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Encyclopedia > Salt
Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). This salt shaker also contains grains of rice, which some use to prevent caking
Salt is mostly sodium chloride (NaCl). This salt shaker also contains grains of rice, which some use to prevent caking
Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong, China
Brine being boiled down to pure salt in Zigong, China

Salt, the most popular food seasoning, is a dietary mineral essential for animal life, composed primarily of sodium chloride. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as sea salt), refined salt (table salt), and iodized salt. It is a crystalline solid, white, pale pink or light grey in color, normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Edible rock salts may be slightly greyish in color due to this mineral content. R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the term salt as referred to in chemistry. ... Look up salt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Tablesalt. ... Image File history File links Tablesalt. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 911 KB)[edit] Summary Brine being boiled down to pure salt at the Xinhai Well in Zigong, China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 911 KB)[edit] Summary Brine being boiled down to pure salt at the Xinhai Well in Zigong, China. ... Location of Zigong City jurisdiction (yellow) within Sichuan Zigong (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-kung), ancient name Ziliujing and Gongjing, is a prefecture-level city and the third largest city in Sichuan Province, in southwest China. ... mccall is cooool Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Iodized table salt (left) and non-iodized table salt (right) Iodised salt (AmE: iodized salt), table salt mixed with a minute amount of sodium iodide or iodate, is used to help reduce the chance of iodine deficiency in humans. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ...


Chloride and sodium ions, the two major components of salt, are necessary for the survival of all known living creatures, including humans. Some isolated cultures, such as the Yanomami in South America, have been found to consume little salt, possibly an adaptation originated in the predominantly vegetarian diet of human primate ancestors.[1] Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes. Salt cravings may be caused by trace mineral deficiencies as well as by a deficiency of sodium chloride itself. Fierce People redirects here. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ... Sour redirects here. ...


Overconsumption of salt increases the risk of health problems, including high blood pressure. In food preparation, salt is used as a preservative and as a seasoning. For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Seasoning is the process of adding flavours, or enhancing natural flavour of any type of food. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of salt

Human beings have enjoyed canning and artificial refrigeration for only a couple of centuries; for the countless millennia before then, salt provided the best-known preservative of food, especially meat.[2] Naturally formed salt crystals with a U.S. penny for size reference (19. ...


The harvest of salt from the surface of the salt lake Yuncheng in Shanxi dates back to at least 6000 B.C., making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.[3]:18–19 Yuncheng (Simplified Chinese: 运城; Traditional Chinese: 运城; pinyin: ) is the southernmost prefecture-level city in Shanxi province, China. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Salt was included among funereal offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium B.C., as were salted birds and salt fish.[3]:38 About 2800 B.C., the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon Cedar, glass, and the dye Tyrian purple; the Phoenicians traded Egyptian salt fish and salt from North Africa throughout their Mediterranean trade empire.[3]:44 The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Binomial name Cedrus libani A. Rich. ... Murex brandaris, also known as the Spiny dye-murex The chemical structure of 6,6′-dibromoindigo, the main component of Tyrian Purple A space-filling model of 6,6′-dibromoindigo Tyrian purple (Greek: , porphura), also known as royal purple or imperial purple, is a purple-red dye made by the... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ...


On the river Salzach in central Austria, within a radius of no more than 17 kilometres, lie Salzburg, Hallstatt, and Hallein. Salzach literally means "salt water" and Salzburg "salt city", both taking their names from the Germanic root for salt, salz; Hallstatt literally means "salt town" and Hallein "saltwork", taking their names from hal(l)-, a root for salt found in Celtic, Greek, and Egyptian. The root hal(l)- also gave us Gaul, the Roman exonym for the Celts. Hallstatt and Hallein in Austria, Halle and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany, Halych in Ukraine, and Galicia in Spain: this list of places named for Celtic saltworks is far from complete.[4][5][6] The Salzach is a river in Austria. ... This article is about the capital of the Austrian state of Salzburg. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... Hallstatt, Upper Austria is a village in the Salzkammergut, a region in Austria. ... A view of Hallein and Untersberg from the hamlet of St. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Halle (also called Halle an der Saale (literally Halle on the Saale, and in some historic references is not uncommonly called Saale after the river) in order to distinguish it from Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia) is the largest city in the German State of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Schwäbisch Hall (or Hall for short) is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg; it is the capital of the district of Schwäbisch Hall. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Hallstatt gave its name to the Celtic archaeological culture that began mining for salt in the area in around 800 B.C. Around 400 B.C., the Hallstatt Celts, who had heretofore mined for salt, began flushing the salt out of mines as brine and boiling off the excess water. During the first millennium B.C., Celtic communities grew rich trading salt and salted meat to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome in exchange for wine and other luxuries.[2] The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. ... This article is about the European people. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... A salt mine is an operation involved in the extraction of salt. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


