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Encyclopedia > Saltpeter War
War of the Pacific

Peru, Bolivia and Chile beginning 1879
Date 1879–1884
Location Pacific coast of South America
Result Chilean victory
Casus
belli
Bolivian–Chilean border dispute
Territorial
changes
Tarapaca and Litoral annexed by Chile
Arica and Tacna under Chilean occupation (1880–1929)
Bolivia lost access to the sea
Combatants
Republic of Peru
Republic of Bolivia
Republic of Chile
Commanders
Juan Buendía,
Andrés Cáceres,
Miguel Grau
Manuel Baquedano,
Patricio Lynch,
Juan Williams
Strength
Peru-Bolivian Army 7,000 soldiers in 1878
Peruvian Navy 2 ironclad, 1 corvette, 1 gunboat
Army of Chile 4,000 soldiers in 1878
Chilean Navy 2 battleship, 4 corvettes, 2 gunboats
Casualties
35,000 Peruvians wounded and killed, 5000 Bolivians killed and wounded 15,000 wounded and killed

The War of the Pacific, sometimes called the Saltpeter War in reference to its original cause, was fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia and Peru, from 1879 to 1884. Chile gained substantial mineral-rich territory in the conflict, annexing both the Peruvian province of Tarapacá and the Bolivian province of Litoral, leaving Bolivia as a landlocked country. Peru, Bolivia and Chile before the 1879 War The copyright status of this vintage image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Tarapacá is Chiles northernmost administrative region. ... Antofagasta is Chiles second administrative region from north to south. ... Morro de Arica Arica is a port city in northern Chile, located only 18 km (11 miles) south of the border with Peru. ... Tacna is a city in southern Peru, located only 35 km (21 mi) north from the border with Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru_(state). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia_(state). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru_(state). ... Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray (10 November 1836 – 1923) was twice President of Peru during the 19th century, from 1886 to 1890, and again from 1894 to 1895. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru_(state). ... Miguel Grau Seminario Rear Admiral Miguel Grau Seminario (July 27, 1834 - October 8, 1879) was a renowned Peruvian naval officer and hero of the Naval Battle of Angamos during the War of the Pacific (1879-1884). ... It may have been generated by a computer or by a translator with limited proficiency in English or the original language. ... Patricio Lynch (1825-1886) Chilean naval officer, was born in Valparaiso on the 18th of December 1825, his father being a wealthy Irish merchant resident in Chile, and his mother, Carmen Solo de Saldiva, a descendant of one of the best-known families in the country. ... Rear-Admiral Juan Williams Rebolledo Juan Williams Rebolledo (Curacaví 1825 - Santiago, June 24, 1910) Chilean Rear-Admiral, organizer and Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean navy at the begining of the War of the Pacific. ... Peruvian Navy Jack The Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Perú) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with surveillance, patrol and defense on lakes, rivers and the Pacific Ocean up to 200 nautical miles from the peruvian littoral. ... Chilean Navy Jack The Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile) is the naval force of Chile. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Tarapacá is Chiles northernmost administrative region, hence also known as I Región (1st Region) in the standard north-to-south numbering of Chilean regions. ... Antofagasta is Chiles second administrative region from north to south. ...

Contents

Origins

The War of the Pacific grew out of a dispute between Chile and Bolivia over control of a part of the Atacama desert that lies between the 23rd and 26th parallels on the Pacific coast. The territory contained valuable mineral resources which were exploited by Chilean companies and British interests; a tax increase on these quickly escalated into a commercial dispute, diplomatic crisis and war. Atacama The Atacama Desert of Chile is a virtually rainless plateau made up of salt basins (salares), sand, and lava flows, extending from the Andes mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan) is the largest body of water on Earth – at 165. ...


Control of natural resources

The dry climate of the area had permitted the accumulation and preservation of huge quantities of high-quality nitrate deposits — guano and saltpeter — over thousands of years. The discovery during the 1840s of their use as fertilizer and as a key ingredient in explosives made the area strategically valuable; Bolivia, Chile and Peru had suddenly found themselves sitting on the largest reserves of a resource that the world needed for economic and military expansion. Not long after this discovery, world powers were directly or indirectly vying for control of the area's resources. The USA had passed legislation in 1856 enabling its citizens to take possession of unoccupied islands containing guano. Spain had seized Peruvian territory, but was repulsed by Peru and Chile fighting as allies during the Chincha Islands War. Heavy British capital investment drove development through the area, although Peru later nationalized guano exploitation during the 1870s. The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (British English fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... The Guano Islands Act was federal legislation passed by the U.S. Congress on August 18, 1856 enabling citizens of the U.S. to take possession of islands containing guano deposits. ... A Peruvian battery during the Battle of Callao The Chincha Islands War (in Spanish, Guerra Hispano-Peruana) (1864-1866) was a series of coastal and naval battles between Spain and its former colonies of Peru and Chile. ...


In any case, an unresolved border issue would come to the forefront in the next few decades.


