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Encyclopedia > Salon (gathering)
"A Salon of Ladies" by Abraham Bosse
"A Salon of Ladies" by Abraham Bosse

A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring hostess or host, partly to amuse one another and partly to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings, often consciously following Horace's definition of the aims of poetry, "to please and educate" (aut delectare aut prodesse est). The term is commonly associated with French literary and philosophical gatherings of the 17th century and 18th century, though the practice continues today in many cities worldwide. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Categories: Stub | 1604 births | 1676 deaths | Engravers ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, a making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...

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Overview

The word salon first appears in France in 1664 (from the Italian word sala, used to designate the large reception hall of Italian mansions). Literary gatherings before this were often referred to by using the name of the room in which they occurred, like cabinet, réduit, ruelle and alcôve 1. Before the end of the 17th century, these gatherings were frequently held in the bedroom (treated as a more private form of drawing room): a lady, reclining on her bed, would receive close friends who would sit on chairs or stools drawn around; this practice may be contrasted with the greater formalities of Louis XIV's petit levée, where all stood. The expression ruelle, literally meaning "little street", designates the space between a bed and the wall in a bedroom, and more generally the entire bedroom; it was used commonly to designate the gatherings of the "précieuses", the intellectual and literary circles that formed around women in the first half of the 17th century, whose affectations were ridiculed by Molière. A Salon of Ladies by Abraham Bosse A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring hostess or host, partly to amuse one another and partly to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings, often consciously following Horaces definition of the... “Sun King” redirects here. ... In the court etiquette that was formalized by Louis XIV of France, the levée, or rising of the monarch was erected into a set of extremely elaborated conventions and divided into the grand levée, attended by the full court in the gallery outside the kings bedchamber, and... The literary style called préciosité (preciousness) arose from the lively conversations and playful word games of les précieuses, the witty and educated intellectual ladies who frequented the salon of the marquise de Rambouillet; her Chambre bleue (the blue bedroom of her hôtel particulier) offered a Parisian refuge... Molière, engraved on the frontispiece to his Works. ...


Nobles' courts have always drawn to themselves poets, writers and artists, usually with the lure of patronage, an aspect that sets the court apart from the salon. In 16th-century Italy some scintillating circles did form in the smaller courts, often galvanized by the presence of a beautiful and educated patroness such as Isabella d'Este or Elisabetta Gonzaga. In 16th century France, literary and artistic circles formed around royal women such as Marguerite of Navarre, Marie de Medici, Marguerite de Valois, among others. But in the late 16th century, as a result of the Wars of Religion, the official royal literary circles were increasingly superseded by more private circles. A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ... ... Isabella dEste painted by Titian Isabella dEste (18 May 1474 - 13 February 1539, death at 65 years old) was marchesa of Mantua and one of the leading women of the Italian Renaissance and a major cultural and political figure. ... The Gonzaga family ruled Mantua in Northern Italy from 1328 to 1708. ... Marguerite of Navarre (April 11, 1492 – December 21, 1549), also known as Marguerite of Angouleme and Margaret of Navarre, was the queen consort of King Henry II of Navarre. ... Marie de Medici (April 26, 1573 - July 3, 1642), born in Italy as Maria de Medici, was queen consort of France under the French name Marie de Médicis. ... Marguerite de Valois [1] [2] (May 14, 1553 – May 27, 1615), Queen Margot (La reine Margot) was Queen of France and Navarre. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between the Catholic League and the Huguenots from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598. ...


The most famous of the literary salons of Paris formed in the 1620s were the Hôtel de Rambouillet by Madame de Rambouillet and the rival salon that gathered around Madeleine de Scudéry. Here gathered the original "blue-stockings" (les bas-bleues), whose nickname continued to mean "intellectual woman" for the next 300 years. In the salons of Paris, the précieuses refined the French language even before the Académie française was founded. City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Events and Trends Permanent Dutch settlement of New York Bay and the Hudson River. ... The Hôtel de Rambouillet was the Paris residence of Madame de Rambouillet, who ran a literary salon there from about 1607 until her death in 1665. ... Catherine de Vivonne, marquise de Rambouillet (1588 - December 2, 1665), better known simply as Madame de Rambouillet, was a society hostess and a major figure in the literary history of France. ... Madeleine de Scudéry (November 15, 1607 - June 2, 1701), often known simply as Mademoiselle de Scudéry, was a French writer. ... The literary style called préciosité (preciousness) arose from the lively conversations and playful word games of les précieuses, the witty and educated intellectual ladies who frequented the salon of the marquise de Rambouillet; her Chambre bleue (the blue bedroom of her hôtel particulier) offered a Parisian refuge... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ...