At times, troops in the Roman army were even paid in salt, which is the origin of the words salary and, by way of French, soldier.[3]:63 The word salad literally means "salted," and comes from the ancient Roman practice of salting leaf vegetables.[3]:64 The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Fresh Swiss chard Fresh water spinach Creamed spinach Steamed kale Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ...


In religion

There are thirty-five verses which reference salt in the English translation of the Bible (King James Version), the earliest being the story of Lot's wife, who was turned into a pillar of salt when she disobediently looked back at the wicked cities of Sodom (Genesis 19:26). When King Abimelech destroyed the city of Shechem he is said to have "sowed salt on it;" a phrase expressing the completeness of its ruin. (Judges 9:45.) In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus referred to his followers as the "salt of the earth". The apostle Paul also encouraged Christians to "let your conversation be always full of grace, seasoned with salt" (Colossians 4:6). For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Lot and his Daughters, Hendrik Goltzius, 1616. ... For other uses, see Sodom and Gomorrah (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Shechem is a name of geographical places. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Salt is mandatory in the rite of the Tridentine Mass. Salt is used in the third item (which includes an Exorcism) of the Celtic Consecration (cf. Gallican rite) that is employed in the consecration of a church. Salt may be added to the water "where it is customary" in the Roman Catholic rite of Holy water. The Tridentine Mass (Pontifical High Mass) being celebrated at Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church in Wyandotte, Michigan - 1949. ... The Gallican Rite is a historical sub-grouping of Christianity in western Europe; it is not a single rite but actually a family of rites within the Western Rite which comprised the majority use of most of Christianity in western Europe for the greater part of the 1st millennium AD... This article is about water that has been blessed. ...


In the native Japanese religion Shinto, salt is used for ritual purification of locations and people, such as in Sumo Wrestling. Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... A sumo match Sumo (相撲 Sumō), or sumo wrestling, is today a competition contact sport wherein two wrestlers or rikishi face off in a circular area. ...


In Aztec mythology, Huixtocihuatl was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... In Aztec mythology, Huixtocihuatl (or Uixtochihuatl, Uixtociuatl) was a fertility goddess who presided over salt and salt water. ...


Forms of salt

Unrefined salt

Main articles: Sea salt, Halite, and Fleur de sel
Manual salt collection in Lake Retba, Senegal.
Manual salt collection in Lake Retba, Senegal.

Different natural salts have different mineralities, giving each one a unique flavor. Fleur de sel, natural sea salt harvested by hand, has a unique flavor varying from region to region. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For Halite Bittorrent client , see Halite Client. ... Fleur de sel (Flower of salt in French) is a hand-harvested sea salt collected by workers who scrape only the top layer of salt before it sinks to the bottom of large salt pans. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 739 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1616 × 1311 pixel, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 739 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1616 × 1311 pixel, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Lake Retba or Lake Rose lies on the north side of the Cap Vert peninsula of Senegal, north east of Dakar. ... Fleur de sel (Flower of salt in French) is a hand-harvested sea salt collected by workers who scrape only the top layer of salt before it sinks to the bottom of large salt pans. ...


Some advocates for sea salt assert that unrefined sea salt is more healthy than refined salts.[7] However, completely raw sea salt is bitter due to magnesium and calcium compounds, and thus is rarely eaten. The refined salt industry cites scientific studies saying that raw sea and rock salts do not contain enough iodine salts to prevent iodine deficiency diseases.[8] For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Unrefined sea salts are also commonly used as ingredients in bathing additives[9] and cosmetic products. One example are bath salts, which uses sea salt as its main ingredient and combined with other ingredients used for its healing and therapeutic effects. Make-up redirects here. ... The name bath salts is applied to a range of soluble solid products designed to be added to a bath, either to improve cleaning, provide a medical improvement, or to improve the experience of bathing. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Refined salt

Salt mounds in Bolivia.
Salt mounds in Bolivia.

