FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Salmonella" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Salmonella
Salmonella

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Salmonella
Lignieres 1900
Species

S. bongori
S. enterica
ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2100x1761, 1696 KB) Color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing Salmonella typhimurium (red) invading cultured human cells Credit: Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH Source: NIAID: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Binomial name (ex Kauffmann & Edwards 1952) Le Minor & Popoff 1987 Salmonella enterica is a rod shaped, flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium, and a member of the genus Salmonella. ...

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness.[1] Salmonella species are motile and produce hydrogen sulfide.[2] Salmonella antibodies were first found in Malawi children in research published in 2008. The Malawian researchers have identified an antibody that protects children against bacterial infections of the blood caused by Salmonella. A study of 352 children at Blantyre's Queen Elizabeth hospital found that children up to two years old develop antibodies that aid in killing the bacteria. The researchers, quoted in the Science and Development Network, say this could lead to a possible Salmonella vaccine. [3] Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... Species S. enterica Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid and foodborne illness. ... A foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any illness resulting from the consumption of food. ... Motility is a biological term which refers to the ability to move spontaneously and independently. ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ...

Contents

History

Salmonella was named after Daniel Elmer Salmon, an American veterinary pathologist, although it was his partner Conor Fitzpatrick (better known for his work on anaphylaxis) who first isolated the bacterium in 1885 from pigs.[4][5] Daniel Elmer Salmon, (1850-1914), was born at Mount Olive, New Jersey. ... Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system) and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other mammals. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Microbiology

Salmonella is a Gram-negative bacterium. In a clinical laboratory, it is usually isolated on MacConkey agar, XLD agar, XLT agar, DCA agar, or Önöz agar. Because they cause intestinal infections and are greatly outnumbered by the bacteria normally found in the healthy bowel, primary isolation requires the use of a selective medium, so use of a relatively non-selective medium such as CLED agar is not often practiced. Numbers of salmonella may be so low in clinical samples that stools are routinely also subjected to "enrichment culture", where a small volume of stool is incubated in a selective broth medium, such as selenite broth or Rappaport Vassiliadis soya peptone broth, overnight. These media are inhibitory to the growth of the microbes normally found in the healthy human bowel, while allowing salmonellae to become enriched in numbers. Salmonellae may then be recovered by inoculating the enrichment broth on one or more of the primary selective media. On blood agar, they form moist colonies about 2 to 3 mm in diameter. When the cells are grown for a prolonged time at a range of 25—28°C, some strains produce a biofilm, which is a matrix of complex carbohydrates, cellulose and proteins. The ability to produce biofilm (a.k.a. "rugose", "lacy", or "wrinkled") can be an indicator of dimorphism, which is the ability of a single genome to produce multiple phenotypes in response to environmental conditions. Salmonellae usually do not ferment lactose; most of them produce hydrogen sulfide which, in media containing ferric ammonium citrate, reacts to form a black spot in the centre of the creamy colonies. Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... MacConkeys Agar is a culture medium designed to grow up Gram-negative bacteria and stain them for lactose fermentation. ... XLD agar - xylose lysine deoxycholate agar - is a selective growth medium used in the isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from clinical samples and from food. ... XLT agar (Xilose Lisina Tergitol-4) Is a selective culture medium for the isolation and identification of salmonellae from food and environmental samples. ... DCA agar - Deoxycholate Citrate Agar - is particularly useful for the isolation of organisms that cause bacilliary dysentery, salmonella strains that cause food poisoning and Salmonella Paratyphi. ... CLED agar (Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient medium) is a valuable non-inhibitory growth medium used in the isolation and differentiation of urinary organisms. ... Selenite broth is used as an enrichment medium for the isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species. ... Rappaport Vassiliadis soya peptone broth is used as an enrichment growth medium for the isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species. ... An agar plate is a sterile Petri dish that contains agar plus nutrients, and is used to culture bacteria or fungi. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... The phenotype of an individual organism is either its total physical appearance and constitution, or a specific manifestation of a trait, such as size or eye color, that varies between individuals. ...


Classification

Salmonella taxonomy is complicated.[6][7] As of December 7, 2005, there are two species within the genus: S. bongori (previously subspecies V) and S. enterica (formerly called S. choleraesuis), which is divided into six subspecies: For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • I—enterica
  • II—salamae
  • IIIa—arizonae
  • IIIb—diarizonae
  • IV—houtenae
  • V—obsolete (now designated S. bongori)
  • VI—indica

There are also numerous (over 2500) serovars within both species, which are found in a disparate variety of environments and which are associated with many different diseases. The vast majority of human isolates (>99.5%) are subspecies S. enterica. For the sake of simplicity, the CDC recommends that Salmonella species be referred to only by their genus and serovar, e.g., A serovar or serotype is a grouping of microorganisms or viruses based on their cell surface antigens. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...

Salmonella Typhi

instead of the more technically correct designation,

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi.

Salmonella isolates are most commonly classified according to serology (Kauffman-White classification).[6] The main division is first by the somatic O antigen, then by flagellar H antigens. H antigens are further divided into phase 1 and phase 2. Both phase 1 and phase 2 H antigens are required for the full identification of an isolate but in practise, routine labs will leave this to Reference Laboratories. Kauffman and White classification permits serological varieties of the genus Salmonella to be differentiated from each other. ...


Note that, with the exception of typhoid and paratyphoid, salmonellosis is not a blood-related infection, as is commonly believed.


Examples:

  • Salmonella Enteritidis (1,9,12:g,m) - where the O antigens present are 1, 9 and 12; the H antigens are g and m.
  • Salmonella Typhi (9,12,Vi:d:−) - where the O antigens are 9, 12,; the H antigen is d: The Vi antigen is associated with the bacterial capsule, which acts as a Virulence factor, hence its name.