The 18th century salons brought together Parisian society and the progressive philosophes who were producing the Encyclopédie. Marmontel's remark about Julie de Lespinasse suggests the secret of the salon in French culture: (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Philosophes (French for Philosophers) were a group of French thinkers of the 18th century Enlightenment. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Jean-François Marmontel (July 11, 1723 - December 31, 1799) was a French historian and writer, a member of the Encyclopediste movement. ... Jeanne Julie Eleonore de Lespinasse (November 9, 1732 – May 23, 1776), was a French author. ...

"The circle was formed of persons who were not bound together. She had taken them here and there in society, but so well assorted were they that once there they fell into harmony like the strings of an instrument touched by an able hand."

Such a woman in German circles, inspiring to writers and artists, perhaps without an artistic bent herself, was called a "muse". In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think[1]) are a number of goddesses or spirits who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music and dance. ...


Galante manners of the mid 18th century were less formal. Horace Walpole's correspondent, Sir Horace Mann, the British envoy at Florence, chafed at the formality of Florentine salons, or conversazioni, where the tall chairs were drawn in a circle and a subject was introduced by the hostess, at which each member was expected to shine in turn. Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer and forerunner of the Gothic revival. ...

A reading of Molière, Jean François de Troy, about 1728
A reading of Molière, Jean François de Troy, about 1728

Paris salons of the 18th century: Image File history File links FdeTroyLectureMoliere. ... Image File history File links FdeTroyLectureMoliere. ... Molière, engraved on the frontispiece to his Works. ... A reading of Molière, Jean François de Troy, about 1728 Jean François de Troy (1679-1752) was a French roccoco painter and tapestry designer born on January 27, 1679 in Paris. ...

Some 19th century salons were more inclusive, verging on the raffish, and centered around painters and "literary lions" such as Mme Récamier. After the shocks of 1870, French aristocrats tended to withdraw from the public eye. Marcel Proust called up his own turn-of-the-century experience to recreate the rival salons of the fictional Duchesse de Guermantes and Madame Verdurin. Some late 19th and early 20th-Century Paris salons were major centres of music, including those of Winnaretta Singer (the Princesse de Polignac) and Comtesse Greffulhe. Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin (1699 - October 6, 1777) was a French hostess who played an interesting part in French literary and artistic life. ... Claudine Alexandrine Guérin de Tencin (1681 - 4 December 1749) was a French courtesan and author. ... Jeanne Julie Eleonore de Lespinasse (November 9, 1732 – May 23, 1776), was a French author. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond, marquise du Deffand (1697 - September 23, 1780) was a French hostess and patron of the arts. ... Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, more commonly known as Horace Walpole, (September 24, 1717 – March 2, 1797), was a politician, writer and forerunner of the Gothic revival. ... Anne-Louise-Bénédicte de Bourbon-Condé, duchesse du Maine (November 8, 1676 - January 23, 1753), daughter of Henri Jules de Bourbon, prince de Condé and Anne of Bavaria. ... Louise Florence Pétronille Tardieu dEsclavelles dEpinay (March 11, 1726 – April 17, 1783), French writer, was born at Valenciennes. ... Madame Necker (Suzanne Curchod). ... Jacques Necker Jacques Necker (September 30, 1732 – April 9, 1804) was a French statesman of Swiss origin and finance minister of Louis XVI. // Necker was born in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Anne-Catherine de Ligniville Helvétius Anne-Catherine de Ligniville, Madame Helvétius (23 July 1722 - 12 August 1800), nicknamed Minette, maintained a renowned salon in France in the 18th century. ... Claude Adrien Helvétius (February 26, 1715 - December 26, 1771) was a French philosopher and litterateur. ... Sophie de Condorcet (1764 Meulan - 8 September 1822, Paris) (or Madame de Condorcet) was born Marie-Louise-Sophie de Grouchy, daughter of Francoise Jacques Marquis de Grouchy (a former page of Louis XV) by his intellectual wife Marie Gilberte Henriette Freteau (d. ... Condorcet can refer to two separate things. ... Mme Roland in a portrait by Adelaide Labille-Guiard, 1787 Viscountess Jeanne Marie Roland de la Platiere, born Manon Jeanne Philipon (March 17, 1754 – November 8, 1793), became the wife of Jean Marie Roland de la Platiere and is better known simply as Madame Roland. ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins), were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Madame Swetchine (1782 - 1857), Russian mystic, whose maiden name was Soymanof, was born in Moscow. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jeanne Françoise Julie Adélaïde Récamier, by Jacques-Louis David, 1800, a portrait which sparked European fashion for Greek attire. ... “Proust” redirects here. ... Winnaretta Singer [1] (8 January 1865-26 November 1943), Princess Edmond de Polignac, was an important musical patron, lesbian, and heir to the Singer sewing machine fortune. ...