Border dispute

Main article: Atacama border dispute

Bolivian and Chilean historians disagree on whether the territory of Charcas, originally part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, later of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata and ultimately of Bolivia, included access to the sea. Supporting their claims with different documents, Bolivians claim that it did while Chileans disagree. When Simón Bolívar established Bolivia as a nation, he claimed access to the sea, although most economic exploitation of the coastal region was being conducted by Chilean companies and British interests, under the aegis of Chile's more robust economy and more stable institutions. Borders between Peru, Bolivia and Chile before the 1879 War of the Pacific (note: map does not faithfully represent some of the border, particularly the Bolivia-Argentina one. ... Charcas is a province in the Bolivian department of Potosí. Categories: South America-related stubs ... Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río... Created in 1776, the Viceroyalty of La Plata (in Spanish, Virreinato del Río de la Plata) was the last and most shortlived viceroyalty created by Spain. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


National borders in the region had not been clearly agreed until 1866; the two countries had negotiated a treaty[1] that established the 24th parallel as their boundary, and entitled Bolivia and Chile to share in tax revenue on mineral exports out of the territory between the 23rd and 25th parallels. A second treaty in 1874 superseded this, entitling Bolivia to collect full tax revenue between the 23rd and 24th parallels, but fixed tax rates on Chilean companies for 25 years.[1] Bolivia subsequently became dissatisfied at the arrangement, as Chilean interests backed by British capital quickly expanded and controlled the mining industry, and feared Chilean encroachment on its coastal region.


Crisis and war

History of Peru

This is the history of Peru. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1116 KB) This Picture was taken the 9th of April 2005 6. ...

By chronology 3000 BC - 1800 BC: Norte Chico 900 BC - 200 BC: Chavín 300 BC - AD 1480 Moche, Chimu 300 BC - AD 800 Nazca_culture 300 - 1100 Tiwanaku 500 - 1000 Huari 1100 - 1572: Inca Empire 1532 - 1572: Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire 1542 - 1821: Viceroyalty of Peru 1836 - 1839: Peru-Bolivian...

By nation The map of the Tahuantinsuyo An Andean bronze bottle made by Chimú artisans from circa 1300 A.D. The Stele from the Chavin Culture, Ancash, Peru Moche pottery, Lambayeque, Peru (Image © PROMPERU, used with permission) The Tiahuanaco Gate of the Sun, Puno, Peru An Andean bronze bottle made by Chim... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... There lies Peru with its riches; Here, Panama and its poverty. ... Created in 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru (in Spanish, Virreinato del Perú) contained most of Spanish-ruled South America until the creation of the separate viceroyalties of New Granada (now Colombia, Ecuador, Panamá and Venezuela, the last-named previously in the Viceroyalty of New Spain) in 1717 and Río... The economic crisis favored the indigenous rebellion from 1780 to 1781. ... Combatants Republic of Peru Republic of Ecuador Commanders Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Peru Shining Path Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement Commanders Fernando Belaúnde Terry Alan García Alberto Fujimori Abimael Guzmán Óscar Ramírez Comrade ArtemioVíctor Polay Nestor Cerpa Cartolini It has been estimated that nearly 70,000 people died in the internal conflict in Peru...

By topic The Inca Empire was an empire centered in what is now Peru from AD 1438 to AD 1533. ...

  • Constitutional history
  • Economic history
  • Military history
  • Social history
  • Maritime history

In 1878, the Bolivian government of President Hilarión Daza, decreed a backdated 1874 tax increase on Chilean companies, over protests by the Chilean government of President Aníbal Pinto that the border treaty did not allow such increase. When the Antofagasta Nitrate & Railway Company refused to pay, the Bolivian government threatened to confiscate its property. Chile responded by sending a warship to the area in December 1878. Bolivia announced the seizure and auction of the company for February 14, 1879. Chile in turn threatened that such action would render the border treaty null and void. On the day of the auction, 2000 Chilean soldiers arrived, disembarked and occupied the port city of Antofagasta without a fight. // Inca economy was mainly agricultural, although it reached some animal husbandry and mining development. ... Hilarión Daza Groselle (January 14, 1840 - February 27, 1894) was President of Bolivia from 1876 to 1879. ... Aníbal Pinto Aníbal Pinto Garmendia (March 15, 1825 - June 9, 1884) was a Chilean political figure. ... The Ferrocarril de Antofagasta a Bolivia (in English: Antofagasta (Chili) & Bolivia Railway or for short: FCAB) is a non-government railway operating in the northern provinces of Chile. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Antofagasta is bordered by the Pacific Ocean on the west and steep hills to the east Street in Antofagasta   () is a port city and episcopal see in northern Chile, about 700 miles north of Santiago. ...


Now facing a territorial issue, Bolivia declared war a week later ,and invoked its secret alliance with Peru: the Defensive Treaty of 1873.[2] The Peruvian government was determined to honor its alliance with Bolivia to contain what they perceived as Chile's expansionist ambitions in the region, but was concerned that Allied forces were not in shape to face the Chilean Army; a peaceful resolution was preferred. Peru attempted to mediate by sending a top diplomat to negotiate with the Chilean government. Chile requested neutrality and Peru declined, citing the now public treaty with Bolivia. Chile responded by breaking diplomatic contact and formally declaring war on both Allies on April 5, 1879. Peru thus found itself drawn into the war in spite of not being a party to the original dispute. Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country, usually by means of military aggression. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Argentina was invited to join the Alliance. Since it had a territorial dispute with Chile regarding the region of Patagonia, and was also wary of Chilean position, its entry in the war seemed possible and would have provided an advantage to the Allies. Argentina, however, decided to pursue a peaceful settlement to its own separate dispute and did not join the war. Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ...