In a clinical laboratory, only a small number of serovars are looked for (the remainder being rare or not clinically significant). The Health Protection Agency recommend testing for the following antigens routinely: The Health Protection Agency (HPA), originally established as a special health authority (SpHA) in 2003, is an independent national organisation charged with protecting the health and well-being of the United Kingdom citizens from infectious diseases and in preventing harm and reducing impacts when hazards involving chemicals, poisons or radiation...

  • O antigens: 2 4 6.7 8 9 and 3.10
  • phase 1 H antigens: a b d E G i r Vi
  • phase 2 H antigens: 1,2 1,5 1,6 1,7

Isolates that cannot be identified using this panel are sent to the reference laboratory for identification.


Prevention

The prevention of Salmonella as a food illness involves effective sanitizing of food contact surfaces. Alcohol has proven to be an effective topical sanitizer against Salmonella. Quaternary ammonium can be used in conjunction with alcohol as a food-contact safe sanitizer with increased duration of the sanitizing action. Nonflammable Alcohol Vapor in carbon dioxide NAV-CO2 systems or sodium hypochlorite (bleach) are frequently used to sanitize surfaces to prevent Salmonella. Food containing raw eggs should be thoroughly cooked before eating. Contrary to popular belief, refrigeration cannot kill salmonella. The advice from leading kids TV chef Kat Richards is "Make sure any dodgy looking bits of the chicken are cut off. This can be done with a knife or a pair of scissors. After that cook thoroughly until the meat is white throughout". This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Quaternary ammonium cation. ... Non-flammable Alcohol Vapor in Carbon Dioxide (NAV-CO2) systems were developed in Japan in the 1990s to sanitize hospitals and ambulances. ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent. ...


Salmonella-associated diseases

Main article: Salmonellosis

Disease-causing Salmonella species have recently been re-classified into a single species, Salmonella enterica, which has numerous serovars. Salmonella Typhi causes typhoid fever. Other salmonellae are frequent causes of foodborne illness, especially from poultry and raw eggs and more generally from food that has been cooked or frozen and not eaten straight away. Although most non-typhoidal strains associated with food-borne infection are self-limiting and do not require antibiotics, complicated or systemic infection and infection with specific serovars (such as Typhi) are indications for antibiotic treatment and often hospitalization. The long-term usage of antibiotics in both the poultry and beef industries may have created a strain of salmonella which is potentially resistant to antibiotics.[8] Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. ... Binomial name (ex Kauffmann & Edwards 1952) Le Minor & Popoff 1987 Salmonella enterica is a rod shaped, flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium, and a member of the genus Salmonella. ... A serovar or serotype is a grouping of microorganisms or viruses based on their cell surface antigens. ... Binomial name Salmonella enterica Salmonella enterica is a species of Salmonella bacterium. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... A foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any illness resulting from the consumption of food. ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...


Salmonellosis can also be caught by handling reptiles such as iguanas or turtles. A CDC study also noted cases of salmonellosis in 2003 and 2004 associated with handling commercially distributed pet rodents. [1] Genera Amblyrhynchus Brachylophus Conolophus Ctenosaura Cyclura Dipsosaurus Iguana Sauromalus Frost et al. ... Turtles and terapins may mean: plural of turtle Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles The Turtles band Turtles band Turtles Music stores See also: Turtle (disambiguation) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


See also

The 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack refers to the salmonella food poisoning of over seven hundred and fifty individuals in Oregon through the contamination of salad bars at ten local restaurants. ... Foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  2. ^ Giannella RA (1996). "Salmonella", in Baron S et al (eds.): Baron's Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  3. ^ http://www.scidev.net/en/sub-suharan-africa/news/sub-saharan-africa-news-in-brief-13-25-march.html
  4. ^ Salmonella at Who Named It
  5. ^ Daniel Elmer Salmon at Who Named It
  6. ^ a b "The type species of the genus Salmonella Lignieres 1900 is Salmonella enterica (ex Kauffmann and Edwards 1952) Le Minor and Popoff 1987, with the type strain LT2T, and conservation of the epithet enterica in Salmonella enterica over all earlier epithets that may be applied to this species. Opinion 80" (2005). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55 (Pt 1): 519-20. PubMed. 
  7. ^ Tindall BJ; Grimont PAD, Garrity GM; Euzéby JP (2005). "Nomenclature and taxonomy of the genus Salmonella". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 55: 521–524. PubMed. 
  8. ^ Surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella, in Eurosuveillance: Peer reviewed European information on disease surveillance and control, retrieved 7 June 2007.

Who Named It is a Norwegian database of several thousand eponymous medical signs and the doctors associated with their identification. ... Who Named It is a Norwegian database of several thousand eponymous medical signs and the doctors associated with their identification. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Salmonella
Wikispecies has information related to:
Salmonella
Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... The University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) is a federal-state-county partnership dedicated to developing knowledge in agriculture, human and natural resources, and the life sciences, and enhancing and sustaining the quality of human life by making that information accessible. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Salmonella - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (823 words)
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever and foodborne illness.
Numbers of salmonella may be so low in clinical samples that stools are routinely also subjected to "enrichment culture" where a small volume of stool is incubated in a selective broth medium, such as selenite broth or Rappaport Vassiliadis soya peptone broth overnight.
Other salmonellae are frequent causes of foodborne illness, and can especially be caught from poultry and raw eggs and more generally from food that has been cooked or frozen, and not eaten straight away.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m