Refined salt, which is most widely used presently, is mainly sodium chloride. Food grade salt accounts for only a small part of salt production in industrialised countries (3% in Europe[10]) although world-wide, food uses account for 17.5% of salt production[11]. The majority is sold for industrial use. Salt has great commercial value, because it is a necessary ingredient in the manufacturing of many things. A few common examples include: the production of pulp and paper, setting dyes in textiles and fabrics, and the making of soaps and detergents. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 1320 pixel, file size: 892 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tilt corrected (skewed vertically 12px, cropped) Background noise reduced (1px median, faded 40% normal with gradient tool) Green fringe removed File links The... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixel Image in higher resolution (2000 × 1320 pixel, file size: 892 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tilt corrected (skewed vertically 12px, cropped) Background noise reduced (1px median, faded 40% normal with gradient tool) Green fringe removed File links The...


The manufacture and use of salt is one of the oldest chemical industries.[12] Salt is also obtained by evaporation of sea water, usually in shallow basins warmed by sunlight;[13] salt so obtained was formerly called bay salt, and is now often called sea salt or solar salt. Today, most refined salt is prepared from rock salt: mineral deposits high in salt.[citation needed] These rock salt deposits were formed by the evaporation of ancient salt lakes.[14] These deposits may be mined conventionally or through the injection of water. Injected water dissolves the salt, and the brine solution can be pumped to the surface where the salt is collected. Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ...


After the raw salt is obtained, it is refined to purify it and improve its storage and handling characteristics. Purification usually involves recrystallization. In recrystallization, a brine solution is treated with chemicals that precipitate most impurities (largely magnesium and calcium salts).[15] Multiple stages of evaporation are then used to collect pure sodium chloride crystals, which are kiln-dried. Charcoal Kilns, California Gold Kiln, Victoria, Australia Hop kiln. ...

Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park.
Salt Crystals at Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park.
Single-serving salt packets.
Single-serving salt packets.

Since the 1950s it has been common to add a trace of sodium hexacyanoferrate(II) to the brine; this acts as an anticaking agent by promoting irregular crystals.[16] Other anticaking agents (and potassium iodide, for iodised salt) are generally added after crystallization.[citation needed] These agents are hygroscopic chemicals which absorb humidity, keeping the salt crystals from sticking together. Some anticaking agents used are tricalcium phosphate, calcium or magnesium carbonates, fatty acid salts (acid salts), magnesium oxide, silicon dioxide, calcium silicate, sodium alumino-silicate, and alumino-calcium silicate. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible toxic effects of aluminium in the latter two compounds[citation needed]; however, both the European Union and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permit their use.[17] The refined salt is then ready for packing and distribution. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,944 × 1,296 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,944 × 1,296 pixels, file size: 1. ... Devils Golf Course The Devils Golf Course is a large salt pan in Death Valley National Park, with a rough surface formed of large salt crystals. ... Death Valley National Park is a mostly arid United States National Park located east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in southern Inyo County and northern San Bernardino County in California with a small extension into southwestern Nye County and extreme southern Esmeralda County in Nevada. ... Salt packet. ... Salt packet. ... Anticaking agents are used in such things as table salt to keep the product from forming lumps, making it better for packaging, transport and for the consumer. ... Anticaking agents are used in such things as table salt to keep the product from forming lumps, making it better for packaging, transport and for the consumer. ... R-phrases 36, 38, 42-43, 61 S-phrases 26, 36-37, 39, 45 Related Compounds Other anions potassium bromide potassium chloride Other cations lithium iodide sodium iodide rubidium iodide caesium iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa... A hygroscopic substance is a substance that absorbs water readily from its surroundings. ... The term humidity is usually taken in daily language to refer to relative humidity. ... Tricalcium phosphate is a compound with formula Ca3(PO4)2. ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, is a white solid that occurs in nature as a mineral. ... Not to be confused with fats. ... Acid salts are a class of chemical compounds that are formed when a dibasic or tribasic acid has been neutralized to some degree. ... Magnesium oxide, or magnesia, is a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium. ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Calcium silicate, otherwise known as slag, has a low bulk density and high physical water absorption. ... In chemistry, a silicate is a compound containing an anion in which one or more central silicon atoms are surrounded by electronegative ligands. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...