The War

Bolivia, after several short-lived governments, stood unprepared to face the Chilean Army by itself. From the beginning of the war it became clear that, in a difficult desert war, control of the sea would provide the deciding factor. Bolivia had no navy and Peru faced an economic collapse that left its navy and army without proper training or budget. Most of its warships were old and unable to face battle, leaving only the ironclads Huáscar and Independencia ready. In contrast, Chile although in the middle of its own economic crises was better prepared counting on its modern navy supplemented a well-trained and equipped army. Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were ships sheathed with thick iron plates for protection. ... Huáscar is a small armoured turret ship, similar to the monitor type. ...


The Battle of Topáter, on 23 March 1879 was the first of the war. On their way to occupy Calama, 554 Chilean troops and cavalry were opposed by 135 Bolivian soldiers and civilian residents led by Dr. Ladislao Cabrera, dug in at two destroyed bridges; calls to surrender were rejected before and during the battle. Outnumbered and low on ammunition, most of the Bolivian force withdrew, except for a small group of civilians led by Colonel Eduardo Abaroa, that fought to the end. Combatants Chile Bolivia Commanders  ? Ladislao Cabrera Strength 554 soldiers 135 soldiers Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of Topáter was fought on March 23, 1879 between Chile and Bolivia. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (83rd in leap years). ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Calama is a city in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. ... Ladislao Cabrera is a province in the Bolivian department of Oruro. ... 1952 Bolivian stamp honoring Abaroa Colonel Eduardo Abaroa was the Bolivian hero of the War of the Pacific (1879–1883) between Chile, on one side, and Bolivia and Peru on the other. ...


Further ground battles would not take place until the war at sea was resolved.


Naval Campaign

The Peruvian Huascar ship.
The Peruvian Huascar ship.

Under the direction of Rear Admiral Juan Williams, the Chilean Navy and its powerful battleships — Almirante Cochrane and Blanco Encalada — started to operate on the Bolivian and Peruvian coast. The port of Iquique was blockaded, while Huanillos, Mollendo, Pica and Pisagua were bombarded and port facilities burned. Rear Admiral Williams hoped that, by disrupting commerce and especially saltpeter exports or weapons imports, the Allies' war effort would be weakened and the Peruvian Navy would be forced into a decisive showdown. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Rear-Admiral Juan Williams Rebolledo Juan Williams Rebolledo (Curacaví 1825 - Santiago, June 24, 1910) Chilean Rear-Admiral, organizer and Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean navy at the begining of the War of the Pacific. ...


The smaller, but effective, Peruvian Navy did not oblige. Under the command of Admiral Miguel Grau aboard Huáscar, Peru staged a series of blockade runs and harassment raids deep into Chilean waters. The plan was to disrupt Chilean operations, draw the enemy fleet back to the South while avoiding at all costs a fight against superior forces; as a consequence the Chilean invasion would be delayed, the Allies would be free to supply and reinforce their troops along the coast, and weapons would still flow into Peru from the North. Miguel Grau Seminario Rear Admiral Miguel Grau Seminario (July 27, 1834 - October 8, 1879) was a renowned Peruvian naval officer and hero of the Naval Battle of Angamos during the War of the Pacific (1879-1884). ...


The Naval Battle of Chipana, the first of the war at sea, took place off Huanillos on 12 April 1879, as Peruvian corvettes Unión and Pilcomayo found Chilean corvette Magallanes on its way to Iquique. After a two-hour running artillery duel, Unión suffered engine problems; the pursuit was called off and Magallanes escaped with minor damage. Combatants Chile Peru Commanders Juan Jose Latorre Aurelio Garcia Strength 1 corvette 2 corvettes Casualties none none The Naval Battle of Chipana took place on 12 April 1879 during the War of the Pacific between Chile and Peru. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate but larger than a coastal patrol craft. ...


In the Naval Battle of Iquique of 21 May 1879, Peruvian ships Huáscar and Independencia lifted the blockade of Iquique by Esmeralda and Covadonga, two of Chile's oldest wooden vessels. Huáscar sank Esmeralda, while Covadonga forced the larger Independencia to run aground at Punta Gruesa (some historians consider this a different engagement and call it the Battle of Punta Gruesa). The Battle of Iquique took place on May 21, 1879 during the War of the Pacific between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia and Peru. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Iquique (IPA /ikike/) is a city in northern Chile, capital of Tarapacá Region, on the Pacific coast, just west of the Atacama Desert. ... Combatants Chile Peru Commanders Carlos Condell Juan Guillermo More Strength 1 schooner 1 armoured frigate Casualties 4 dead 3 wounded 18 dead 5 wounded 1 armoured frigate lost The Naval Battle of Punta Gruesa took place on May 21, 1879 during the War of the Pacific between Chile and Peru. ...

Naval Battle of Iquique. The Esmeralda versus The Huascar
Naval Battle of Iquique. The Esmeralda versus The Huascar

The Chilean Navy lost a wooden corvette and elevated Captain Arturo Prat of Esmeralda as a martyr to their cause: he led a handful of sailors in boarding the ironclad. The Peruvian Navy lost a powerful ironclad frigate and saw Admiral Miguel Grau's renown grow among friend and foe as a result of his actions: he rescued the survivors of Esmeralda after the battle and wrote condolences to the widow of Captain Prat. Significantly, Huáscar remained the only Peruvian vessel capable of holding off the invasion. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Commander Arturo Prat Agustín Arturo Prat Chacón (April 4, 1848, near Ninhue - May 21, 1879, Iquique) was a Chilean naval officer and martyr of the War of the Pacific. ...


