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Encyclopedia > Salute

A salute is a gesture (often hand gesture) or other action used to display respect. Salutes are primarily associated with armed forces, but other organizations also use salutes. Look up salute in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For gestures in computing, see mouse gesture. ... Hand gestures, are gestures performed by one or two hands. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ...

Contents

Military salutes

In military traditions of various times and places, there have been numerous methods of performing salutes, using hand gestures, cannon or rifle shots, hoisting of flags, removal of headgear, or other means of showing respect or deference. In the Commonwealth of Nations, only officers are saluted, and the salute is to the commission they carry from their respective commanders-in-chief, not the officer themselves. For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... Iraqi wearing a keffiyeh. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ...


Hand salutes

A common military hand salute consists of raising the right hand, held flat, to the right eyebrow. In the United States, the hand is slightly canted forward, as if shading the eyes so that the palm is not visible to the one being saluted. This salute is based on the British naval salute of the Royal Navy, which is still in use. The British military salute, used by the British Army, Royal Marines, Royal Air Force and the armed services of many of the current and former British colonies in the Commonwealth, is similar, except that the hand is turned so the palm is visible to the person receiving it, and is only used if the person saluting is wearing headgear. When performing a British salute the general method is the right arm is lifted for the brow via a long, full extended cicular motion, however to end the salute there is a simple 'snap' down and the hand is placed back into the attention position, this is commonly known as 'long way up, short way down'. The French Army salute is almost identical to the British Army's. The Republic of Korea Army uses a salute similar to the United States military salute. The customary salute in the Polish Armed Forces is the two-fingers salute, a variation of the British military salute with only two fingers extended. In the Russian military, the right hand, palm down, is brought to the right temple, almost, but not quite, touching; the head has to be covered. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The Royal Marines (RM) are the marines and amphibious infantry of the United Kingdom and, along with the Royal Navy and Royal Fleet Auxiliary, form the Naval Service [2]. They are also the United Kingdoms amphibious force and specialists in mountain and Arctic warfare. ... “RAF” redirects here. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... The Republic of Korea Army (ROK Army, ROKA, hangul: 대한민국 육군; hanja: 大韓民國 陸軍) is by far the largest of the military branches, with over 560,000 members as of 2004. ... Wojsko Polskie (WP, Polish Army) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Two-fingers salute in Poland. ... The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (UTC) (Russian: Transliteration: Vooruzhyónniye síly Rossíyskoy Federátsii) is the military of Russia, established after the break-up of the Soviet Union. ...


In the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, Marine Corps, U.S. Coast Guard, and each of the British Armed Forces, hand salutes are only given when a cover (protection for the head, usually a hat) is worn. The U.S. Army gives salutes both covered and uncovered. Saluting indoors is forbidden except when formally reporting to a superior officer or during an indoor ceremony. “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... USN redirects here. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the United States armed forces a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... The armed forces of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, and sometimes legally the Armed Forces of the Crown[1], encompasses a navy, army, and an air force. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A hat is an item of clothing which is worn on the head; a kind of headgear. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ...

Admiral Jay L. Johnson and Admiral Vern Clark of the United States Navy salute each other during a change-of-command ceremony. Clark is relieving Johnson as Chief of Naval Operations.

When the presence of enemy snipers is suspected, military salutes are generally forbidden, since the enemy may use them to recognize officers as valuable targets. Admiral Clark relieving Admiral Johnson as Chief of Naval Operations; public domain image from http://www. ... Admiral Clark relieving Admiral Johnson as Chief of Naval Operations; public domain image from http://www. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Admiral Jay L. Johnson Born in Great Falls, Mont. ... Admiral Vern Clark Admiral Vern Clark is Chief of Naval Operations in the United States Navy. ... USN redirects here. ... The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the senior military officer in the United States Navy. ... For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ...


Origin

The exact origin of this salute has been lost in time. One theory is that it came from Roman soldiers' shading their eyes from the intense light that was pretended to shine from the eyes of their superiors. Another theory is that it came from when men-at-arms wore armor--a friendly approach would include holding the reins of the horse with the left hand while raising the visor of the helmet with the right, so that one could be recognised. A third theory is that the salute, and the handshake, came from a way of showing that the right hand (the fighting hand) was not concealing a weapon. Man-at-arms was a medieval term for a soldier, almost always a professional. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Rustic Civility by William Collins showing a child "tugging his forelock" as a local authority figure passes on horseback (only visible by the shadow)
Rustic Civility by William Collins showing a child "tugging his forelock" as a local authority figure passes on horseback (only visible by the shadow)

The most widely accepted theory is that it evolved from the practice of men raising their hats in the presence of officers. Tipping one's hat on meeting a social superior was the normal civilian sign of respect at the time [1]. Repeated hat-raising was impractical if heavy helmets were worn, so the gesture was stylised to a mere hand movement. It was also common for individuals who did not wear hats to "tug their forelock" in imitation of the gesture of tipping the hat. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... William Collins (1788-1847) was a British landscape and genre painter. ...


