chile from the world economy, worsening the state of political polarization. ...


After General Pinochet assumed power, U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger told U.S. President Richard Nixon that the U.S. "didn't do it," but "we helped them...created the conditions as great as possible." (referring to the coup itself)[34]. Recent documents declassified under the Clinton administration's Chile Declassification Project show that the United States government and the CIA had sought the overthrow of Allende in 1970 immediately before he took office ("Project FUBELT"), but claims of their direct involvement in the 1973 coup are not proven by publicly available documentary evidence, but many documents still remain classified. General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte1 (born November 25, 1915) was head of the military government that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... President Clintons Cabinet, circa 1993 The Clinton Administration, was the executive branch of the federal government of the United States from 1993 to 2001. ... Project FUBELT is the codename for the secret CIA operations that were intended to undermine Salvador Allendes government and promote a military coup in Chile. ...


Legacy and debate

Statue of Allende in Constitución Square, in front of La Moneda Palace Salvador Allende, President of Chile, has inspired a variety of perceptions regarding his policies, personality and performance as a head of state. ...

Extra-marital affairs

On May 3, 2007, newspaper La Tercera published a story claiming Gloria Gaitán —daughter of Jorge Eliécer Gaitán— had an unborn child with Allende.[35] is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... La Tercera (formerly Las Tercera de la Hora) is a Chilean newspaper owned by Copesa. ... Jorge Eliécer Gaitán (January 23, 1903 - April 9, 1948) was a politician, a leader of a populist movement in Colombia, a former Education Minister (1940) and Labor Minister (1943-1944), mayor of Bogotá (1936) and chief of the Colombian Liberal Party (1947-1948). ...


Additional information

See also

Politics of Chile President of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: Presidential: 1925 - 1927 - 1931 - 1932 - 1938 - 1941 - 1946 - 1952 - 1958 - 1964 - 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 A presidential election was held in Chile on 4 September 1970. ... Schneider Doctrine was a political doctrine originally espoused by Chilean General René Schneider, which allowed the election of Salvador Allende as President of Chile, and was the main ideological obstacle to a military coup détat against him. ... Chileans marching in support of Allende Salvador Allende was the president of Chile from 1970 until 1973, and head of the Popular Unity government; he was the first Marxist ever to be elected to the national presidency of a democracy. ... The United States on several occasions sought to influence the policies or government of Chile. ... The Cuban packages (1972) was a smuggling scandal in Chilean history, involving President Salvador Allende, his Minister of the Interior, Hernán del Canto and the Director of the Civil Police Eduardo Paredes. ... General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ... Project FUBELT is the codename for the secret CIA operations that were intended to undermine Salvador Allendes government and promote a military coup in Chile. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Allendes last photograph alive Salvador Allende, President of Chile died during the Chilean coup of 1973. ... The Vuskovic Plan was the basis for the economic policy of the Popular Unity (UP) government of President Salvador Allende. ... Project Cybersyn was a Chilean attempt at real-time computer-controlled planned economy in the years 1970-1973 (during the government of president Salvador Allende). ... Statue of Allende in Constitución Square, in front of La Moneda Palace Salvador Allende, President of Chile, has inspired a variety of perceptions regarding his policies, personality and performance as a head of state. ... For the Chilean politician and daughter of Salvador Allende, see Isabel Allende Bussi. ... María Isabel Allende Bussi (born January 18, 1945) is a Chilean Socialist politician and deputy since 1990. ... José Piñera (born October 6, 1948, in Santiago, Chile) is a prominent Chilean free-market economist and public intellectual. ... The following postage stamps either depict Salvador Allende or relate to events to which he was closely connected. ... The Allende family of Chile is of Basque origin, and became well-known during the 19th century but only influential in the 20th. ...