Table salt

Table salt is refined salt, 99% sodium chloride.[18][19] It usually contains substances that make it free flowing (anticaking agents) such as sodium silicoaluminate or magnesium carbonate. It is common practice to put a few grains of uncooked rice or half a dry cracker (such as Saltine) in salt shakers to absorb extra moisture when anticaking agents are not enough. R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ...


Salty condiments

In many East Asian cultures, salt is not traditionally used as a condiment.[20] However, condiments such as soy sauce, fish sauce and oyster sauce tend to have a high salt content and fill much the same role as a salt-providing table condiment that table salt serves in western cultures. Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... Fish sauce is a condiment derived from fish that have been allowed to ferment. ... Oyster Sauce produced by Lee Kum Kee Oyster sauce (蚝油 háo yóu ; 蠔油) is a viscous sauce prepared from oysters and brine, often with chemical preservatives added. ...


Additives

See also: History of iodised salt

Iodized salt (BrE: iodised salt) is table salt mixed with a minute amount of potassium iodide, sodium iodide, or iodate. Iodized salt is used to help reduce the chance of iodine deficiency in humans. Iodine deficiency commonly leads to thyroid gland problems, specifically endemic goiter. Endemic goiter is a disease characterized by a swelling of the thyroid gland, usually resulting in a bulbous protrusion on the neck. While only tiny quantities of iodine are required in a diet to prevent goiter, the United States Food and Drug Administration recommends (21 CFR 101.9 (c)(8)(iv)) 150 micrograms of iodine per day for both men and women, and there are many places around the world where natural levels of iodine in the soil are low and the iodine is not taken up by vegetables. Iodized table salt (left) and non-iodized table salt (right) Iodised salt (AmE: iodized salt), table salt mixed with a minute amount of sodium iodide or iodate, is used to help reduce the chance of iodine deficiency in humans. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... R-phrases 36, 38, 42-43, 61 S-phrases 26, 36-37, 39, 45 Related Compounds Other anions potassium bromide potassium chloride Other cations lithium iodide sodium iodide rubidium iodide caesium iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa... Sodium iodide (NaI) is used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) Categories: Chemistry stubs ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... Kg redirects here. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ...


Today, iodized salt is more common in the United States, Australia and New Zealand than in the United Kingdom. Table salt is also often iodized—a small amount of potassium iodide (in the US) or potassium iodate (in the EU) is added as an important dietary supplement. Table salt is mainly employed in cooking and as a table condiment. Iodized table salt has significantly reduced disorders of iodine deficiency in countries where it is used.[21] Iodine is important to prevent the insufficient production of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism), which can cause goitre, cretinism in children, and myxedema in adults. R-phrases 36, 38, 42-43, 61 S-phrases 26, 36-37, 39, 45 Related Compounds Other anions potassium bromide potassium chloride Other cations lithium iodide sodium iodide rubidium iodide caesium iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa... Potassium iodate (KIO3) is a chemical compound. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Myxedema (English: myxoedema) is a skin and tissue disorder usually due to severe prolonged hypothyroidism. ...


The amount of iodine and the specific iodine compound added to salt varies from country to country. In the United States, iodized salt contains 46-77 ppm, while in the UK the iodine content of iodized salt is recommended to be 10-22 ppm.[22]


In some European countries where drinking water fluoridation is not practiced, fluorinated table salt is available. In France, 35% of sold table salt contains either sodium fluoride or potassium fluoride.[23] Another additive, especially important for pregnant women, is Folic acid (Vitamin B9), which gives the table salt a yellow color. Water fluoridation is the practice of adding fluoride compounds to water with the intended purpose of reducing tooth decay in the general population. ... Sodium fluoride is an ionic compound with the formula NaF. This colourless solid is the main source of the fluoride ion in diverse applications. ... R-phrases 23/24/25 S-phrases 26-45 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF. After hydrogen fluoride, KF is the primary source of... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ...


In Canada, at least one brand (Windsor salt) contains invert sugar. The reason for this is unclear. Invert sugar (or syrup) is a new type of sweetener. ...