The naval salute, with the palm downwards, is said to have originated because the palms of naval ratings, particularly deckhands, were often dirty through working with lines. Because it would be insulting to present a dirty palm to an officer, the palm was turned downwards. In Nelson's time, enlisted men saluted officers by touching a clenched fist to the brow. Category: ... Nelson may refer to: [edit] People with the Given Name Nelson Nelson Mandela, South African politician and activist Nelson Muntz, fictional cartoon character on The Simpsons Nelson Piquet, Brazilian racing driver Nelson Rockefeller, American politician Nelson Sale Kilifa, Solomon Islands footballer [edit] Places Nelson, British Columbia, Canada Nelson, Georgia, USA...


Small arms salutes

When carrying a sword (which is still done on ceremonial occasions), European military forces and their cultural descendants use a two-step gesture. The sword is first raised, in the right hand, to the level of and close to the front of the neck. The blade is inclined forward and up 30 degrees from the vertical; the true edge is to the left. Then the sword is slashed downward to a position with the point close to the ground in front of the right foot. The blade is inclined down and forward with the true edge to the left. This gesture originated in the Crusades. The hilt of a broadsword formed a cross with the blade, so if an actual crucifix was not available, a Crusader could kiss the hilt of his sword when praying, before entering battle, for oaths and vows, and so on. The lowering of the point to the ground is a traditional act of submission. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... See also: Hilt (band) and Peter Hilt Hilt of Szczerbiec The hilt of a sword is its handle, consisting of a guard, grip and pommel. ... The term broadsword is used to refer to different types of swords, across many cultures and time periods. ... The Crucifix, a cross with corpus, a symbol used in Catholicism in contrast with some other Christian communions, which use only a cross. ...


When armed with a rifle, two different levels of formality are available when saluting. The most formal method is called "present arms"; the rifle is brought to the vertical, muzzle up, in front of center of the chest with the trigger away from the body. The hands hold the stock close to the positions they would have if the rifle were being fired, though the trigger is not touched. Less formal salutes include the "order arms salute" and the "shoulder arms salutes." These are most often given by a sentry to a low-ranking superior who does not rate the full "present arms" salute. In the "order arms salute," the rifle rests on its butt by the sentry's right foot, held near the muzzle by the sentry's right hand, and does not move. The sentry brings his flattened left hand across his body and touches the rifle near its muzzle. When the rifle is being carried on the shoulder, a similar gesture is used in which the flattened free hand is brought across the body to touch the rifle near the rear of the receiver.


Heavy arms: gun salutes

A saluting cannon fired on the arrival of a dignitary.
A saluting cannon fired on the arrival of a dignitary.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2644x1889, 494 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Salute Explosion Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2644x1889, 494 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Salute Explosion Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to...

Naval cannon fire

The custom of firing cannon salutes originated in the British Royal Navy. When a cannon was fired, it partially disarmed the ship, so needlessly firing a cannon showed respect and trust. As a matter of courtesy a warship would fire her guns harmlessly out to sea, to show that she had no hostile intent. At first, ships were required to fire seven guns, and forts, with their more numerous guns and a larger supply of gunpowder, to fire 21 times. Later, as the quality of gunpowder improved, the British increased the number of shots required from ships to match the forts. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ...


The system of odd numbered rounds is said to have been originated by Samuel Pepys, Secretary to the Navy in the Restoration, as a way of economising on the use of powder, the rule until that time having been that all guns had to be fired. Odd numbers were chosen, as even numbers indicated a death. Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ...


As naval customs evolved the 21-gun salute came to be reserved for heads of state, with fewer rounds used to salute lower ranking officials. Today officers with 5 stars receive 19 rounds; 4 stars receive 17 rounds; 3 stars receive 15; 2 stars receive 13; and a 1-star general or admiral receives 11. These same standards are currently adhered to by ground-based saluting batteries. A gun salute being fired by members of the The 21-gun salute is a ceremonial military honour performed when 21 rounds are fired from a cannon, rifle, or other form of firearm. ... An officer of 5 star rank is a very senior commander in any of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-10. ... An officer of 4 star rank is a very senior commander in any of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-9. ... An officer of 3 star rank is a very senior commander in any of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-8. ... An officer of 2 star rank is a senior commander in any of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-7. ... A brigadier generals rank insignia An officer of 1 star rank is a senior commander in any of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-6. ...