References

  1. ^ Pronunciation (IPA: [salβaðor aʝεnde]
  2. ^ www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A716591
  3. ^ Biography of Allende from his official website.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Patricio Guzmán, Salvador Allende (film documentary, 2004)
  5. ^ Unmasked defamatory libel on Salvador Allende, 27 May 2005, with link to thesis, on the Clarin's website (English) (Spanish version available)
  6. ^ Telegram protesting against the persecution of Jews in Germany on Clarin's website (Spanish)
  7. ^ Frank McGehee, "A model operation - Covert action in Chile: 1963-1973", Institute for Global Communications, 8 January 1999. online copy on Hartford Web Publishing site accessed 21 September 2006.
  8. ^ The 1970 Election: a "Spoiling" Campaign, Staff Report of the U.S.Senate Select Committee To Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities (the "Church Committee"), December 18, 1975. Accessed 21 September 2006 on U.S. Department of State FOIA site.
  9. ^ a b Mark Falcoff, Kissinger and Chile, originally in Commentary Magazine, November 10, 2003. Accessed 21 September 2006 on FrontPageMag.com.
  10. ^ [Regis Debray, The Chilean Revolution: Conversations with Allende Vintage Books: New York(1972)].
  11. ^ Cómo Allende destruyó la democracia en Chile | elcato.org
  12. ^ (Spanish) La Unidad Popular on icarito.latercera.cl, archived 7 Mar, 2005 on the Internet Archive.
  13. ^ a b (Spanish) Comienzan los problemas, Enciclopedia Escolar Icarito. Archived on the Internet Archive, September 22, 2003
  14. ^ United States Senate Report (1975) "Covert Action in Chile, 1963-1973" U.S. Government Printing Office Washington. D.C.
  15. ^ (Spanish) Declaración de la Asamblea Plenaria del Episcopado sobre la Escuela Nacional Unificada, 11 April 1973. Accessed online 21 September 2006 on the site of the Conferencia Episcopal de Chile
  16. ^ Eden Medina, "Designing Freedom, Regulating a Nation: Socialist Cybernetics in Allende's Chile," Journal of Latin American Studies 38 (2006):571-606.
  17. ^ Edy Kaufman, "Crisis in Allende's Chile: New Perspectives", Praeger Publishers, New York, 1988. 266-267.
  18. ^ Richard Gott. Latin America is preparing to settle accounts with its white settler elite. Guardian Unlimited, November 15, 2006. Retrieved on December 22, 2006.
  19. ^ figures are from Nove, 1986, pp4-12, tables 1.1 & 1.7
  20. ^ Hoogvelt, 1997
  21. ^ Nove, 1986
  22. ^ Flores, 1997
  23. ^ Development and Breakdown of Democracy, 1830-1973, U.S. Library of Congress Country Study on Chile (TOC) based on information available as of March 31, 1994.
  24. ^ a b (Spanish) Se desata la crisis, Enciclopedia Escolar Icarito. Archived on the Internet Archive, September 22, 2003
  25. ^ Ewin Martínez Torre, Second coup attempt: El Tanquetazo (the tank attack), History of Chile under Salvador Allende and the Popular Unity. TOC and introduction)
  26. ^ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Salvador_Allende%27s_Last_Speech
  27. ^ Salvador Allende Gossens. Presidencia de la República de Chile. Retrieved on 2006-04-08.
  28. ^ James Whelan, Out of the Ashes: The Life, Death and Transfiguration of Democracy in Chile (Washington: Regnery Gateway, 1989), 511-512 and 519-520, cited by Andrew J. Rhodes, Chilean Civil-Military Relations, Chapter Three:Rise and Fall of "La Cofradía Blindada", footnote 3, thesis for The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, May 2001.
  29. ^ a b Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, How 'weak' Allende was left out in the cold by the KGB (excerpt from The Mitrokhin Archive Volume II), The Times (UK), September 19, 2005.
  30. ^ a b Hinchey Report CIA Activities in Chile. September 18, 2000. Accessed online 18 November 2006.
  31. ^ "Church Report. Covert Action in Chile 1963-1973", December 18, 1975.
  32. ^ CIA Reveals Covert Acts In Chile, CBS News, September 19, 2000.
  33. ^ Jonathan Franklin, Files show Chilean blood on US hands, The Guardian, October 11, 1999.
  34. ^ The Kissinger Telcons: Kissinger Telcons on Chile, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 123, edited by Peter Kornbluh, posted May 26, 2004. This particular dialogue can be found at TELCON: September 16, 1973, 11:50 a.m. Kissinger Talking to Nixon. Accessed online November 26, 2006.
  35. ^ La Tercera