Health effects

Sodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body. All four cationic electrolytes (sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) are available in unrefined salt, as are other vital minerals needed for optimal bodily function. Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps, dizziness, or even an electrolyte disturbance, which can cause severe, even fatal, neurological problems.[24] Drinking too much water, with insufficient salt intake, puts a person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia). Salt is even sometimes used as a health aid, such as in treatment of dysautonomia.[25] For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... This article is about muscular pain. ... Many different terms are often used to describe what is collectively known as dizziness. ... Electrolyte disturbance refers to an abnormal change in the levels of electrolytes in the body. ... Water intoxication (also known as hyperhydration or water poisoning) is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain function that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside of safe limits, ironically by that which makes up the majority of it - common water. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... Dysautonomia is any disease or malfunction of the autonomic nervous system. ...


People's risk for disease due to insufficient or excessive salt intake varies due to biochemical individuality. Some have asserted that while the risks of consuming too much salt are real, the risks have been exaggerated for most people, or that the studies done on the consumption of salt can be interpreted in many different ways.[26] [27]


Excess salt consumption has been linked to:

  • exercise-induced asthma.[28] On the other hand, another source counters, "…we still don't know whether salt contributes to asthma. If there is a link then it's very weak…".[29]
  • heartburn[30].
  • osteoporosis: One report shows that a high salt diet does reduce bone density in girls.[31]. Yet "While high salt intakes have been associated with detrimental effects on bone health, there are insufficient data to draw firm conclusions." ([32], p3)
  • Gastric cancer (Stomach cancer) is associated with high levels of sodium, "but the evidence does not generally relate to foods typically consumed in the UK." ([32], p18) However, in Japan, salt consumption is higher.[33]
  • hypertension (high blood pressure): "Since 1994, the evidence of an association between dietary salt intakes and blood pressure has increased. The data have been consistent in various study populations and across the age range in adults." ([32] p3). A large scale study from 2007 has shown that people with high-normal blood pressure who significantly reduced the amount of salt in their diet decreased their chances of developing cardiovascular disease by 25% over the following 10 to 15 years. Their risk of dying from cardiovascular disease decreased by 20%.[34]
  • left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): "Evidence suggests that high salt intake causes left ventricular hypertrophy, a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease, independently of blood pressure effects." ([32] p3) "…there is accumulating evidence that high salt intake predicts left ventricular hypertrophy." ([35], p12) Excessive salt (sodium) intake, combined with an inadequate intake of water, can cause hypernatremia. It can exacerbate renal disease.[24]
  • edema (BE: oedema): A decrease in salt intake has been suggested to treat edema (fluid retention).[36][24]
  • duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers[37]
  • Death. Ingestion of large amounts of salt in a short time (about 1 g per kg of body weight) can be fatal. Salt solutions have been used in China as a traditional suicide method, and deaths have also resulted from attempted use of salt solutions as emetics, forced salt intake, and accidental confusion of salt with sugar in child food.[38]

Sea salt (an unrefined form of salt made by evaporating sea water) is often sold for use as a condiment. Because it contains trace amounts of other minerals which are removed in the refining process, it may have health advantages over normal table salt.[39] Certain sea salts are also used in the production of bath salts and cosmetic products.[40] Osteoporosis is a disease of bone - leading to an increased risk of fracture. ... Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs; particularly the esophagus and the small intestine. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is the thickening of the myocardium (muscle) of the left ventricle of the heart. ... Hypernatremia is an electrolyte disturbance consisting of an elevated sodium level in the blood (compare to hyponatremia, meaning a low sodium level). ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... This page is about the condition called edema. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... The name bath salts is applied to a range of soluble solid products designed to be added to a bath, either to improve cleaning, provide a medical improvement, or to improve the experience of bathing. ... Make-up redirects here. ...


Rock and sea salt is usually referred and sold as Natrum Muriaticum in homeopathy, and purported by followers to be a deep acting and powerful curative when taken over long periods of time. Homeopathic remedy Rhus toxicodendron, derived from poison ivy. ...


Recommended intake

Sea salt and peppercorns.
Sea salt and peppercorns.
A salt mill for sea salt.
A salt mill for sea salt.