Salons outside of France

The salon was more or less a French invention, and it flourished there from the early 17th century and forward more than in any other country, but it quickly spread over Europe, although in different speed, and in the 18th and 19th centuries most big cities in Europe had a famous "salon hostess". But the salons may not always have been as prominent as the French ones, and they were not as common as they were in Paris, where the hostesses were so many that they even rivaled with each other.


In England, salons were held by Lady Elizabeth Montagu and Hester Thrale in the 18th century; in Germany, the most famous salons were held by Jewish ladies, such as Henriette Herz and Rachel Levin Varnhagen; in Spain, the duchess of Alba in the end of the 18th century; and in Greece by Alexandra Mavrokordatou in the 17th century. Hester Lynch Thrale by Sir Joshua Reynolds Hester Lynch Thrale (born Hester Lynch Salusbury and after her second marriage, Hester Lynch Piozzi ) (16 January 1741 (she mistakenly celebrated her own birthday on 27 January) - May 2, 1821) was a British diarist, author, and a friend and confidante of Samuel Johnson. ... Henriette Herz. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Italy had an early tradition of this; the courtisan Tullia Aragona held a salon already in the 16th century, and Giovanna Dandolo became known as a patron and gatherer of artists as wife of the doge in Venice in 1457-1462, but this did not start a tradition as the salon-instution in France, as men and women were traditionally more separated in social life in Italy; the real pioneers were instead the abdicated Queen Christina of Sweden and the french-born princess Colonna, Marie Anne Mancini, who rivaled as salon hostesses in 17th century Rome. In Iberia or Latin America a tertulia is a social gathering with literary or artistic overtones. The word is originally Spanish and has only moderate currency in English, in describing Latin cultural contexts. Since the twentieth century a typical tertulia has moved out from the private drawing-troom to become a regularly scheduled event in a public place such as a bar, although some tertulias are still held in more private spaces. Participants may share their recent creations (poetry, short stories, other writings, even artwork or songs).[1] Christina (1626-1689) or Kristina, later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometime Count Dohna, was Queen of Sweden from 1632 to 1654, was the daughter of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A tertulia is a social gathering with literary or artistic overtones, especially in Iberia or Latin America. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, a making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


In Poland, the duchess Sieniawska held a salon in the end of the 17th cenury, and the salons became very popular there during the 18th century; the most famous salons were the Thursday Dinners of King Stanisław August Poniatowski in the end of 18th century. Palace on the Water, Lazienki Park, Warsaw. ... For other persons named StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski, see StanisÅ‚aw Poniatowski. ...


In Sweden, Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht and Malla Silfverstolpe were salon hostesses in the 18th and the 19th centuries, respectively; in Denmark, Magdalene Charlotte Schimmelman became the first salonist in the beginning of the 18th century and excersised a large influence. Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht (November 28, 1718; Stockholm–June 29, 1763) was a Swedish poet and feminist. ...


American "society hostesses" such as Perle Mesta have performed a function similar to the host or hostess of the European salon. Perle Mesta (October 12, 1889, Sturgis, Michigan - March 16, 1975, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) was an American society figure, political hostess, and ambassador to Luxembourg (1949 - 1953). ...