Multiples of 21-gun salutes may be fired for particularly important celebrations.


US Army Presidential Salute Battery

A speciality platoon of the 3rd US Infantry (The Old Guard), the Presidential Salute Battery is based at Ft. Myer, Virginia. Guns Platoon (as it is known for short) has the task of rendering military honors in the National Capital Region; these include: Armed Forces Full Honors Funerals; State Funerals; Presidential Inaugurations; full honors wreath ceremonies at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington National Cemetery; arrivals of Heads of State at The Pentagon, and General officer retirements in the Military District of Washington (MDW), which are normally conducted at Ft. Myer. Guns Platoon has ten vintage World War II hybrid anti-tank guns; each of the guns has a 3-inch barrel which is mounted on a 105 mm Howitzer chassis. The 3rd United States Infantry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army which serves as Escort to the President or Presidential Guard. ... Fort Myer is a U.S. Army base located adjacent to Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. It is now the home of the Air Force Chief of Staff and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power. ... Sailor and girl at the Tomb of the Unknowns, May 1943 The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named) is a monument in Arlington National Cemetery, United States dedicated to the American soldiers who have died without... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A head of state or chief of state is the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the countrys... This article is about the United States military building. ... Military District of Washington Shoulder Sleeve Insignia Military District of Washington Distinctive Unit Insignia The Military District of Washington (MDW), is one of nineteen major commands of the U.S. Army. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In the colonial context

In the British Empire (originally in the maritime and hinterland- sphere of influence of the East India Company, HEIC, later transformed into crown territories), mainly in British India, the numbers of guns fired as a gun salute to the ruler of a so-called princely state became a politically highly significant indicator of his status, not governed by objective rules, but awarded (and in various cases increased) by the British paramount power, roughly reflecting his state's socio-economic, political and/or military weight, but also as a prestigious reward for loyalty to the raj, in classes (always odd numbers) from 3 to 21 (7 lacking), for the 'vassal' indigenous rulers (normally hereditary with a throne, sometimes raised as a personal distinction for an individual ruling prince). Two sovereign monarchies officially outside the Empire were actually granted a higher honour: 31 guns for the royal houses of Afghanistan (under British and Russian influence) and Siam. A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ...


In addition, the right to style himself Highness (Majesty, which since its Roman origin expresses the sovereign authority of the state, was denied to all 'vassals'), a title of great importance in international relations, was formally restricted to rulers of relatively high salute ranks (originally only those with 11 guns or more, later also those with 9 guns). Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ...


Aerial salutes

A ceremonial or celebratory form of aerial salute is the flypast, which often follows major parades such as the annual Trooping the Colour in the United Kingdom or the French défilé du 14 juillet. It is seen in other countries as well, notably Singapore and Canada. The Red Arrows and Concorde conclude a special flypast over Buckingham Palace on 4 June, 2002 celebrating the Queens Golden Jubilee. ... Elizabeth II riding to Trooping the Colour for the last time in 1986 Trooping the Colour is a military pageant or ceremony performed by regiments of the Commonwealth and the British Army. ... Mounted Republican Guards escort the command vehicle of the President. ...


Gun salute by aircraft, primarily displayed during funerals, began with simple flypasts during World War I and have evolved into the missing man formation, where either a formation of aircraft is conspicuously missing an element, or where a single plane abruptly leaves a formation. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The missing man formation flying over the USS Arizona memorial in Hawaii For the Vince Welnick group, see Missing Man Formation (band). ...


A casual salute by an aircraft, somewhat akin to waving to a friend, is the custom of "waggling" the wings by partially rolling the aircraft first to one side, and then the other.


From United States Army Field Manual FM 22-5

The rules of saluting are as follows:

  • When you meet someone outside, salute as soon as you recognize an officer (when about six steps away).
  • Salute all officers (recognized by rank) in official vehicles identified by special plates or flags.
  • Salute only on command when in formation.
  • If in a group and an officer approaches, the first soldier to recognize the officer calls the group to attention and all personnel salute.
  • If you approach an officer while you are double-timing alone, assume quick time march and render the hand salute. When the salute is returned, execute order arms and resume double-timing.
  • The salute is always initiated by the subordinate and is terminated only after acknowledgement by the individual being saluted.
  • Accompany the salute with an appropriate greeting, such as, “Good morning/afternoon, sir/ma’am.“
  • Salutes are not required to be rendered by or to personnel who are driving or riding in privately owned vehicles.
  • It is not customary for enlisted personnel to exchange salutes, except in some ceremonial situations.
  • Never render a salute with a noticeable object in your mouth or right hand.
  • If you are on detail and an officer approaches, salute if you are in charge of the detail. Otherwise, continue to work. If you are spoken to, then come to attention.