In the United Kingdom the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) recommended in 2003 that, for a typical adult, the Reference Nutrient Intake is 4 g salt per day (1.6 g or 70 mmol sodium). However, average adult intake is two and a half times the Reference Nutrient Intake for sodium. SACN states, "The target salt intakes set for adults and children do not represent ideal or optimum consumption levels, but achievable population goals."[32] The Food Safety Authority of Ireland endorses the UK targets.[35] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 99 KB) Table salt and peppercorns. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 99 KB) Table salt and peppercorns. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Saltmill. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Saltmill. ...


Health Canada recommends an Adequate Intake (AI) and an Upper Limit (UL) in terms of sodium,[41] as does the Auckland District Health Board in New Zealand.[42]. Australia defines a recommended dietary intake (RDI) of 0.92 g–2.3 g sodium per day (= 2.3 g–5.8 g salt).[43]


In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration itself does not make a recommendation,[44] but refers readers to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. These suggest that US citizens should consume less than 2,300 mg of sodium (= 2.3 g sodium = 5.8 g salt) per day.[45]


Labeling

UK: The Food Standards Agency defines the level of salt in foods as follows: "High is more than 1.5g salt per 100g (or 0.6g sodium). Low is 0.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0.1g sodium). If the amount of salt per 100g is in between these figures, then that is a medium level of salt." In the UK, foods produced by some supermarkets and manufacturers have ‘traffic light’ colors on the front of the pack: Red (High), Amber (Medium), or Green (Low).[46] The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom. ...


USA: The FDA Food Labeling Guide stipulates whether a food can be labelled as "free", "low", or "reduced/less" in respect of sodium. When other health claims are made about a food (e.g. low in fat, calories, etc.), a disclosure statement is required if the food exceeds 480mg of sodium per 'serving.'[47]


Campaigns

In 2004, Britain's Food Standards Agency started a public health campaign called "Salt - Watch it", which recommends no more than 6g of salt per day; it features a character called Sid the Slug and was criticised by the Salt Manufacturers Association (SMA).[48] The Advertising Standards Authority did not uphold the SMA complaint in its adjudication.[49]. In March 2007, the FSA launched the third phase of their campaign with the slogan "Salt. Is your food full of it?" fronted by comedienne Jenny Eclair.[50] The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... A Sid the Slug billboard Sid the Slug is an advertising character employed by the Food Standards Agency in the United Kingdom as the face of the Salt - Watch it campaign to warn the public of the risks of excessive salt consumption. ... The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) is the independent British self regulatory organisation (SRO) of the advertising industry. ... Jenny Eclair (born Jenny Clare Hargreaves on 16 March 1960 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) is a comedian, actress and novelist, working in the United Kingdom. ...


The Menzies Research Institute in Tasmania, Australia, maintains a website [51] dedicated to educating people about the potential problems of a salt-laden diet.


Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH)[52] established in 1996, actively campaigns to raise awareness of the harmful health effects of salt. The 2008 focus includes raising awareness of high levels of salt hidden in sweet foods and marketed towards children.[53]


Salt substitutes

Main article: Salt substitute

Salt intake can be reduced by simply reducing the quantity of salty foods in a diet, without recourse to salt substitutes. Salt substitutes have a taste similar to table salt and contain mostly potassium chloride, which will increase potassium intake. Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia. Various diseases and medications may decrease the body's excretion of potassium, thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia. If you have kidney failure, heart failure or diabetes, seek medical advice before using a salt substitute. A manufacturer, LoSalt, has issued an advisory statement[54] that people taking the following prescription drugs should not use a salt substitute: Amiloride, Triamterene, Dytac, Spironolactone (Brand name Aldactone), Eplerenone and Inspra. Salt substitutes are edible products designed to taste similar to table salt, which is mostly sodium chloride. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide composed of potassium and chlorine. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Hyperkalemia is an elevated blood level (above 5. ... A medication is a drug or substance taken to reduce symptoms or cure an illness or medical condition. ... Amiloride is an antihypertensive, a potassium-sparing diuretic that was first approved for use in 1967 and helps to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure. ... Triamterene is a potassium-sparing diuretic used in combination with thiazide diuretics for the treatment of hypertension. ... Spironolactone (marketed under the trade names Aldactone, Novo-Spiroton, Spiractin, Spirotone, or Berlactone) is a diuretic and is used as an antiandrogen. ... Eplerenone (INN) (IPA: ) is an aldosterone antagonist used as an adjunct in the management of chronic heart failure. ... Eplerenone (INN) (IPA: ) is an aldosterone antagonist used as an adjunct in the management of chronic heart failure. ...