Salavador Allende is a 2004 documentary film about Chilean president Salvador Allende, from his election campaign to the coup détat which ended up his presidency. ... Clarin can refer to a number of things: In Argentina Clarín (Newspaper), one of the major newspapers of the country. ... Clarin can refer to a number of things: In Argentina Clarín (Newspaper), one of the major newspapers of the country. ... The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ... Nearly sixty countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation, which sets rules on governmental secrecy. ... Commentary Magazine is a journal published by the American Jewish Committee, since 1945. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... Richard Willoughby Gott (born 28 October 1938 Aston Tirrold, England) is a British journalist and historian, who has written extensively on Latin America. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Other sources

  • Chile and the United States: Declassified Documents relating to the Military Coup, 1970-1976, (From the United States' National Security Archive).

The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit research and archival institution located within The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 by Thomas Blanton, it archives and publishes declassified U.S. government files concerning selected topics of American foreign policy. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Salvador Allende
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Salvador Allende
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Allende's Last Speech
  • Official Government biography (Spanish)
  • Chile under Allende and Pinochet
  • Salvador Allende's "Last Words" Spanish text with English translation. The transcript of the last radio broadcast of Chilean President Salvador Allende, made on 11 September 1973, at 9:10 AM. MP3 audio available here.
  • Caso Pinochet. While nominally a page about the Pinochet case, this large collection of links includes Allende's dissertation and numerous documents (mostly PDFs) related to the dissertation and to the controversy about it, ranging from the Cesare Lombroso material discussed in Allende's dissertation to a collective telegram of protest over Kristallnacht signed by Allende. (Spanish)
  • Previously unreleased interview with Allende by Saul Landau in 1971, published by La Nacion on September 24, 2005. (Spanish)
  • Alternate source of the Resolution of August 22, 1973 (English, Spanish, French, German, Polish
  • Map of the Sorroundings of La Moneda Palace (Spanish)
Political offices
Preceded by
Miguel Etchebarne
Minister of Health and Social Security
1939-1941
Succeeded by
Rolando Merino
Preceded by
Tomás Reyes
President of the Senate of Chile
1966-1969
Succeeded by
Tomás Pablo
Preceded by
Eduardo Frei Montalva
President of Chile
1970 - 1973
Succeeded by
Augusto Pinochet
Persondata
NAME Allende, Salvador, Gossens
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION President of Chile
DATE OF BIRTH July 26, 1908
PLACE OF BIRTH Valparaíso, Chile
DATE OF DEATH September 11, 1973
PLACE OF DEATH Santiago, Chile