Saluting is generally prohibited in field conditions, as it could help an enemy identify officers.


Civilian Salutes

While such gestures as tipping one's hat as one passed others on the street can be considered salutes, the most common civilian salute is rendered to the flag. In the United States, civilians salute its national flag by placing their right hands over their hearts and saying the Pledge of Allegiance. (Men remove any headgear and hold it over their hearts, if applicable.) In Latin America, especially in Mexico, a salute similar to the United States military's salute (see below) is used, but the hand is placed across the left chest with the palm facing the ground. (For a demonstration, see the Richard Dreyfuss movie Moon Over Parador). The same salute was instituted in Albania as the "Zog salute" by King Zog I. In most countries, civilians do not salute the flag, although some may stand at attention when a national anthem is played, the flag raised or lowered, or the Last Post sounded. Union Jack. ... The Pledge of Allegiance is a promise or oath of allegiance to the United States as represented by its national flag. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Richard Stephen Dreyfuss (born October 29, 1947) is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Zog I, Skanderbeg III of Albania (born Ahmet Zogolli, later changed to Ahmet Zogu) (October 8, 1895 – April 9, 1961) was King of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ... The position of attention is a military posture which involves the following: -Tucking arms to the side -Looking straight forward -Keeping heels together This position is common in most military organizations throughout the world. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Last Post is a bugle call used at military funerals and ceremonies commemorating those who have fallen in war. ...


Roman salute

The Roman salute is the right hand held flat, palm down and fingers closed, and the right arm raised at an angle of about 45 degrees. It was used by the Roman Republic, by armies of the Middle East (even before being adopted by the Romans) and South America at various times. It was also the historical civilian salute of the United States, from about 1787 to 1934, known since 1892 as the Bellamy salute. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 774 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1292 × 1001 pixel, file size: 154 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 774 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1292 × 1001 pixel, file size: 154 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Oath of the Horatii (1784) is a painting by Jacques-Louis David, painted before the French Revolution, depicting the Roman salute. ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... The Oath of the Horatii (1784), by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Students reciting the pledge using the Bellamy salute. ...


When the Nazi party of Germany adopted the Roman salute from the Italian fascists, President of the United States Franklin Roosevelt instituted the hand-over-the heart as the salute to be rendered by civilians during the Pledge of Allegiance and the national anthem in the United States. This was done when Congress officially adopted the Flag Code on June 22, 1942. Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Because of its associations with fascism, the Roman salute is now rarely used outside of neo-Nazi groups. There are several exceptions; one is the Republic of China (Taiwan), where the salute is still used during the inaugurations of government officials. The salute is also still used by some Palestinian militant groups, Hezbollah in Lebanon, the swearing-in oath of the President of Mexico, the Basij militia in Iran, and some Maronite movements in Lebanon. It is also known to be used by the Tamil separatist organization, the LTTE, while saluting their leader Velupillai Prabhakaran. Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Basij (also Bassij or Baseej, Persian: ‎), is an Islamic Republic paramilitary force that was founded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in November of 1979 to provide volunteers for human wave attacks in the Iran-Iraq War. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Velupillai Prabhakaran (Tamil: வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்; born November 26, 1954), sometimes referred to as V. Prabhakaran or Pirabaharan or as Thambi,[] was born in the northern coastal town of Velvettithurai, Sri Lanka to Thiruvenkadam Velupillai and Vallipuram Parvathy. ...


Clenched fist salute

The raised clenched fist was popularized by the Communist Party, and in some locations it maintains that association. In the United States, the raised fist was associated with the Black Power movement, symbolized in the 1968 Olympics Black Power Salute; a clenched-fist salute is also proper in many African nations, including South Africa. However, the two salutes are somewhat different: in the Black Power salute, the arm is held straight, while in the working-class salute the arm is bent slightly at the elbow. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Tommie Smith (center) and John Carlos (right) showing the Black Power salute in the 1968 Summer Olympics while Silver medalist Peter Norman (left) wears an Olympic Project for Human Rights badge to show his support for the two Americans. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Greetings

Many different gestures are used throughout the world as simple greetings. In Western cultures, the handshake is very common, though it has numerous subtle variations of grip strength, amount of "pumping" involved, and use of the left hand. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In many Asian cultures, a simple bow from the waist (rei in Japanese, panbae in Korean) is used, with many regional variations seen. The Japanese keep the palms of their hands touching the fronts of the thighs, but Korean men leave their hands straight down at their sides, while Korean women usually place their hands in their lap while bowing. A gesture called a wai is used in Thailand, where the hands are placed together palm to palm, approximately at nose level, while bowing. The wai is similar in form to the gesture referred to by the Japanese term gassho by Buddhists. A Chinese greeting features the right hand in a fist with the left hand open covering it with a slight nod of the head. This is also used in Chinese martial arts, typically done from the shoulders with a slight bend of the waist. There is also a slight bow used only in paying respects to the dead. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Contents: Top - A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...