For six months, the Huáscar roamed the seas and effectively cut off the Chilean supply lines. In an impressive display of naval mastery, Captain Grau was able to hold off the entire Chilean Navy, recover captured Peruvian vessels and severely damage many ports used by the Chilean Navy. These actions are known as the "Correrías del Huáscar" (Huáscar's Exploits) and as a result Grau was promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral. A brief listing of these actions include:

  • Damaged ports of Cobija, Tocopilla, Platillos and Mejillones, Huanillos, Punta de Lobo, Chanaral, Huasco, Caldera, Coquimbo & Tatal
  • Sank 16 Chilean vessels
  • Damaged Chilean vessels Blanco Encalada, Abtao, Magallanes, and Matías Cousiño
  • Captured Chilean vessels Emilia, Adelaida Rojas, E. Saucy Jack, Adriana Lucía, Rimac, and Coquimbo
  • Recovered Peruvian vessels Clorinda and Caquetá
  • Destroyed artillery batteries of Antofagasta
  • Destroyed Antofagasta-Valparaiso communications cable

It took the Chilean Navy a full day of sailing with six ships in order to corner the Húascar, and then, nearly two hours of bloody combat with their vessels Blanco Encalada, Covadonga and Cochrane to cause her to founder with 76 artillery hits in the Naval Battle of Angamos on 8 October 1879. The dead included Admiral Grau. ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (282nd in leap years). ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


With the capture of Huáscar, the naval campaign was over. With the exception of local skirmishes, Chile would control the sea for the duration of the war.


Land Campaign and Invasion

Oil Painting by Juan Lepiani which represents the battle of Arica on June 7, 1880
Oil Painting by Juan Lepiani which represents the battle of Arica on June 7, 1880

Having gained control of the sea, the Chilean Army started the invasion of Peru. Bolivia, unable to recover the Litoral province, joined the Peruvian defence of Tarapacá and Tacna. Oil Painting by Juan Lepiani currently in the Aricas combatants museum in Lima, Peru. ... Oil Painting by Juan Lepiani currently in the Aricas combatants museum in Lima, Peru. ... Morro de Arica Arica is a port city in northern Chile, located only 18 km (11 miles) south of the border with Peru. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ...


On 2 November 1879, naval bombardment and amphibious assaults were carried out at the small port of Pisagua and the Junín Cove –some 500 km North of Antofagasta. At Pisagua, several landing waves totalling 2,100 troops attacked beach defenses held by 1,160 Allies and took the town; the landing at Junín was smaller and almost unsuccessful. By the end of the day, General Erasmo Escala and a Chilean army of 10,000 were ashore and moving inland, isolating the province of Tarapacá from the rest of Peru and cutting off General Juan Buendía's 1st Southern Army from reinforcements. November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Marching south towards the city of Iquique with 6,000 troops, the Chilean Army held off a sudden 7,400-strong Allied counterattack at the Battle of San Francisco on 19 November, with high casualties to both sides. The Bolivian force with a weak leadership withdrew during the battle, forcing the Peruvian Army to retreat to the city of Tarapacá. Four days later, the Chilean Army captured Iquique with little resistance. Iquique (IPA /ikike/) is a city in northern Chile, capital of Tarapacá Region, on the Pacific coast, just west of the Atacama Desert. ... Combatants Chile Peru, Bolivia Commanders Erasmo Escala Strength 6,000 7,400 The Battle of San Francisco was fought on November 19, 1879, between Chile and the combined forces of Peru and Bolivia. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Escala sent a detachment of 3,600 soldiers, cavalry and artillery to wipe out the rest of the Peruvian Army, estimated at fewer than 2,000 poorly trained and demoralized men. The Battle of Tarapacá, on 27 November, took place as the Chilean attack found the Peruvian force in better morale and at almost double the number expected. Led by Colonel Andrés Cáceres, the Peruvian Army routed the Chilean expedition, which left behind significant quantities of supplies and ammunition. The Peruvian victory at Tarapacá would have little impact on the war. General Buendía's army, down to 4,000, retreated further north to Arica by 18 December. November 27 is the 331st day (332nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray (10 November 1836 – 1923) was twice President of Peru during the 19th century, from 1886 to 1890, and again from 1894 to 1895. ... Morro de Arica Arica is a port city in northern Chile, located only 18 km (11 miles) south of the border with Peru. ... In the Gregorian Calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), at which point there will be 13 days remaining to the end of the year. ...


A new Chilean expedition left Pisagua and on 24 February 1880 disembarked nearly 12,000 soldiers at Pacocha Bay. Commanded by General Manuel Baquedano, this force isolated the provinces of Tacna and Arica destroying any practical hope for reinforcements from Peru. February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... It may have been generated by a computer or by a translator with limited proficiency in English or the original language. ... Tacna is a city in southern Peru, located only 35 km (21 mi) north from the border with Chile. ...


On 7 June, some 4,000 Chilean forces backed by the Navy successfully attacked a Peruvian garrison in Arica, which was under the command of Colonel Francisco Bolognesi. Chilean forces, directed by Colonel Pedro Lagos, had to run up the Morro de Arica (a steep and tall seaside hill) facing 2,000 Peruvian troops commanded by Colonel Bolognesi. June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Francisco Bolognesi was a Peruvian military hero. ... It was born in Chillán in 1832, the family formed by Manuel Lagos y Jara Quemada, and Rosario Marchant . ... Arica is a port city in northern Chile, and is the capital of Arica Province in Tarapacá Region. ...


