FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sallie Baliunas

Sallie Baliunas is at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in the Solar, Stellar, and Planetary Sciences Division and formerly Deputy Director of the Mount Wilson Institute.


Baliunas is primarily an astrophysicist and this is where the bulk of her research has been done (e.g. [1]). She studies visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy of stars; structure, variations, and activity in cool stars; evolution of stellar angular momentum; solar variability and global change; adaptive optics; exoplanets of Sun-like stars. Extremely high resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of matter by investigating light, sound, or particles that are emitted, absorbed or scattered by the matter under investigation. ... Gyroscope. ... A deformable mirror can be used to correct wavefront errors in an astronomical telescope. ... Infrared Image of a possible extrasolar planet (lower left) in the Constellation Taurus, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. ...


Baliunas received her M.A. (1975) and Ph.D. (1980) degrees in Astrophysics from Harvard University. She serves as Senior Scientist at the George C. Marshall Institute in Washington, DC, and chairs the Institute's Science Advisory Board. She is also Visiting Professor at Brigham Young University, Adjunct Professor at Tennessee State University and past contributing editor to the World Climate Report. Previously Robert Wesson Endowment Fund Fellow (1993 – 1994) at the Hoover Institution. Her scientific awards include the Newton Lacey Pierce Prize in Astronomy from the American Astronomical Society. She also received the Derek Bok Public Service Prize from Harvard University. In 1991 Discover magazine profiled her as one of America's outstanding women scientists. She has also received a political award, the Petr Beckmann Award for Scientific Freedom from Doctors for Disaster Preparedness, a body associated with the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine in recognition of her work criticising the theory of global warming. Spiral Galaxy ESO 269-57 Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, including the physical properties (luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition) of celestial objects such as stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, as well as their interactions. ... The George C. Marshall Institute says it was established in 1984 to conduct technical assessments of scientific issues with an impact on public policy. ... Brigham Young University, often referred to as BYU, is the flagship university of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... Tennessee State University (TSU) is a comprehensive, urban, coeducational land-grant university founded in 1912. ... World Climate Report, a newsletter edited by Patrick Michaels, was produced by the Greening Earth Society. ... Hoover Tower at the Hoover Institution The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is a public policy think tank and library founded by Herbert Hoover at Stanford University, his alma mater. ... The American Astronomical Society (AAS) is a US society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC. The main aim of the AAS is provide a political voice for its members and organise their lobbying. ... The Derek Bok Public Service Prizes recognize creative initiatives in community service or long-standing records of civic achievement among degree and certificate graduates at Harvard University. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Discover is a science magazine that publishes articles about science for a general audience. ... Petr Beckmann (1924-1993) was a physicist who defected to the United States from Czechoslovakia in 1963 and became a Professor of electrical engineering at the University of Colorado. ... Doctors for Disaster Preparedness is a body associated with the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine. ... The Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (OISM) describes itself as a small research institute that studies biochemistry, diagnostic medicine, nutrition, preventive medicine and the molecular biology of aging. ...


Global warming and solar variability

In 1992, Baliunas was third author on a Nature paper [2] that used observed variations in sun-like stars as an analogue of possible past variations in the Sun. The paper says that

"the sun is in an unusually steady phase compared to similar stars, which means that reconstructing the past historical brightness record may be more risky than has been generally thought".

More recently she has moved into the global warming area as a skeptic. The work of Willie Soon and Baliunas, suggesting that solar variability is more strongly correlated with variations in air temperature than any other factor, even carbon dioxide levels, has been widely publicized by lobby groups including the Marshall Institute, Tech Central Station [3] and SEPP [4] [5], and mentioned in the popular press [6]. However, her viewpoint - that solar variation accounts for most of the recent climate change - is not widely accepted among climate scientists. Global mean surface temperatures 1856 to 2005 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades. ... The global warming controversy is a long-running dispute about human effects - past, present and future - on climate. ... Willie Soon (Wei-Hock Soon) is an astrophysicist at the Solar and Stellar Physics Division of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. ... 20 years of solar irradiance data from satellites Solar variation refers to fluctuation in the amount of energy emitted by the Sun. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Lobbying is the practice of private advocacy with the goal of influencing a governing body, in order to ensure that an individuals or organizations point of view is represented in the government. ... The George C. Marshall Institute says it was established in 1984 to conduct technical assessments of scientific issues with an impact on public policy. ... Tech Central Station (TCS) describes itself as a website where free markets meet technology. TCS publishes daily original commentary, news and analysis, focused on economics, business, foreign affairs, technology, science, environment, trade, and culture. ... The Science & Environmental Policy Project (SEPP) is a non-profit educational group founded by retired atmospheric physicist S. Fred Singer. ...


Baliunas is a strong disbeliever in a connection between CO2 rise and climate change, saying in a 2001 paper with Willie Soon:

But is it possible that the particular temperature increase observed in the last 100 years is the result of carbon dioxide produced by human activities? The scientific evidence clearly indicates that this is not the case. All climate studies agree that if the one-degree [Fahrenheit] global warming was produced by an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the additional CO2 first warms the atmosphere, and the warmed atmosphere, in turn, warms the earth’s surface. However, measurements of atmospheric temperatures made by instruments lofted in satellites and balloons show that no warming has occurred in the atmosphere in the last 50 years. This is just the period in which human-made carbon dioxide has been pouring into the atmosphere and according to the climate studies, the resultant atmospheric warming should be clearly evident.
The absence of atmospheric warming proves that the warming of the earth’s surface observed in the last 100 years cannot be due to an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere caused by human activities. The recent global warming must be the result of natural factors in climate change. [7].