In India, it is common to see the greeting ("Namaste") where the two hands (palms) are pressed together and held near the heart with the head gently bowed as one says, "Namaste" or "Namaskara". In Thailand, the men and women would usually press two palms together and bow a little while saying "Savadikap" or "Savadikrap"", depending on gender.


The Arabic term salaam, literally "peace" from the spoken greeting that accompanies the gesture, refers to a low bow performed while placing the right palm on the forehead. Some cultures use hugs and kisses (regardless of the sex of the greeters), but those gestures show an existing degree of intimacy and are not used between total strangers. All of these gestures are being supplemented or completely displaced by the handshake in areas with large amounts of business contact with the West. Look up Salaam in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about affection. ... For other uses, see Kiss (disambiguation). ...


These bows indicate respect and acknowledgement of social rank, but do not necessarily imply obeisance.


Many secret societies develop gestures to signal fellow members. In 1830s Missouri, some Mormons formed a militia organization called the Sons of Dan, more commonly known as the Danite band, which developed a salute "whereby ye may know each other anywhere, either by day or night, and if a brother be in distress. It is thus: to clap the right hand to the thigh, and then raise it quick to the right temple, the thumb extending behind the ear." For the Europe album, see Secret Society (Europe album). ... // Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Evolutionary theorist Charles Darwins expedition on the HMS Beagle. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... The Danites were a Latter Day Saint vigilante group organized in the late 1830s. ...


A common kung fu salute involves making one hand into a fist and covering it with the other hand. There are considerable differences between different traditions as to which hand is made into a fist, and what the salute symbolizes, although it has been noted that unlike a handshake or an elaborate Western-style salute, the kung fu salute does not compromise one's immediate ability to defend one's self. In fact, it is often, perhaps primarily, used to salute an opponent prior to sparring. It may also imply "I am at your service." Alternative meaning: Kung Fu (TV series) Kung fu or gongfu (功夫, Pinyin: gōngfu) is a well-known Chinese term used in the West to designate Chinese martial arts. ...


Obeisances

An obeisance is a gesture not only of respect but also of submission. Such gestures are rarer in cultures that do not have strong class structures; citizens of the Western World, for example, often react with hostility to the idea of bowing to an authority figure. The distinction between a formally polite greeting and an obeisance is often hard to make; for example, proskynesis (Greek for "moving towards") is described by the Greek researcher Herodotus of Halicarnassus, who lived in the 5th century BC in his Histories 1.134: Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: ; Turkish: , modern Bodrum) was an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Anatolia (Asia Minor), on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf (Gulf of Kos, Gulf of Gökova). ... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ...

When the Persians meet one another in the roads, you can see whether those who meet are of equal rank. For instead of greeting by words, they kiss each other on the mouth; but if one of them is inferior to the other, they kiss one another on the cheeks, and if one is of much less noble rank than the other, he falls down before him and worships him.

After his conquest of Persia, Alexander the Great introduced Persian etiquette into his own court, including the practice of proskynesis. Visitors, depending on their ranks, would have to prostrate themselves, bow to, kneel in front of, or kiss the king. His Greek and Macedonian subjects objected to this practice, as they considered these rituals only suitable to the gods. Persia redirects here. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


In countries with recognized social classes, bowing to nobility and royalty is customary. Standing bows of obeisance all involve bending forward from the waist with the eyes downcast, though variations in the placement of the arms and feet are seen. In western European cultures, women do not bow, they "curtsey" (a contraction of "courtesy" that became its own word), a movement in which one foot is moved back and the entire body lowered to a crouch while the head is bowed. A curtsey (also spelled curtsy) is a traditional gesture of greeting, predominantly done by women, in which the woman bends her knees while bowing forwards. ...

Jackie Chan rises from a kneeling kowtow in the movie Shanghai Noon.

More elaborate gestures of obeisance are used in formal conditions. The Chinese language term 叩頭 (literally "bump head", spelled kou4 tou3 in pinyin and "kowtow" in English) refers to the act of deep respect shown by bowing so low as to touch the head to the ground. The full kowtow begins kneeling and sitting back on the heels, with the hands on the thighs. The hands are then brought forward to the floor in front of the knees and the body inclined toward the horizontal. Whether or not the head is bowed as well reflects the degree of submission shown — in martial arts practices, for example, the neck is kept straight, but in religious ceremonies the forehead touches the ground. A slightly abbreviated version was developed for use outside and by armed guardsmen, who would flip their long sleeves down to cover their hands, drop to their left knees, place their right hands behind their backs and left palms on the floor in front of them while bowing their heads. Jackie Chan (rear) rises from a kneeling kowtow in the movie Shanghai Noon. ... Jackie Chan (rear) rises from a kneeling kowtow in the movie Shanghai Noon. ... Shanghai Noon is a 2000 movie starring Jackie Chan and Owen Wilson as Chans western sidekick. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Kowtowing Kowtow, from the Chinese term kòu tóu (Cantonese: kau tàuh) (叩頭), is the act of deep respect shown by kneeling and bowing so low as to touch the head to the ground. ...