The assault became known as the Battle of Arica, which turned out to be one of the most tragic and at the same time the most emblematic event of the war: Chile suffered 474 mortal casualties, while almost 1,000 Peruvians lost their lives, including Colonel Bolognesi himself who resisted heroically to the bitter end. Combatants Chile Peru Commanders Pedro Lagos Francisco Bolognesi † Strength 4,000 2,000 Casualties 474 dead or wounded ~1,000 dead or wounded 1 monitor lost The Battle of Arica or the assault and capture of the Morro de Arica (Arica Cape), took place on July 7, 1880, between the...


Other high ranking Peruvian officers who also perished were Colonel Alfonso Ugarte, and Colonel Mariano Bustamante, his Chief of Detail. These three Peruvian officers belonged to the group that, on the eve of the battle, had gallantly rejected an offer to surrender the garrison to the Chilean army, and prompted Colonel Bolognesi to vow to the Chilean emissary that he was to defend the garrison to the last shot. Alfonso Ugarte (born 13 July 1847, died ?) was a Peruvian hero of the War of the Pacific, between Peru and Bolivia against Chile. ... Mariano Ernesto Bustamante, A native of Arequipa, Peru who incorporated into the army to fight as a colonel during the War of the Pacific between Chile and Peru. ...

Chilean charge during the Battle of San Juan
Chilean charge during the Battle of San Juan

Since the Morro de Arica was the last bulwark of defence for the allied troops standing in the city, its occupation by Chile has been of utmost historical relevance for both countries. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


In October 1880, the United States unsuccessfully mediated in the conflict aboard USS Lackawanna at Arica Bay, attempting to end the war with diplomacy. Representatives from Chile, Peru, and Bolivia met to discuss the territorial disputes, yet both Peru and Bolivia rejected the loss of their territories to Chile and abandoned the conference. By January 1881, the Chilean Army marched towards the Peruvian capital, Lima. The first USS Lackawanna was a screw sloop-of-war in the United States Navy during the American Civil War. ... Nickname: City of the Kings Location within Lima Region Coordinates: Country Peru Region Lima Region Province Lima Province Settled 1535 Government  - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio Area  - City 804. ...


Regular Peruvian army and poorly armed citizens set up to defend Lima. However, Peruvian forces were defeated in the battles of San Juan and Miraflores, and the city of Lima fell in January 1881 to the forces of General Baquedano. The southern suburbs of Lima, including the upscale beach area of Chorrillos, were sacked and burned to the ground. The Battle of Miraflores occurred on January 15, 1881 in the Miraflores District of Peru. ... Chorrillos, which gets its name from the constant trickle of water, is a district of Lima, Peru. ...


The outlying haciendas were burned down by Chinese coolies who had been brought in from South China since the early 1850's for cheap labor at the haciendas. (Chilean historians claim that the Chilean troops entered Lima to prevent looting and destruction after the collapse of authority there, while others claim that historical records show the Chilean forces were themselves responsible for the looting and destruction.) Coolie refers to unskilled laborers from Asia of the 1800s to early 1900s who were sent to the United States, Australia, New Zealand, North Africa and the West Indies. ...


Occupation of Peru

Chilean Army marching on Lima in 1881
Chilean Army marching on Lima in 1881

With little effective Peruvian central government remaining, Chile pursued an ambitious campaign throughout Peru, especially on the coast and the central Sierra, penetrating as far north as Cajamarca. Even in these circumstances, Chile was not able to completely subjugate Peru. As war booty, Chile confiscated the contents of the Peruvian National Library from Lima and transported thousands of books (including many centuries-old original Spanish, Peruvian and Colonial volumes) to Santiago de Chile, along with much capital stock. Chilean Army marching on Lima This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Chilean Army marching on Lima This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Look up sierra in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aerial view of Cajamarca, with Santa Appollonia hill in foreground Cajamarca is located in the northern highlands of Peru, and is the capital of the Cajamarca region. ... The National Library of Peru is a national library located in Lima, Peru. ... Satellite image of Santiago Santiago (full form Santiago de Chile) is the capital of Chile. ...


Peruvian resistance continued for three more years, with apparent U.S. encouragement. The leader of the resistance was General Andrés Cáceres (nicknamed the Warlock of the Andes), who would later be elected president of Peru. The remnants of the Peruvian Army led by Cáceres defeated Chilean Army units on several occasions, but after the loss in the Battle of Huamachuco, there was little further resistance. Finally, on 20 October 1883, Peru and Chile signed the Treaty of Ancón, by which Tarapacá province was ceded to the victor. Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray (November 10, 1836 – October 10, 1923) was twice President of Peru during the 19th century, from 1886 to 1890, and again from 1894 to 1895. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Postal Stamp that picture the Treaty The Treaty of Ancón was signed by Peru and Chile on 20 October 1883, in the district of Ancón, Lima, Peru. ...


Characteristics of the War

Strategic control of the sea

The war theater between 1879 and 1881 was a large expanse of desert, sparsely populated and far removed from major cities or resource centers; it is, however, close to the Pacific Ocean. It was clear from the beginning that control of the sea would be the key to an inevitably difficult desert war: supply by sea, including water, food, ammunition, horses, fodder and reinforcements, was quicker and easier than marching supplies through the desert or the Bolivian high plateau.


While the Chilean Navy started an economic and military blockade of the Allies' ports, Peru took the initiative and utilized its smaller but effective navy as a raiding force. Chile was forced to delay the ground invasion for six months, and to shift its fleet from blockading to hunting Huáscar until she was captured.