The claim that atmospheric data showed no warming trend was outdated at the time it was made, since the published satellite data at that time showed a warming trend, though weaker than at the surface (earlier estimates published in the 1990s showed no warming). Balloon data also showed warming. Since 2001, new data and corrections of measurement error have eliminated the apparent discrepancy between surface and atmospheric trends (see satellite temperature record). Global mean surface temperatures 1856 to 2005 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Layers of Atmosphere (NOAA) Air redirects here. ... S+C version 5. ...


With Soon, Baliunas investigated the correlation between solar variation and temperatures of the earth's atmosphere. When there are more sunspots, the total solar output increases, and when there are fewer sunspots, it decreases. Soon and Baliunas attribute the Medieval warm period to such an increase in solar output, and believe that decreases in solar output led to the Little Ice Age, a period of cooling from which the earth has been recovering since 1890. 400 year history of sunspot numbers. ... A sunspot is a region on the Suns surface (photosphere) that is marked by a lower temperature than its surroundings and intense magnetic activity, which inhibits convection, forming areas of low surface temperature. ... The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum was a time of unusually warm climate in Europe, lasting from about the 10th century to about the 14th century. ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ...


In 2003, Baliunas and Soon published a paper which reviewed a number of previous scientific papers and came to the conclusion that the climate hasn't changed in the last 2000 years. However, 13 of the authors of the papers Baliunas and Soon cited refuted her interpretation of their work, and several editors of "Climate Research", the journal which published the paper, resigned in protest at a flawed peer review process which allowed the publication. The observations used by Baliunas and Soon in respect of MWP and LIA are often not temperature proxies but indications of wet or dry; Mann et al. argue that their failure to ensure that the proxies reflect temperature renders the assessment suspect [8]. More recently, Osborn and Briffa repeated the Baliunas and Soon study but restricted themselves to records that were validated as temperature proxies, and came to a different result [9]. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Baliunas' extra-academic positions at several think tanks funded by energy industry organizations such as the American Petroleum Institute are often cited by her opponents as a source of bias on her part. Baliunas is a member of at least nine organizations which receive financial support from the petroleum industry [10]. This article is about the institution. ... The American Petroleum Institute, commonly referred to as API, is the main U.S. trade association for the oil and natural gas industry, representing about 400 corporate members involved in all aspects of the industry. ...


Ozone depletion

Baliunas earlier adopted a skeptical position regarding the hypothesis that CFCs were damaging to the ozone layer, which earned its originators, Paul Crutzen, Mario Molina and Frank Sherwood Rowland, the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1995. Her arguments on this issue were presented at Congressional hearings held in 1995 (but before the Nobel prize announcement). For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... The ozone layer, or ozonosphere layer (rarely used term), is the part of the Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... Paul J. Crutzen (December 3rd, 1933 - ) is a Dutch nobel prize winning atmospheric chemist. ... Mario J. Molina (born March 19, 1943) was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his role in elucidating the threat to the Earths ozone layer of chlorofluorocarbon gases (or CFCs). ... Frank Sherwood Rowland (born June 28, 1927) is a Nobel laureate and a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. ...


Baliunas' criticism was supported by Fred Singer, Hugh Ellsaesser, Patrick Michaels and Frederick Seitz, among others. [11],[12]. Siegfried Frederick Singer (born September 27, 1924 in Vienna) is an atmospheric physicist. ... Patrick J. Michaels (born c. ... Frederick Seitz (July 4, 1911-) is an American scientist. ...


Although Baliunas never publicly retracted her criticism of the ozone depletion hypothesis, an article by Baliunas and Soon written for the Heartland Institute in 2000 promoted the idea that ozone depletion, rather than CO2 emissions could explain atmospheric warming [13]. The Heartland Institute is a free-market oriented public policy think tank based in Chicago. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sallie Baliunas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1102 words)
Sallie Baliunas is at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in the Solar, Stellar, and Planetary Sciences Division and formerly Deputy Director of the Mount Wilson Institute.
Baliunas' extra-academic positions at several think tanks funded by energy industry organizations such as the American Petroleum Institute are often cited by her opponents as a source of bias on her part.
Although Baliunas never publicly retracted her criticism of the ozone depletion hypothesis, an article by Baliunas and Soon written for the Heartland Institute in 2000 promoted the idea that ozone depletion, rather than CO emissions could explain atmospheric warming [13].
Climatic models (570 words)
Contrary to popular belief, Baliunas said, the surface temperature of the earth during the twentieth century was not closely linked to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by humans.
Baliunas explained that although such emissions certainly rose because of human activity in the latter part of the twentieth century and the average temperature was higher than in the nineteenth century, the temperature changes observed do not fit the pattern of greenhouse gas increases.
Underpinning Baliunas' argument is whether or not the nineteenth and the twentieth century were indeed abnormal or normal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m