Other uses of the word

Main article: Paris Salon.

The word salon also refers to art exhibitions. The Paris Salon was originally an officially-sanctioned exhibit of recent works of painting and sculpture by members of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, starting in 1673 and soon moving from the Salon Carré of the Palace of the Louvre. Honoré Daumier satirized the bourgeoises scandalized by the Salons Venuses, 1864 The Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris) is the official art exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris, France. ... The Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture), Paris, was founded in 1648, modelled on Italian examples, such as the Accademia di San Luca in Rome. ... 1673 (MDCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the museum: for building history, see Palais du Louvre, for higher education, see École du Louvre. ... This article is about the museum. ...


The name salon remained, even when other quarters were found and the exhibits' irregular intervals became biennial. A jury system of selection was introduced in 1748, and the salon remained a major annual event even after the government withdrew official sponsorship in 1881. Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of...


See also: French art salons and academies, Paris Salon, Salon des Refusés, Salon d'Automne, Salon des Indépendants. From the seventeenth century to the early part of the twentieth century, artistic production in France was controled by artistic academies which organized official exhibitions called salons. ... Honoré Daumier satirized the bourgeoises scandalized by the Salons Venuses, 1864 The Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris) is the official art exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris, France. ... The Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Rejected) was an art exhibition in Paris. ... First Salon dAutomne Catalog In 1903, the first Salon dAutomne (Fall Salon) was organized as a reaction to the conservative policies of the official Paris Salon. ... Salon des Indépendants is an exhibition of art held annually since 1884 in Paris, France. ...


Further reading

  • James Ross, ‘Music in the French Salon’; in Caroline Potter and Richard Langham Smith (eds.), French Music Since Berlioz (Ashgate Press, 2006), pp.91–115. ISBN 0-7546-0282-6.

External links

Private salons

  • Mlle de Scudéry
  • Les Contes de Fées: The Literary Fairy Tales of France: 17th-century Paris salons of Mme d'Aulnoy, the comtesse de Murat and others by Terri Windling.
  • Julie de Lespinasse, Mme Geoffrin in memoirs.
  • Americans in Paris: Natalie Barney, Gertrude Stein, and Sylvia Beach. Three 20th century salons.
  • http://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/lit/historical/TheWomenoftheFrenchSalons/toc.html

(Biographies of French salonists from Madame de Rambouillet to Madame Recamier and descriptions of salon culture from the 17th to the 19th century.) Marie-Catherine le Jumelle de Barneville, Baronne dAulnoy (1650/1651–4 January 1705) was a French writer known for her fairy tales. ...



Art exhibitions

  • Paris Salon of 1769: photos illustrate some of the paintings shown that year.
  • Comic art: The Paris Salon in Caricature: Getty Museum exhibition, 2003.
  • Jewish Women and Their Salons

References

  1. Dictionaire des lettres françaises: le XVIIe siècle, revised edition by Patrick Dandrey, ed. (Paris: Fayard, 1996), p.1149.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Salon (gathering) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (842 words)
The salons, commonly associated with French literary and philosophical salons of the 17th century and 18th century, were carried on until quite recently in urban settings among like-minded people of a 'set': many 20th-century salons could be instanced.
The most famous of the literary salons of Paris formed in the 1620s were the Hôtel de Rambouillet by Madame de Rambouillet and the rival salon that gathered around Madeleine de Scudéry.
The Paris Salon was originally an officially-sanctioned exhibit of recent works of painting and sculpture by members of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, starting in 1673 and soon moving from the Salon Carré of the Palace of the Louvre.
Salon (gathering) - definition of Salon (gathering) in Encyclopedia (634 words)
The first literary salons of Paris formed in the 1620s at the Hôtel de Rambouillet by Madame de Rambouillet and at the rival salon that gathered around Madeleine de Scudéry.
The Paris Salon was originally an officially-sanctioned exhibition of recent works by members of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, starting in 1673 and soon moving from the Salon Carré of the Palace of the Louvre.
In the 19th century this other idea of Salon was extended to an annual government-sponsored juried exhibition of new painting and sculpture, held by invitation in large commercial halls, to which the ticket-bearing public was invited.
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