With the advantage of naval supremacy, Chilean ground strategy focused on mobility: landing ground forces into enemy territory to raid Allied ground assets; landing in strength to split and drive out defenders; leaving garrisons to guard territory as the war moved north. Peru and Bolivia fought a defensive war: maneuvering along long overland distances; relying where possible on land or coastal fortifications with gun batteries and minefields; coastal railways were available to Peru, and telegraph lines provided a direct line to the government in Lima. When retreating, Allied forces made sure that little if any assets remained to be used by the enemy.


Sea mobile forces proved to be, in the end, an advantage for desert warfare on a long coastline. Defenders found themselves hundreds of kilometers away from home; invading forces were usually a few kilometers away from the sea.


Occupation, resistance and attrition

The occupation of Peru between 1881 and 1884 was a different story altogether. The war theatre was the Peruvian Sierra, where Peruvian resistance had easy access to population, resource and supply centers further away from the sea; it could carry out a war of attrition indefinitely. The Chilean Army, turned occupation force, was split into small garrisons across the theatre and could devote only part of its strength to hunting down rebels without a central authority.


After a costly occupation and prolonged anti-insurgency campaign, Chile sought to achieve a political exit strategy. Rifts within Peruvian society provided such an opportunity after the Battle of Huamachuco, and resulted in the peace treaty that ended the occupation and the war.


Participation of Chinese immigrants

According to Hong Kong Asia Television programme "Stories of Chinese Afar III", there were about 2000 Chinese workers participating on the Chilean side. Their roles were spoofing as working with the Peruvians to acquire intelligence, act as back-end support or to initiate a sudden attack to the Peruvian army during the so called Lynchs Expedition. Asia Television Limited (ATV) (亞洲電視有限公司; pinyin: Yàzhōu Diànshì Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī) was Hong Kongs first television station and was founded on May 29, 1957. ... Forgery is the process of making or adapting objects or documents (see false document), with the intention to deceive. ... Patricio Lynch (1825-1886) Chilean naval officer, was born in Valparaiso on the 18th of December 1825, his father being a wealthy Irish merchant resident in Chile, and his mother, Carmen Solo de Saldiva, a descendant of one of the best-known families in the country. ...


Technology

The war saw the use by both sides of new, or recently introduced, military technology such as breech-loading rifles, remote-controlled land mines, armour-piercing shells, torpedoes, torpedo boats and purpose-built landing craft. Second-generation ironclads (i.e. designed after the Battle of Hampton Roads) were faced in battle for the first time. This was significant for a conflict where a major power was not directly involved, and drew the attention of British, French and U.S. observers of the time. A breech-loading weapon, usually a gun or cannon, is one where the bullet or shell is inserted, loaded, into the gun at the rear of the barrel, the breech; the opposite of muzzle-loading. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... An Armour piercing shell is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armour. ... A modern torpedo, historically called a self propelled torpedo, is a self-propelled guided projectile that (after being launched above or below the water surface) operates underwater and is designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... Landing craft Rapière LCU 1656 departs USS Bataan (LHD-5) well deck during Hurricane Katrina relief operations. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John L. Worden Franklin Buchanan Catesby R. Jones Strength 1 ironclad, 3 wooden warships 1 ironclad, 2 wooden warships, 1 gunboat, 2 tenders Casualties 2 wooden warships sunk, 1 wooden warship damaged 261 killed 108 wounded 1 ironclad damaged 7...


During the war, Peru developed the Toro Submarino ("Submarine Bull"). Though completely operational, it never saw action, and was scuttled at the end of the war to prevent its capture by the victors. The Toro Submarino (Submarine Bull) was a Peruvian submarine developed during the War of the Pacific, but though completely operational, never saw action before the end of the war, when it was scuttled to prevent its capture by the victors. ...


Aftermath

Borders of Chile, Bolivia and Peru before the war. The red line marks the border after the war. Notes: the map doesn't include Tacna that was occupied until 1929 by Chile. The map also omits some minor parts of Atacama province that was ceded later to Argentina
Borders of Chile, Bolivia and Peru before the war. The red line marks the border after the war. Notes: the map doesn't include Tacna that was occupied until 1929 by Chile. The map also omits some minor parts of Atacama province that was ceded later to Argentina

Image File history File links Borders_Chile_1879_and_2006. ... Image File history File links Borders_Chile_1879_and_2006. ...

Peace terms

Under the terms of the Treaty of Ancón,[1] Chile was to occupy the provinces of Tacna and Arica for 10 years, after which a plebiscite was to be held to determine their nationality. The two countries failed for decades to agree on the terms of the plebiscite. Finally in 1929, through the mediation of the United States under President Herbert Hoover, an accord was reached by which Chile kept Arica; Peru reacquired Tacna and received $6 million indemnity and other concessions. Postal Stamp that picture the Treaty The Treaty of Ancón was signed by Peru and Chile on 20 October 1883, in the district of Ancón, Lima, Peru. ... Tacna is a city in southern Peru, located only 35 km (21 mi) north from the border with Chile. ... Morro de Arica Arica is a port city in northern Chile, located only 18 km (11 miles) south of the border with Peru. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Herbert Clark Hoover, (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the 31st President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ...