Production trends

Salt output in 2005

Salt is produced by evaporation of seawater or brine from other sources, such as brine wells and salt lakes, and by mining rock salt, called halite. In 2002, total world production was estimated at 210 million metric tonnes, the top five producers being the United States (40.3 million tonnes), China (32.9), Germany (17.7), India (14.5), and Canada (12.3).[55] Note that these figures are not just for table salt but for sodium chloride in general. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of (unrefined) salt output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (USA - 45,900,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of (unrefined) salt output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (USA - 45,900,000 tonnes). ... Vaporization redirects here. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water which has a concentration of salts (mostly sodium chloride) and other minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least 3,000 milligrams of salt per liter). ... A salt mine is an operation involved in the extraction of salt. ... For Halite Bittorrent client , see Halite Client. ...


See also

A ship loading salt from a terminal.
A ship loading salt from a terminal.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 146 pixelsFull resolution (2010 × 366 pixel, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Edible salt Areia Branca Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 146 pixelsFull resolution (2010 × 366 pixel, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Edible salt Areia Branca Metadata This... The Alberger process is a method of producing salt. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require restructuring. ... In food preparation, curing refers to various preservation and flavoring processes, especially of meat or fish, by the addition of a combination of salt, sugar and either nitrate or nitrite. ... Fleur de sel (Flower of salt in French) is a hand-harvested sea salt collected by workers who scrape only the top layer of salt before it sinks to the bottom of large salt pans. ... Naturally formed salt crystals with a U.S. penny for size reference (19. ... Holding --- Court membership Case opinions Laws applied Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1 International Salt Co. ... Kosher salt (sodium chloride) (or more correctly, Koshering Salt), is one of the most commonly used varieties of salt in commercial kitchens today. ... The Old Salt Route (German: Alte Salzstraße) was a medieval trade route in northern Germany for the transport of salt. ... Salt equivalent is usually quoted on food nutrition information tables on food labels, and is a different way of defining sodium intake, noting that salt is chemically sodium chloride. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Smoked salt is salt with smoke flavoring. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Yanomami Indians in the INTERSALT study, (accessed13 January 2007)
  2. ^ a b Barber 1999:136
  3. ^ a b c d e Kurlansky 2002
  4. ^ Included among the other, less well-known continental salt sites with hal(l)- in their names are Reichenhall and Schwäbisch Hall in Germany, and Hall in Austria. (Barber 1999:137)
  5. ^ Barber 1999:135–137
  6. ^ Kurlansky 2002:52–55
  7. ^ Sea Salt is good for you
  8. ^ Iodine in non-iodized sea salt
  9. ^ "A Personal Acquaintance With Sea Salts - By Kim Walter" Sfbsc.com
  10. ^ European Salt Producers' Association http://www.eu-salt.com/index3.htm
  11. ^ Roskill Information Services http://www.roskill.com/reports/salt
  12. ^ Salt [ NaCl ] made the world go round
  13. ^ http://nauticus.org/currwthrless043.html
  14. ^ UK Salt Manufacturers' Association http://www.saltsense.co.uk/aboutsalt-what01.htm
  15. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense, salt history, salt manufacture, salt uses, sodium. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry
  16. ^ The Salt Manufacturers Association ::: saltsense, salt history, salt manufacture, salt uses, sodium. Key information on salt from the Salt Industry
  17. ^ HE-620
  18. ^ Nutritional analysis provided with Tesco Table Salt, from Tesco Stores Ltd (UK) states 38.9% sodium by weight which equals 98.9% sodium chloride
  19. ^ Table
  20. ^ The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine
  21. ^ Iodized Salt
  22. ^ Iodized Salt
  23. ^ http://www.afssa.fr/Ftp/Afssa/26447-26448.pdf
  24. ^ a b c Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia, Victoria) Salt
  25. ^ Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center Dysautonomia page
  26. ^ Why Files article Salt and other wounds
  27. ^ Gary Taubes, "The (Political) Science of Salt", Science, 14 August 1998, Vol. 281. no. 5379, pp. 898 - 907
  28. ^ Exercise-induced asthma more clearly linked to high-salt diet
  29. ^ Dr Trisha Macnair "Does eating salt make asthma worse?"
  30. ^ Everybody Study adds salt to suspected triggers for heartburn
  31. ^ High salt diet reduces bone density in girls
  32. ^ a b c d e Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF)
  33. ^ Salt raises 'stomach cancer risk'
  34. ^ Cook NR, Cutler JA, Obarzanek E et. al. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). BMJ. 2007;334(7599):885. PMID 17449506 Free full-text
  35. ^ a b Food Safety Authority of Ireland Salt and Health: Review of the Scientific Evidence and Recommendations for Public Policy in Ireland
  36. ^ Australia: Better Health Channel (Australia, Victoria) Fluid retention
  37. ^ BBC High-salt diet link to ulcer risk 22 May 2007
  38. ^ Elisabeth Elena Türk, Friedrich Schulz, Erwin Koops, Axel Gehl and Michael Tsokos. Fatal hypernatremia after using salt as an emetic—report of three autopsy cases. Legal Medicine 2005, 7, 47-50. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2004.06.005
  39. ^ http://www.arltma.com/SaltCravingDoc.htm
  40. ^ "What can bath salt help do for my body and mind?" Sfbsc.com
  41. ^ Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes
  42. ^ Auckland District Health Board Public Health Nutrition Advice (PDF)
  43. ^ Better Health Channel (Australia, Victoria) Salt
  44. ^ U. S. Food and Drug Administration A Pinch of Controversy Shakes Up Dietary Salt
  45. ^ Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 "Sodium and Potassium"
  46. ^ Understanding labels
  47. ^ Food and Drug Administration A Food Labeling Guide--Appendix A
  48. ^ Salt Manufacturers Association press release New salt campaign under attack
  49. ^ Advertising Standards Authority Broadcast Advertising Adjudications: 20 April 2005 (PDF)
  50. ^ Salt TV ads
  51. ^ Salt Matters
  52. ^ CASH Consensus Action on Salt.
  53. ^ My Blood Pressure.
  54. ^ LoSalt Advisory Statement (PDF)
  55. ^ Susan R. Feldman. Sodium chloride. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published online 2005. doi:10.1002/0471238961.1915040902051820.a01.pub2