In Islamic traditions, obeisance involves prostrating oneself and kissing the ground.


In South Asia traditions, obeisance also involves prostrating oneself before a king.


Many religious believers kneel in prayer, and some (Roman Catholics, and, rarely, Anglicans) genuflect, bending one knee to touch the ground, at various points during religious services; the Orthodox Christian equivalent is a deep bow from the waist, and as an especially solemn obeisance the Orthodox make prostrations, bending down on both knees and touching the forehead to the floor. During Islamic prayer, a kneeling bow called sajdah is used, with forehead, nose, hands, knees, and toes all touching the ground. Kneeling is a human position in which the weight is distributed on the knees and feet, typically on the ground. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... Look up Genuflection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... Poyasny (little bow) and zemnoy poklon (great bow) are different kinds of bows used in an Eastern Orthodox worship service. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... A salute is a gesture or other action used to indicate respect. ...


Marching bands

Hand salutes similar to those used in the military are rendered by the Drum Major of a marching band or drum corps just prior to beginning their performance (after the show announcer asks if the group is ready), as well as following completion of the performance, both rendered to the audience.


The classic "corps style" salute is often known as the "punch" type, where the saluting party will first punch their right arm straight forward from their body, arm parallel to the ground, hand in a fist, followed by the more traditional salute position with the right hand, left arm akimbo. Dropping the salute typically entails snapping the saluting hand to the side and clenching the fist, then dropping both arms to the sides.


Salutes in Fiction

Films

In the Marx Brothers film Duck Soup, the soldiers of Freedonia salute by placing their arm horizontally, with a down-facing open palm, across their chest. In the anime series Crest of the Stars and its sequels, Abh uses the Polish-style two-fingers salute except that in this version, his palm is facing downward. This article is about the comedian siblings. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Freedonia, (Land of the Spree, and the Home of the Knave), is a fictional country in Europe, seen during the 1933 movie Duck Soup, which starred the Marx Brothers. ... “Animé” redirects here. ... Crest of the Stars (Japanese: 星界の紋章 Seikai no Monshō) is a trilogy of space opera (some parts could classify as military science fiction/military space opera) science fiction novels written by Morioka Hiroyuki. ... Two-fingers salute in Poland. ...

Soldiers of Oceania salute Big Brother in the movie 1984.
Soldiers of Oceania salute Big Brother in the movie 1984.

In the movie 1984 (though not the novel), soldiers marching on parade and the Outer Party members at a frenzied "Two Minutes Hate" wave both clenched fists overhead with their wrists crossed. A very similar gesture is seen in Pink Floyd The Wall, but there the wrists are repeatedly banged together. Image File history File links Soldiers of Oceania salute Big Brother in the movie 1984. ... Image File history File links Soldiers of Oceania salute Big Brother in the movie 1984. ... This article is about the Orwell novel. ... Pink Floyd The Wall is a 1982 film by British director Alan Parker based on the 1979 Pink Floyd album The Wall. ...


In the films based on Tolkien's fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings, the soldiers of the hosts of Minas Tirith in Gondor salute by holding their right hand in a fist over their heart with the enclosed palm facing inwards. This is often accompanied by a half bow or a tip of the head forward. This salute is not specified in the book. Tolkien redirects here. ... This article is about the novel. ... Minas Tirith (IPA: ), originally named Minas Anor, is a heavily fortified city in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth writings, which was the capital of Gondor in the second half of the Third Age. ... Gondor is a fictional kingdom in J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth. ...


In the film Spaceballs, the titular Spaceballs salute by slapping the left hand upon the right upper arm, thrusting the right arm upwards with fist clenched (with left arm remaining on right upper arm), then rotating the raised hand and wiggling the fingers. (This could be interpreted as an "up yours" gesture, quickly disguised as an innocent "hi there" wave.) Mel Brooks' character, President Skroob, gives the most visibly-detailed example of the salute early in the movie, complete with facial expressions. Later in the movie, he is seen giving the salute hurriedly, inadvertently giving everybody the "up yours" instead of saluting them. Bold text Spaceballs is a 1987 science fiction parody film co-written, directed by, and starring Mel Brooks. ...