In 1884, Bolivia signed a truce that gave control to Chile of the entire Bolivian coast, the province of Antofagasta, and its valuable nitrate, copper and other mineral deposits. A treaty in 1904 made this arrangement permanent. In return Chile agreed to build a railroad connecting the Bolivian capital of La Paz with the port of Arica and guaranteed freedom of transit for Bolivian commerce through Chilean ports and territory. Antofagasta is bordered by the Pacific Ocean on the west and steep hills to the east Street in Antofagasta   () is a port city and episcopal see in northern Chile, about 700 miles north of Santiago. ... Central La Paz La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia, as well as the departmental capital of La Paz Department. ...


Long-term consequences

A Bolivian Soldier killing a Chilean "roto", Photo from Bolivia, 1992
A Bolivian Soldier killing a Chilean "roto", Photo from Bolivia, 1992

The War of the Pacific left traumatic scars on Bolivian and Peruvian society. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1440x954, 127 KB) Picture from Bolivia, 1992. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1440x954, 127 KB) Picture from Bolivia, 1992. ... A Bolivian Soldier killing a Chilean roto, Photo from Bolivia, 1992 Roto or rota (literally broken) is a Chilean term, considered derogatory, which refers to a person of poverty and vulgar habits of urban origin. ...


For Bolivians, the loss of the territory which they refer to as the litoral (Spanish for "littoral," the coast) remains a deeply emotional issue and a practical one, as was particularly evident during the internal natural gas riots of 2004. Popular belief attributes much of the country's problems to its landlocked condition; conversely, recovering the seacoast is seen as the solution to most of these. In 1932, this was a contributing factor to the Chaco War with Paraguay, over territory controlling access to the Atlantic Ocean through the Paraguay River. In recent decades, all Bolivian Presidents have made it their policy to pressure Chile for sovereign access to the sea. Diplomatic relations with Chile have been severed since 17 March 1978, in spite of considerable commercial ties. Currently, the leading Bolivian newspaper "El Diario" [2] still features at least a weekly editorial on the subject. The Bolivian Gas War was a social conflict in Bolivia centering around the exploitation of the countrys vast natural gas reserves. ... Combatants Republic of Bolivia Republic of Paraguay Commanders Hans Kundt Mcal. ... The Paraguay River near Asunción The River Paraguay (Rio Paraguay in Spanish, Rio Paraguai in Portuguese) is a major river in south central South America, running through Brazil and Paraguay and forming a border between Brazil and Bolivia as well as Paraguay and Argentina. ... The President of Bolivia is the head of state of Bolivia. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Peruvians developed a cult for the heroic defenders of the patria (nation, literally fatherland), such as Admiral Miguel Grau, Colonel Francisco Bolognesi who were killed in the war, and General Andrés Cáceres who went on to become a leading political figure and symbol of resistance to the occupying Chilean Army. The defeat engendered a deep inferiority complex among the ruling classes, which also led to a skewed view of the role of the armed forces, which dominated society throughout the 20th century. Fatherland is the nation of ones fathers or forefathers. ...


Chile fared better, gaining a lucrative territory with major sources of income, including nitrates, saltpeter and copper. Victory was, however, a mixed blessing. During the war Chile waived most of its claim over Patagonia in 1881 to ensure Argentina's neutrality; Chilean popular belief sees this as a territorial loss. British involvement and control of the nitrate industry rose significantly after the war,[3] leading them to meddle in Chilean politics and ultimately to back an overthrow of the Chilean President in 1891. High nitrate profits lasted for only a few decades and fell sharply once synthetic nitrates were developed during World War I. Currently, the region is still the world largest source of copper and its ports move trade between nearby countries and the Pacific Ocean. The Haber Process (also known as Haber–Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


The war consolidated the Chilean Navy as an institution, as the War of Independence and the 1836 War against the Santa Cruz confederation consolidated the Chilean Army. After many years during which it had been considered an irrelevant and unimportant item on Chilean budget, the Chilean Navy gained an important squadron and became a significant power on the Pacific Ocean, with the cruiser Esmeralda, the fastest vessel of its time. A strong class of naval officials also emerged from the war, most of them descendants of immigrants and not related to Santiago's circle of power; this class played a role in the plot against president José Manuel Balmaceda in 1891. José Manuel Balmaceda José Manuel Balmaceda Fernández (July 19, 1840 - September 18, 1891) was a Chilean political figure. ...


In 1999, Chile and Peru finally agreed to complete the implementation of the last parts of the Treaty of Lima, providing Peru with a port in Arica. [4] Nevertheless, tensions between Chile and Peru are usually associated with recent arms race in the region. [3]. The Treaty of Lima solved the dispute between Peru and Chile regarding the status of the chilean administered territories of Tacna and Arica. ... Morro de Arica Arica is a port city in northern Chile, located only 18 km (11 miles) south of the border with Peru. ...


Prominent military commanders

Bolivia

  • Mr. Eduardo Abaroa †, an engineer, was killed leading a group of civilian defenders at the Battle of Topater
  • General Narciso Campero, military President of Bolivia (1880-1884)
  • General Hilarión Daza, military President of Bolivia (1876-1879)

1952 Bolivian stamp honoring Abaroa Colonel Eduardo Abaroa was the Bolivian hero of the War of the Pacific (1879–1883) between Chile, on one side, and Bolivia and Peru on the other. ... Narciso Campero is a province in the Bolivian department of Cochabamba. ... Hilarión Daza Groselle (January 14, 1840 - February 27, 1894) was President of Bolivia from 1876 to 1879. ...