is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about common table salt. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Bad Reichenhall is a spa town, and administrative center of the Berchtesgadener Land district in Upper Bavaria, Germany. ... Schwäbisch Hall (or Hall for short) is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg; it is the capital of the district of Schwäbisch Hall. ... Hall in Tirol is a town in Austria. ... This article is about common table salt. ... This article is about common table salt. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Gary Taubes is a science writer. ... Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

References

  • Kurlansky, Mark (2002), Salt: A World History, New York: Walker & Co., ISBN 0802713734 .
  • Barber, Elizabeth Wayland (1999), The Mummies of Ürümchi, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., ISBN 0393320197 .

Further reading

  • Kurlansky, Mark, and S. D. Schindler. The Story of Salt. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 2006. ISBN 0399239987 -- a children's book about salt.
  • Laszlo, Pierre. Salt: Grain of Life. Arts and traditions of the table. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
  • Department of Health, Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK: Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on the Medical Aspects of Food Policy , The Stationery Office.

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Salt
  • Salt production methods and practices
  • Salt Institute
  • Cook's Thesaurus: Salt (Summary and descriptions of edible salts)

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

Salt and health

Government bodies

Many other government bodies are listed in the References section above.

Medical authorities
Charities and campaigns
  • British Nutrition Foundation article "Salt in the Diet"
  • Consensus Action on Salt and Health (UK charity)
  • Action on Salt and Health
  • CSPI page Salt: The Forgotten Killer
  • Irish Heart Foundation booklet Time to cut down on salt (PDF format)
Journalism
  • BBC article "Salt: friend or foe?"
  • BBC medical notes "Salt"
  • Guardian article The sceptic
  • Ockham's Razor Salt matters - talk by Dr Trevor Beard, Menzies Research Institute (ABC Radio National 4th February 2007)
Salt industry
  • EuSalt Position papers
  • LoSalt (salt substitute manufacturer)
  • Salt Manufacturers' Association Salt and health
  • Salt Institute Sodium and health
  • ^  Bloch, David: Economics of NaCl: Salt made the world go round.
ABC Radio National is an Australia-wide radio network with many various programs, involving news and current affairs, arts, music, society, science, drama and comedy. ...

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