In the film Monty Python's Life of Brian, members of the People's Front of Judea (Officials) salute each other by holding the right hand in a fist to the right temple, palm out. Monty Pythons Life of Brian is a 1979 comedy written and performed by the Monty Python comedy team. ...


In the film Things to Do in Denver When You're Dead, characters such as Jimmy "The Saint" Tosnia use a system of saluting each other derived from their time spent incarcerated. When greeting visitors in prison they would each press a palm to the glass divider, the closest they could get to one other. They continue this tradition once released, often followed by an embrace and usually accompanied by the expression "Boat Drinks" (a reference to their ideal situation - drinks on a boat). Things to Do in Denver When Youre Dead is a 1995 movie directed by Glen Fleder and written by Scott Rosenborg. ...


In the film Galaxy Quest, the salute is for a fist to be placed over the heart, accompanied by saying "Never give up, never surrender." This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed compared to the rest of the article. ...


Television

Two early TV performers established versions of the salute as their signature closings. Dave Garroway, the first host of The Today Show on NBC, used the open-palm Peace salute in the 1950s. A half-decade later, viewers of American Bandstand host Dick Clark would see him close his show with a military salute and the phrase, "For now, Dick Clark — so long." The salute and phrase has become Clark's trademark. David Cunningham Garroway (July 13, 1913 – July 21, 1982, suicide) was the founding host of NBCs Today from 1952 to 1961, whose easygoing, relaxed and relaxing style belied a battle with depression that may have contributed to the end of his days as a television bigtimer and, in due... Today, commonly referred to as The Today Show to avoid ambiguity, is an American morning news and talk show airing weekday mornings on the NBC television network. ... Dick Clark, host of American Bandstand American Bandstand was a long-running dance music television show that aired in various versions from 1952 to 1989. ... For other persons named Dick Clark, see Dick Clark (disambiguation). ...


In the television series The Prisoner, the fictional inhabitants of The Village gesture farewell by forming a ring with the right thumb and index finger while extending the other three fingers and looking through that ring with the right eye. One then lowers the hand and says "Be seeing you." For other uses, see The Prisoner (disambiguation) and Prisoner. ...


On the science fiction series Babylon 5, the Psi Cop Alfred Bester character uses a variant of the Prisoner salute - bringing the ring up to his forehead instead of his eye - while retaining the associated phrase. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ... Spoiler warning: In the fictional universe of Babylon 5, the Psi Corps was an agency of the Earth Alliance responsible for telepathic individuals. ... Alfred Bester is the name of a fictional character in the television series Babylon 5, played by Walter Koenig. ...


On the British comedy series Red Dwarf, the fictional character of crewman Arnold Rimmer invented several elaborate salutes such as the "Half Rimmer," the "Full Rimmer," and the "Double Rimmer". In the episode "Holoship", both the crew of the "S. S. S. Enlightenment" and Rimmer salute by holding the right hand up, extending the index and pinky finger, and curling the middle and ring fingers towards the thumb.[1] For the type of star, see Red dwarf. ... Arnold Judas Rimmer BSc, SSc (Bronze Swimming certificate, Silver Swimming certificate), who sometimes goes by Arnold Jonathan Rimmer, is a fictional character in the television series Red Dwarf, played by Chris Barrie. ... This is an episode list for the British science fiction sitcom Red Dwarf. ... The British sci-fi comedy Red Dwarf prominently features many different spaceships. ... Arnold Judas Rimmer BSc, SSc (Bronze Swimming certificate, Silver Swimming certificate), who sometimes goes by Arnold Jonathan Rimmer, is a fictional character in the television series Red Dwarf, played by Chris Barrie. ...


Another British comedy to feature the continual use of salutes is Garth Marenghi's Darkplace, this spoof horror 1980s television show contains the main protagonist, Dr Rick Dagless M.D., utilising dramtic salutes in several situations. For example he salutes his fellow doctors after a succesful mission or children patients after he's saved their lives. Garth Marenghis Darkplace is a comedy series made for Channel 4. ...