Chile

  • General Manuel Baquedano, commander in chief of the Chilean Army
  • Captain Ignacio Carrera †, killed with the entire garrison at the Battle of La Concepción
  • Rear Admiral Patricio Lynch, military Governor of occupied Peru
  • Captain Arturo Prat †, was killed while boarding Huáscar at the Battle of Iquique

It may have been generated by a computer or by a translator with limited proficiency in English or the original language. ... Ignacio Carrera Pinto was born in Santiago, Chile in 1848. ... Patricio Lynch (1825-1886) Chilean naval officer, was born in Valparaiso on the 18th of December 1825, his father being a wealthy Irish merchant resident in Chile, and his mother, Carmen Solo de Saldiva, a descendant of one of the best-known families in the country. ... Commander Arturo Prat Agustín Arturo Prat Chacón (April 4, 1848, near Ninhue - May 21, 1879, Iquique) was a Chilean naval officer and martyr of the War of the Pacific. ...

Peru

  • Colonel Francisco Bolognesi †, was killed while leading the defense of the Arica garrison
  • General Andrés Cáceres, led the guerilla war during the occupation of Peru, was elected President of Peru after the war
  • Rear Admiral Miguel Grau †, commander of Huáscar and widely known as the knight of the seas, was killed at the Naval Battle of Angamos
  • Colonel Leoncio Prado †, the son of former President Mariano Ignacio Prado, chose duty as a soldier over an oath not to fight, was captured and executed by a Chilean firing squad after the Battle of Huamachuco
  • Colonel Alfonso Ugarte †, Bolognesi's top lieutenant, was killed during the Battle of Arica, believed to have jumped off a cliff on his horse to save the flag from capture

Francisco Bolognesi was a Peruvian military hero. ... Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray (10 November 1836 – 1923) was twice President of Peru during the 19th century, from 1886 to 1890, and again from 1894 to 1895. ... Miguel Grau Seminario Rear Admiral Miguel Grau Seminario (July 27, 1834 - October 8, 1879) was a renowned Peruvian naval officer and hero of the Naval Battle of Angamos during the War of the Pacific (1879-1884). ... Huáscar is a small armoured turret ship, similar to the monitor type. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... ... Mariano Ignacio Prado was twice president of Peru Mariano Ignacio Prado (1826-1901) was twice the President of Peru, from (1865-68, 1876-79). ... Alfonso Ugarte (born 13 July 1847, died ?) was a Peruvian hero of the War of the Pacific, between Peru and Bolivia against Chile. ...

Other nationalities

  • Rear Admiral Abel Bergasse Dupetit-Thouars, French commander, After the Battle of Miraflores, he prevented the destruction and looting of Lima by threatening to engage and destroy the Chilean Navy with a multinational force under his command
  • Colonel Robert Souper Howard †, British soldier who served in the Chilean Army in nearly every battlefield of the war, was killed at the Battle of San Juan
  • Lt. Colonel Roque Saenz Peña, Argentinian soldier who served in the Peruvian Army during the battles of Tarapaca and Arica, was later elected President of Argentina

Abel Nicolas Georges Henri Bergasse Dupetit-Thouars (1832 - 1890) was a French sailor in the War of Crimea and a Knight of the Legion of Honor. ... The Battle of Miraflores occurred on January 15, 1881 in the Miraflores District of Peru. ... Nickname: City of the Kings Location within Lima Region Coordinates: Country Peru Region Lima Region Province Lima Province Settled 1535 Government  - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio Area  - City 804. ... Colonel Robert Souper Howard (September 9, 1818 - January 13, 1881) English soldier, served the Chilean Army during most of the War of the Pacific. ... Roque Sáenz Peña Lahitte (1851 - 1914) was President of Argentina from 12 October 1910 to 9 August 1914, day when he died in office. ... Current President Néstor Kirchner The President of Argentina (full title: President of the Argentine Nation, Spanish: Presidente de la Nación Argentina) is the head of state of Argentina. ...

See also

This is the history of Bolivia. ... Map of Chile This is the history of Chile. ... This is the history of Peru. ... Borders between Peru, Bolivia and Chile before the 1879 War of the Pacific (note: map does not faithfully represent some of the border, particularly the Bolivia-Argentina one. ... The Tacna Arica compromise was a series of documents that settled the territorial dispute of both Tacna and Arica provinces. ... The War of the Confederation (1836 - 1839), was a conflict between the Peru-Bolivian Confederation and Chile, fought mostly in the actual territory of Peru and which ended with a Chilean victory and the disolution of the Confederacy. ... A Peruvian battery during the Battle of Callao The Chincha Islands War (in Spanish, Guerra Hispano-Peruana) (1864-1866) was a series of coastal and naval battles between Spain and its former colonies of Peru and Chile. ... Recent Developments: Maritime Dispute Reignited Dating back to the 19th century and culminating in the devastating War of the Pacific, Peru and Chile have had a long and tortuous history of territorial disputes. ... Demarcation of the sea border[1] Bolivian acces to the sea. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Tratado de límites de 1866 entre Bolivia y Chile (Spanish)
  2. ^ Defensive alliance treaty of 1873 between Bolivia and Peru (Tratado de alianza defensiva de 1873 entre Bolivia y Perú (Spanish))
  3. ^ Foster, John B. & Clark, Brett. (2003). "Ecological Imperialism: The Curse of Capitalism" (accessed September 2, 2005). The Socialist Register 2004, p190-192. Also available in print from Merlin Press.
  4. ^ Domínguez, Jorge et al. 2003 Boundary Disputes in Latin America. United States Washington, D.C.: Institute of Peace.

September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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