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9–November 10, 1938. ... Saul Landau is Director of Digital Media Programs and Hugh O. Bounty Chair of Applied Interdisciplinary Knowledge at Cal Poly Pomona. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The President of the Senate of Chile is the highest authority of the Senate of Chile. ... Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was a Chilean political figure and president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... Flag of the President of Chile The President of Chile is both the chief of state and the head of government. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ... Politics of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: President: 1925 - 1927 - 1931 - 1932 - 1938 - 1941 - 1946 - 1952 - 1958 - 1964 - 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 A presidential election was held in Chile on September 4, 1952. ... A presidential election was held in Chile on September 4, 1958. ... A presidential election was held in Chile on September 4, 1964. ... Politics of Chile President of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: Presidential: 1925 - 1927 - 1931 - 1932 - 1938 - 1941 - 1946 - 1952 - 1958 - 1964 - 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 A presidential election was held in Chile on 4 September 1970. ... Chileans marching in support of Allende Salvador Allende was the president of Chile from 1970 until 1973, and head of the Popular Unity government; he was the first Marxist ever to be elected to the national presidency of a democracy. ... El tanquetazo (Spanish for the tank attack) refers to the failed coup attempt against the Popular Unity government of Socialist president Salvador Allende Gossens in Chile on June 29, 1973. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Allendes last photograph alive Salvador Allende, President of Chile, died during the Chilean coup of 1973. ... The Vuskovic Plan was the basis for the economic policy of the Popular Unity (UP) government of President Salvador Allende. ... Chile has a dynamic market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade. ... The nationalization of the Chilean copper industry, (Chilenization) during the Salvador Allende government was the espoused basis for a later international boycott, which further isolated Chile from the world economy, worsening the state of political polarization. ... Schneider Doctrine was a political doctrine originally espoused by Chilean General René Schneider, which allowed the election of Salvador Allende as President of Chile, and was the main ideological obstacle to a military coup détat against him. ... Project Cybersyn was a Chilean attempt at real-time computer-controlled planned economy in the years 1970-1973 (during the government of president Salvador Allende). ... The following postage stamps either depict Salvador Allende or relate to events to which he was closely connected. ... Project FUBELT is the codename for the secret CIA operations that were intended to undermine Salvador Allendes government and promote a military coup in Chile. ... The Cuban packages (1972) was a smuggling scandal in Chilean history, involving President Salvador Allende, his Minister of the Interior, Hernán del Canto and the Director of the Civil Police Eduardo Paredes. ... Statue of Allende in Constitución Square, in front of La Moneda Palace Salvador Allende, President of Chile, has inspired a variety of perceptions regarding his policies, personality and performance as a head of state. ... General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ... Carlos Altamirano Orrego (December 18, 1922, Santiago de Chile) is a lawyer and one of the most influential politicians of Chilean socialism. ... Marcos Orlando Letelier del Solar (April 13, 1932 - September 21, 1976) was a Chilean economist, political figure, diplomat and, later, US-based activist. ... José Tohá González (February 6, 1927 – March 15, 1974) was a Chilean journalist, lawyer, political figure, and Socialist politician. ... Pedro Vuskovic Bravo (February 25, 1924 – May 10, 1993) was a Chilean economist, political figure, minister and author of the economic plan implemented by Salvador Allende during his government. ... Dr Ramón Allende Padín Ramón Allende Padín (19 March 1845 – 14 October 1884), nicknamed El Rojo (The Red), was a Chilean physician and political figure. ... Laura Allende Gossens (September 3, 1911 - May 23, 1981) was a Chilean political figure, a member of the lower chamber of parliament and sister of former president of Chile Salvador Allende. ... María Isabel Allende Bussi (born January 18, 1945) is a Chilean Socialist politician and deputy since 1990. ... Chilean Marxist revolutionary, nephew of Pres. ... For the Chilean politician and daughter of Salvador Allende, see Isabel Allende Bussi. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Meeting between General A. Pinochet and US Secretary of State H. Kissinger (1974). ... Schneider Doctrine was a political doctrine originally espoused by Chilean General René Schneider, which allowed the election of Salvador Allende as President of Chile, and was the main ideological obstacle to a military coup détat against him. ... Politics of Chile President of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: Presidential: 1925 - 1927 - 1931 - 1932 - 1938 - 1941 - 1946 - 1952 - 1958 - 1964 - 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 A presidential election was held in Chile on 4 September 1970. ... Project FUBELT is the codename for the secret CIA operations that were intended to undermine Salvador Allendes government and promote a military coup in Chile. ... Chileans marching in support of Allende Salvador Allende was the president of Chile from 1970 until 1973, and head of the Popular Unity government; he was the first Marxist ever to be elected to the national presidency of a democracy. ... The Cuban packages (1972) was a smuggling scandal in Chilean history, involving President Salvador Allende, his Minister of the Interior, Hernán del Canto and the Director of the Civil Police Eduardo Paredes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MonedaBombing. ... El tanquetazo (Spanish for the tank attack) refers to the failed coup attempt against the Popular Unity government of Socialist president Salvador Allende Gossens in Chile on June 29, 1973. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ... Admiral Santiago José Toribio Merino Castro (December 14, 1915-August 30, 1996) was a member of the military junta that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. ... General Gustavo Leigh Guzmán (September 19, 1920-September 29, 1999) represented the Air Force in the junta that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990 He was born in Santiago, son of Hernán Leigh Bañados and Laura Guzmán Cea. ... Capt. ... Carlos Altamirano Orrego (December 18, 1922, Santiago de Chile) is a lawyer and one of the most influential politicians of Chilean socialism. ... Original members of the Junta shortly after taking power. ... Letelier case (September 21, 1976) refers to the murder of Orlando Letelier, a Chilean political figure and, later, United States-based activist, who was assassinated in Washington, D.C. along with his American assistant, Ronni Moffitt, by Chilean agents of the DINA, the Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (National Intelligence... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Original members of the Government Junta (1977). ... Allendes last photograph alive Salvador Allende, President of Chile, died during the Chilean coup of 1973. ... Statue of Allende in Constitución Square, in front of La Moneda Palace Salvador Allende, President of Chile, has inspired a variety of perceptions regarding his policies, personality and performance as a head of state. ... The President of the Senate of Chile is the highest authority of the Senate of Chile. ... Fr. ... José Antonio de Errázuriz y Madariaga (September 14, 1747-October 19, 1821) was a Chilean priest and political figure. ... Fr. ... Agustín Manuel de Eyzaguirre y Arechavala ( May 3, 1768 - July 19, 1837) was a Chilean political figure. ... Fr. ... Francisco Antonio Pinto Francisco Antonio Pinto Díaz (July 23, 1785 - July 18, 1858) was a Chilean political figure. ... José Joaquín Pérez, president of Chile 1861-1871 José Joaquín Pérez Mascayano (May 6, 1801 - July 1, 1889) was a Chilean political figure. ... Antonio Varas de la Barra (June 13, 1817 - June 5, 1886) was a Chilean political figure, statesman and conservative politician. ... Domingo Santa María Domingo Santa María González (August 4, 1824 - 1896) was a Chilean political figure. ... Juan Luis Sanfuentes Andonaegui (December 27, 1858 - July 16, 1930) was President of Chile between 1915 and 1920. ... Pedro Opazo Letelier (July 20, 1876 - April 9, 1957). ... Alberto Cabero Díaz (March 20, 1874 - October 13, 1955) was Chilean politician, President of the Chilean Senate and Member of Government Junta in 1932. ... Pedro Opazo Letelier (July 20, 1876 - April 9, 1957). ... Arturo Alessandri Palma (1868 - 1950) was a Chilean political figure and reformer. ... Arturo Alessandri Palma (1868 - 1950) was a Chilean political figure and reformer. ... Fernando Alessandri Rodríguez (May 21, 1897 - March 27, 1982) was a Chilean political figure, candidate of the centre-right in Chiles 1946 presidential election. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was a Chilean political figure and president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... Original members of the Junta shortly after taking power. ... Andrés Zaldívar, as President of the Senate of Chile José Andrés Rafael Zaldívar Larraín (born March 18, 1936), popularly known as El Chico Zaldívar (Zaldívar, the little one), is a prominent Chilean Christian Democrat politician and the current Chilean Minister of the Interior. ... Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (born June 24, 1942) was President of Chile from 1994 to 2000. ... Flag of the President of Chile The President of Chile is both the chief of state and the head of government. ... Manuel Blanco Encalada Manuel Blanco Encalada (April 21, 1790, Buenos Aires – September 5, 1876 Santiago de Chile) was a Chilean political figure, an Admiral and Chiles first President (1826). ... Agustín Manuel de Eyzaguirre y Arechavala ( May 3, 1768 - July 19, 1837) was a Chilean political figure. ... Ramón Freire Serrano (1787 – 1851) was a Chilean political figure. ... Francisco Antonio Pinto Francisco Antonio Pinto Díaz (July 23, 1785 - July 18, 1858) was a Chilean political figure. ... Francisco Ramón Vicuña Larraín (1775 - January 13, 1849) was a Chilean political