In Star Trek, the fictional race of Vulcans exchange salutes by showing the right palm and spreading the middle finger and ring finger apart; the forefinger and middle finger are kept together, as are the ring and little fingers, while the persons exchanging salutes often say the words "Live long and prosper", optionally followed by the name or title of the person being saluted.[2] The fictional race of Klingons salute by striking the clenched fist against the chest, then extending the arm. In addition, a nazi-based salute is used by the Terran Empire in the Mirror Universe - a clenched fist is struck against the chest, then that arm and hand is held out straight. The arm is held parallel to the ground, rather than raised as with a nazi salute.
The Nietzschean race of Gene Roddenberry's Andromeda performs a similar salute. This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... It has been suggested that Tplana-hath be merged into this article or section. ... Leonard Nimoy, the actor who played the half-Vulcan Spock on Star Trek, devised the Vulcan Salute, consisting of a raised hand, palm forward with the fingers parted between the middle and ring finger. ... This article is about the fictional race. ... This article is about the Nietzschean race in the television series Andromeda. ... Gene Roddenberrys Andromeda is an American science fiction television series, based on unused material by Gene Roddenberry developed by Robert Hewitt Wolfe, and produced posthumously by his widow, Majel Roddenberry. ...


In 3rd Rock from the Sun, the High Commander salutes The Big Giant Head by hitting the palm of his right hand onto his forehead, rotating the hand. The rest of the aliens salute by holding their right hands towards their foreheads with the palm facing upwards and fingers pointing to the right. In Futurama, Zapp Brannigan salutes by raising his right hand clenched in a fist face down up to his heart, then extended face down up to his right eyebrow (as in a United States military salute), then extending the arm in a horizontal arc, as if flying away. All three parts are performed in one continuous motion. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Futurama is an animated American cartoon series created by Matt Groening (creator of The Simpsons) and David X. Cohen (also a writer for The Simpsons). ... Major General Webelo Zapp Brannigan is a fictional character in the television series Futurama. ...


On Power Rangers: S.P.D., the Space Patrol Delta cadets render the S.P.D. salute that's similar to the Latin American salute by placing their right hands across the left chest with the palm facing down for a half-second and sliding their right hands over their heart, clenching a fist.


Books

In Douglas Adams's novel Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency, the well-known line from Coleridge's Kubla Khan, "Weave a circle round him thrice", is interpreted as the salute of an alien culture: "He waved [his] hand round in a circle, three times." Douglas Noël Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, comic radio dramatist, and musician. ... Dirk Gentlys Holistic Detective Agency is a novel by Douglas Adams. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also

A feu de joie (French: fire of joy) is a gun salute, described as a running fire of guns, on unique or recurring occasions of public rejoicing of nation and/or ruling dynasty. ... Two-fingers salute in Poland. ... Scouts use a three-finger salute to salute each other, and their nations flag. ... Military courtesy is one of the defining features of a professional military. ... Noon-day Gun sign The Noon-day Gun (午炮) is a former naval gun mounted on a small enclosed site near the Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter on Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. ... The Red Arrows and Concorde conclude a special flypast over Buckingham Palace on 4 June, 2002 celebrating the Queens Golden Jubilee. ... China Airlines Cargo maiden flight receives a water salute A water salute occurs for ceremonial purposes when a vehicle travels under plumes of water expelled by two or more fire fighting vehicles. ...

References

  1. ^ The gesture is visually similar to a sign made by fans of the University of Texas (Austin), "Hook 'em Horns"
  2. ^ Leonard Nimoy based this salute on a Jewish gesture in which the hand approximates the shape of the Hebrew letter shin, the first letter in Shaddai, a name for the Almighty.

University of Texas redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mano cornuto. ... Leonard Simon Nimoy (born March 26, 1931) is an American actor, film director, poet, musician and photographer. ...

External Links

  • Leonard Wong, Douglas C. Lovelace, Jr.: Knowing when to Salute, Strategic Studies Institute of the US Army War College, Juli 2007

  Results from FactBites:
 
Salute - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3959 words)
When the Nazi party of Germany adopted the Roman salute from the Italian fascists, President of the United States Franklin Roosevelt instituted the hand-over-the heart as the salute to be rendered by civilians during the Pledge of Allegiance and the national anthem in the United States.
Kosovo's KLA uses a salute similar to the British military-salute, except that the fingers are clenched into a fist and the knuckles pressed against the temple, a gesture originating with the communist movement.
Gun salute by aircraft, primarily displayed during funerals, began with simple fly-overs during World War I and have evolved into the missing man formation, where either a formation of aircraft is conspicuously missing an element, or where a single plane abruptly leaves a formation.
Salute - definition of Salute in Encyclopedia (2869 words)
The origin of this salute is unknown, though one theory suggests that it probably originated when men-at-arms wore armor, a friendly approach would include holding the reins of the horse with the left hand while raising the visor of the helmet with the right, so that one could be recognised.
As naval customs evolved, the 21-gun salute came to be reserved for heads of states, and a lesser numbers of guns or unshots were used to salute lower ranking officials.
Aerial salutes by aircraft, primarily displayed during funerals, began with simple fly-overs during World War I and have evolved into the missing man formation, where either a formation of aircraft is conspicuously missing an element, or where a single plane abruptly leaves a formation.
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