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Encyclopedia > Salivary gland
Salivary gland
Salivary glands: #1 is Parotid gland, #2 is Submaxillary gland, #3 is Sublingual gland
Latin glandulae salivariae
MeSH A03.556.500.760
Dorlands/Elsevier g_06/12391916

The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. It also helps break down carbohydrates (with salivary amylase, formerly known as ptyalin) and lubricates the passage of food down from the oro-pharynx to the esophagus to the stomach. Image File history File linksMetadata Illu_quiz_hn_02. ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... The parotid gland is the largest of the salivary glands. ... The submandibular gland is one of the salivary glands, responsible for producing saliva. ... The sublingual glands are salivary glands in the mouth. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... A gland is an organ in an animals body that synthesizes a substance for release such as hormones, often into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland). ... Saliva, often informally known as spit, is the moist, clear, and usually somewhat frothy substance produced in the mouths of some animals, including humans. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... α-Amylase Amylase (EC 3. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/œsophagus), or gullet is the muscular tube in vertebrates through which ingested food passes from the mouth area to the stomach. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ in the gastrointestinal tract used to digest food. ...


There are three main pairs of salivary glands: the parotid, the submandibular and the sublingual glands. There are also many small glands in the tongue, cheeks, lips and palate, all of which consist entirely of mucous secreting cells (see Histology below) except for the serous glands of von Ebner, which reside within the moats surrounding the circumvallate papillae in the posterior 1/3 of the tongue, anterior to the terminal sulcus. The parotid gland is the largest of the salivary glands. ... The submandibular gland is one of the salivary glands, responsible for producing saliva. ... The sublingual glands are salivary glands in the mouth. ... Tongue The tongue is the large bundle of muscles on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing and swallowing. ... Look up Cheek in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Cheeks are the fleshy area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear, the skin being suspended by the chin and the yaws. ... The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ... The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and vertebrate animals. ... Serous glands contain serous acini, a grouping of serous cells that secrete a fluid, isotonic with blood plasma, that contains enzymes such as alpha amalyse. ... The circumvallate papillae (or vallate papillae) are of large size, and vary from eight to twelve in number. ... Terminal sulcus or Sulcus terminalis can refer to: Terminal sulcus (heart) Terminal sulcus (tongue) Category: ...

Contents


Histology

Two types of epithelial cells in salivary glands produce either mucous or serous secretions. The parotid gland produces serous secretions. The submandibular and submaxillary glands contain a mixture of both types of cells, and produce a mixture of the two liquids. In zootomy, epithelium is a tissue composed of a layer of cells. ...


Details

Classification

The salivary glands can be classified into serous, mixed and mucous glands.

  • The only serous gland is the parotid gland. This gland produced serous secretions only; therefore it contains cells called serous acini.
  • The submandibular glands are denominated as mixed glands, producing mixed secretions that contain both serous and mucous secretory products.Consequently, such glands contain serous acini as well as mucus acini.
  • The sublingual glands produces mucus secretions. Therefore only containing mucous acini.

Structure

The glands are enclosed in a capsule of connective tissue and internally divided into lobules. Blood vessels and nerves enter the glands at the hilum and gradually branch out into the lobules. There are 3 main types of cells that are found in the major salivary glands: Connective tissue is any type of biological tissue with an extensive extracellular matrix and often serves to support, bind together, and protect organs. ... In telecommunication, the term lobe has the following meanings: An identifiable segment of an antenna radiation pattern. ... Anatomic nomenclature for a depression or pit at the part of an organ where vessels and nerves enter. ...

  1. Serous cells, which are pyramidal in shape and are joined to usually form a spherical mass of cells called acinus, with a small lumen in the centre.
  2. Mucous cells are usually cuboid in shape and organised as tubules, consisting of cylindrical arrays of secretory cells surrounding a lumen. These cells preoduce glycoproteins that are used for moistening and lubricating functions of the saliva.
  3. Myoepithelial cells surround each secretory portion and are able to contract to accelerate secretion of the saliva.

In the duct system, the lumens formed by the secretory cells empty into intercalated ducts, which in turn join to form striated ducts. These drain into ducts situated between the lobes of the gland (called interlobar or excretory ducts). The main duct of the salivary glands ultimately empties into the mouth. This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... The word mucous is an adjective which means pertaining to mucus or having the qualities of mucus. ... A glycoprotein is a macromolecule composed of a protein and a carbohydrate (a sugar). ...


Location of the glands

There are three salivary glands:

The parotid gland is the largest of the salivary glands. ... A human ear (also called auricle or pinna) The ear is the sense organ that detects sound. ... The sublingual glands are salivary glands in the mouth. ... The submandibular gland is one of the salivary glands, responsible for producing saliva. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with jaw. ...

Role in disease

See mumps (parotiditis epidemica) and Sjögren syndrome.

Salivary duct calculus may cause blockage of the ducts, causing pain and swelling of the gland. Sjögrens syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which immune cells attack and destroy the glands that produce tears and saliva. ... Salivary sublingual gland stones Salivary duct calculus is a concretion of mostly calcium mineral salts (calculus) that forms within the ducts. ...


Tumors of the salivary glands may occur. These are usually benign, but may be malignant. The most common type of benign tumor is Pleomorphic adenoma, followed by Warthin's tumor. The most common malignant tumor is Mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Threr are also many minor salivory glands not found on this website Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common type of parotid gland tumor. ... Warthins tumor is a type of benign tumor of the salivary glands. ... Mucoepidermoid carcinoma are a common type of tumor of the salivary glands. ...


Diagnostic investigation

A sialogram is a radiocontrast study of a salivary duct. Radiocontrast agents (or simply contrast agents) are compounds used to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures in an X-ray image. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Salivary Gland Tumors (1933 words)
In the submandibular gland 50% of the growths are benign, with 50% being malignant.
Certain malignancies arising in the salivary glands, such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, highgrade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma have a propensity to follow along adjacent nerves or metastasize to regional lymph nodes.
Should a submandibular gland be removed for benign or malignant disease, the risks to surrounding structures are essentially the same, although risks to the adjacent lingual and hypoglossal nerves certainly are higher in the case of malignancy.
CIGNA - Salivary Gland Scan (824 words)
Saliva is released in response to sucking on a lemon.
A large increase in tracer in the salivary glands that lie in front of the ear may mean inflammation or infection of the parotid glands (parotitis).
Although a salivary gland scan may be done to evaluate dry mouth caused by Sjögren's syndrome, it usually is not used to diagnose this disease.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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