figure. ... José Tomás Ovalle y Bezanilla (1788 - 1831) was a Chilean political figure. ... Francisco Ruiz-Tagle Portales (sometime before 1790 - March 23, 1860) was a Chilean politician. ... José Tomás Ovalle y Bezanilla (1788 - 1831) was a Chilean political figure. ... José Joaquín Prieto José Joaquín Prieto Vial (August 20, 1786 - September 22, 1854) was a Chilean political figure. ... Manuel Bulnes Prieto Manuel Bulnes Prieto (December 25, 1799 - October 18, 1866) was a Chilean political figure. ... Manuel Montt Torres Manuel Montt Torres (1809 - 1880) was a Chilean political figure. ... José Joaquín Pérez, president of Chile 1861-1871 José Joaquín Pérez Mascayano (May 6, 1801 - July 1, 1889) was a Chilean political figure. ... Federico Errázuriz Zañartu Federico Errázuriz Zañartu (April 25, 1825 - 1877) was a Chilean political figure. ... Aníbal Pinto Aníbal Pinto Garmendia (March 15, 1825 - June 9, 1884) was a Chilean political figure. ... Domingo Santa María Domingo Santa María González (August 4, 1824 - 1896) was a Chilean political figure. ... José Manuel Balmaceda José Manuel Balmaceda Fernández (July 19, 1840 - September 18, 1891) was a Chilean political figure. ... Jorge Montt Álvarez Jorge Montt Álvarez (April 26, 1847 - 1922) was vice-admiral of the Chilean navy and president of Chile from 1891 to 1896. ... Federico Errázuriz Echaurren Federico Errázuriz Echaurren (November 16, 1850 - July 12, 1901) was a Chilean political figure. ... Germán Riesco Germán Riesco Errázuriz (May 28, 1854 - December 8, 1916) was a Chilean political figure. ... Pedro Montt Montt (1846 - August 16, 1910) was a Chilean political figure. ... Emiliano Figueroa Larraín (1866 - 1931) was President of Chile from December 23, 1925 until his resignation on April 7, 1927. ... Ramón Barros Luco (1835 - 1919) was President of Chile between 1910 and 1915. ... Juan Luis Sanfuentes Andonaegui (December 27, 1858 - July 16, 1930) was President of Chile between 1915 and 1920. ... Arturo Fortunato Alessandri Palma (December 20, 1868–August 24, 1950) was a Chilean political figure and reformer. ... Emiliano Figueroa Larraín (1866 - 1931) was President of Chile from December 23, 1925 until his resignation on April 7, 1927. ... General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo (November 3, 1877–April 28, 1960) was a Chilean Army officer and political figure. ... Juan Esteban Montero Rodríguez (1879 - 1948) was a Chilean political figure. ... Carlos Gregorio Dávila Espinoza (September 15, 1887—October 19, 1955), was Secretary General of the Organization of American States from 1954 until his death in 1955. ... Arturo Fortunato Alessandri Palma (December 20, 1868–August 24, 1950) was a Chilean political figure and reformer. ... Pedro Aguirre Cerda (February 6, 1879 - November 25, 1941) was a Chilean political figure. ... Juan Antonio Ríos Morales (November 10, 1888-June 27, 1946) was president of Chile from 1942 to 1946, during World War II. A member of the Radical Party, he defeated General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo in the 1942 election, following the death of president Pedro Aguirre Cerda. ... Gabriel González Videla (22 November 1898–August 22, 1980) was President of Chile from 1946 to 1952. ... General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo (November 3, 1877–April 28, 1960) was a Chilean Army officer and political figure. ... Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez (May 19, 1896–August 31, 1986) was President of Chile from 1958 to 1964. ... Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was a Chilean political figure and president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (born June 24, 1942) was President of Chile from 1994 to 2000. ... Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born March 2, 1938) is a lawyer, economist and social democrat politician, who served as president of Chile from 2000 to 2006 . ... Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (born September 29, 1951) is a center-left politician and the current President of Chile—the first woman to hold this position in the countrys history. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_President_of_Chile. ... Flag of the President of Chile The President of Chile is both the chief of state and the head of government. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Valparaíso is one of the main seaports of Chile, on the Pacific Ocean, and the capital of the Valparaíso Region. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ...


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Salvador Allende - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4555 words)
Allende was not an ardent Marxist but an outspoken critic of capitalism, which made him deeply unpopular within the administrations of successive U.S. presidents, from John F. Kennedy to Richard Nixon.
Allende's implementation of these policies led to strong opposition by landowners, some middle-class sectors, the rightist National Party, the Roman Catholic Church (which was displeased with the direction of educational policy [3]), and eventually the Christian Democrats.
In 1972, Salvador Allende suggested the Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal to ask the Chilean Supreme Court to extradite former SS Colonel Walther Rauff to Germany.
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